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Dairy Science

1987

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Use Of Soybean Meal, Raw Soybeans, & Heat-Treated Soybeans As Protein Supplements With & Without Niacin For Dairy Cows In Early Lactation, Daniel Aguilar Dec 1987

Use Of Soybean Meal, Raw Soybeans, & Heat-Treated Soybeans As Protein Supplements With & Without Niacin For Dairy Cows In Early Lactation, Daniel Aguilar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Twenty three cows with an average of 2.7 lactations were used to measure the effects of different protein sources (soybean meal, soybeans, and heat-treated soybean) and supplementation with niacin on milk production, milk components (protein, fat, somatic cell counts), 4% fat corrected milk, solid corrected milk, dry matter intake, body weight changes, and rumen volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate).

Diets affected performance of cows. The results indicate, in general, that feeding heat-treated soybean and soybean meal to lactating dairy cows in early lactation resulted in greater milk production, milk protein, dry matter intake and less loss of body ...


Low-Fat Dairy Coffee Whitener, Frank V. Kosikowski, Rafael Jiménez-Flores Aug 1987

Low-Fat Dairy Coffee Whitener, Frank V. Kosikowski, Rafael Jiménez-Flores

Dairy Science

A coffee whitener composition made from decreamed milk ultrafiltration retentate having its protein concentrated between about 2:1 to about 4:1 compared to the protein content of the starting milk and a minor whitening power enhancing amount is added in the form of riboflavin (a vitamin) and beta carotene (a vitamin pre-cursor) or a mixture thereof. The composition is usually in powdered form and is high in protein, low in fat and sodium and reduced in lactose and its high protein enhanced as described provided a low-fat dairy coffee whitening function approximately equal to non-diary coffee creamers.


Method For Removal Of Pharmaceutical Antibiotics From Contaminated Milks, Frank V. Kosikowski, Rafael Jiménez-Flores Aug 1987

Method For Removal Of Pharmaceutical Antibiotics From Contaminated Milks, Frank V. Kosikowski, Rafael Jiménez-Flores

Dairy Science

A method of removing penicillin G and/or pharmaceutical antibiotics which contaminated milk by:
(a) Subjecting the contaminated milk to an ultrafiltration process which produces a permeate containing the contamining antibiotic and a retentate comprising milk proteins and fats.
(b) Adding a non-antibiotic containing retentate diluting (washing) aqueous fluid including uncontaminated ultrafiltered milk permeate, uncontaminated whole milk, uncontaminated skim milk, or uncontaminated acid or sweet whey, or a mixture thereof to the retentate to dilute the retentate.
(c) Subjecting the diluted (washed) retentate to the ultrafiltration process from additional antibiotic containing permeate thereby forming a milk product comprising retentate having ...


Method For Determining Body Weight Of A Newborn Calf, Marshall V. Ruble Aug 1987

Method For Determining Body Weight Of A Newborn Calf, Marshall V. Ruble

Iowa State University Patents

The method of determining the body weight of a newborn calf comprises weighing a control group of first newborn calves having different body weights, measuring the circumference of a front hoof of each of the first newborn calves in the control group, and recording the respective body weights and hoof circumferences measured for each of the calves in the control group. Next, the circumference of a front hoof of a newborn calf of unknown body weight is measured and is compared to a substantially equal hoof circumference of one of the newborn calves in the control group. The weight of ...


Comparative Study Of Elongated Chromosomes In Sheep And Goats And A Proposed Standard, Stephen H. Mensher May 1987

Comparative Study Of Elongated Chromosomes In Sheep And Goats And A Proposed Standard, Stephen H. Mensher

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A cell synchronization technique was used that consistently yielded numerous elongated chromosomes, which are necessary for producing high-resolution G-banding. The prometaphase stage of contraction was determined to have the greatest utility for detailed comparative analysis and, therefore, was used in the preparation of the proposed standard high-re solution karyotypes and idiogram.

A proposed standard high-resolution G-band karyotype of the domestic sheep and goat is presented, along with a high-resolution G-band idiogram of the goat. The karyotypes presented contain considerably more bands than contemporary karyotypes and provide much greater resolution for linear differentiation. The X chromosome of the sheep is acrocentric ...


Economic Aspects Of Reproductive Problems In Utah And Southeastern Idaho Dairy Herds, Steve Lemrick May 1987

Economic Aspects Of Reproductive Problems In Utah And Southeastern Idaho Dairy Herds, Steve Lemrick

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One hundred eighty-seven survey questionnaires asking for reproductive information for 1985 were sent to dairymen in Utah and Southeastern Idaho. Forty- two herds with current DHI information and whose owners or managers completed and returned the questionnaire were used to estimate economic losses due to reproductive problems, especially excessive days open, in Utah and Southeastern Idaho.

Average days open for herds surveyed were 122.4 days with a standard deviation of 22.6 days, and a range of 89 to 177 days. Several factors were significantly correlated with days open including services per conception, previous calving interval, and missed heats ...


Sdsu Dairy Digest, South Dakota State University Dairy Club Jan 1987

Sdsu Dairy Digest, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

No abstract provided.


Cloning And Sequence Analysis Of Bovine Β-Casein Cdna, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Young C. Kang, Tom Richardson Jan 1987

Cloning And Sequence Analysis Of Bovine Β-Casein Cdna, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Young C. Kang, Tom Richardson

Dairy Science

A bovine β-casein cDNA clone was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from mammary gland mRNA. Sequence analysis revealed 25 nucleotides (nt) of the 5′ noncoding region, 672 nt of the complete sequence coding and a 3′ region of approximately 500 nt. When the nucleotide sequence of bovine β-casein cDNA is compared to rat β-casein cDNA (5), a high degree of homology is observed in the first 100 nt corresponding to the signal peptide of the pre-β-caseins.


Chickpeas As A Protein And Energy Supplement For High Producing Dairy Cows, Darryl Lynn Hadsell Jan 1987

Chickpeas As A Protein And Energy Supplement For High Producing Dairy Cows, Darryl Lynn Hadsell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thirty lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three diets to evaluate chickpeas as a dietary supplement from wk 4 to 16 postpartum. Diets contained chickpeas at 0, 50, and 100 % of the concentrate dry matter in place of corn and soybean meal. Total mixed diets, fed individually, contained concentrate corn silage and alfalfa hay at 52, 32, and 16 % of the dry matter. Milk yield (34.5, 35.1, 35.7 kg/d) was higher for cows fed 100 % chickpeas than 0 % chickpeas. Fat (3.06, 3.09, 3.28 %) was highest for cows fed 100 % chickpeas ...


Cow-Side Milk Progesterone Testing, Edward P. Call, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1987

Cow-Side Milk Progesterone Testing, Edward P. Call, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cow-side milk progesterone tests are effective in determining the presence of an active corpus luteum (CL) on the ovary. The test is best used as an adjunct to the Preventive Herd Health Program (PHHP) as a means of identifying cows that have not yet been detected in heat and are candidates for synchronization with prostaglandin (PGF). Several test kits are on the market, and all involve similar chemical principles. However, each test has its own protocol, so read and follow directions EXACTLY. A "control" or "sample" must be run with each test for comparison.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University ...


Dry Cow Management Program, John F. Smith Jan 1987

Dry Cow Management Program, John F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dry cows do not require the intensive daily management of cows in early lactation, but the handling of mastitis treatments, feeding regimen, and grouping are of utmost importance in determining how the cows will perform in the subsequent lactation. The dry period is the time we allow for the cow to regenerate milk-secreting tissue, combat mastitis, and prepare for the next lactation. The body condition of each cow should be moderate before drying off. Each quarter should be treated with a commercial dry cow mastitis treatment, then the cow should be separated from the milking herd for observation and fed ...


Feeding And Managing Early Lactation Cows, James R. Dunham Jan 1987

Feeding And Managing Early Lactation Cows, James R. Dunham

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feeding and managing dairy cows during the prepartum and early lactation periods have more effect on total lactation yields than all other factors. It is during this time that the pattern of milk production is established for the entire lactation. The full production potential of high producing cows cannot be realized unless these periods are given special consideration.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;


Effect Of Production On Reproduction, Edward P. Call Jan 1987

Effect Of Production On Reproduction, Edward P. Call

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The genetic antagonsim that exists between production and reproduction is overcome by sound management practices. Kansas Holstein herds were ranked by quartile and analyzed by comparing various reproductive traits. Higher producing herds suffered less reproductive loss based upon the factors considered. The most significant differences concerned the average days dry, average days open on cows not yet serviced, percent of cows open more than 120 days since fresh, and average age at first calving. An adequate record system will identify potential reproductive problems, and a sound Preventive Herd Health Program (PHHP) will minimize actual losses from disease and cows not ...


Concentrations Of Progesterone And Conception Rates In Holstein Heifers After Hcg Administration During The First 3 Weeks After Estrus, R.E. Stewart, M.O. Mee, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1987

Concentrations Of Progesterone And Conception Rates In Holstein Heifers After Hcg Administration During The First 3 Weeks After Estrus, R.E. Stewart, M.O. Mee, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We conducted two experiments to determine the effects of administering human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on day 4 or on days 15, 16, and 17 after estrus on conception rates and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum in Holstein heifers. In the first experiment, 60 heifers received hCG or saline on day 4 after estrus and AI. Conception rates were similar between groups. Concentrations of progesterone were increased in treated pregnant and nonpregnant heifers 7 and 14 days after treatment compared with pregnant and nonpregnant controls. In the second experiment, 62 heifers received hCG or saline on days 15, 16, and ...


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Improves Conception Rates Of Repeat-Breeders With Previous Reproductive Disorders, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Edward P. Call Jan 1987

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Improves Conception Rates Of Repeat-Breeders With Previous Reproductive Disorders, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Edward P. Call

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An experiment examining the benefit of treating repeat-breeders with 100 µg GnRH (Cystorelin ®) at the time of third or fourth insemination was conducted in 513 dairy cows of which 93 (abnormal cows) had been diagnosed previously (during the 60 to 90 days postpartum) as having reproductive disorders, including retained placenta, uterine infections, prolonged anestrus, and cystic ovaries. Treatment with GnRH improved conception in normal and abnormal repeat-breeding cows by 13 percentage points or 42%.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;


Performance Of Early Weaned Calves Fed Lasalocid, K.L. Anderson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy Jan 1987

Performance Of Early Weaned Calves Fed Lasalocid, K.L. Anderson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twenty-two newborn, bull calves were used to determine the effects of lasalocid on growth and feed intake of early-weaned calves from week 1 to 12. Calves were assigned to lasalocid or control groups on day 3. Lasalocid-fed group received lasalocid in milk from day 4 to 7 and in milk and pre-starter from days 7 to 14 and in starter feed from weeks 2 to 12. Lasalocid-fed calves had a significantly higher feed consumption and greater weight gain than calves that did not receive lasalocid. The difference became apparent only after 6 wk of age. Lasalocid appears to be a ...


Effect Of Supplemental Potassium And Buffer In Starters For Early-Weaned Calves, P. Flynn, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy, James J. Higgins Jan 1987

Effect Of Supplemental Potassium And Buffer In Starters For Early-Weaned Calves, P. Flynn, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy, James J. Higgins

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sixty Holstein heifers were used from birth to 8 weeks of age to study the effect of amount of potassium (K) in the diet and of adding a buffer to the starter. Starters were formulated with and without 1% trona, a natural ore buffer, at K concentrations of .9, 1.25, and 1.5% of the dry matter. To supply adequate fiber, yet allow formulation of the starter containing .9% K, 20% prairie hay was included. All calves were fed milk and a prestarter, using an early weaning procedure. Growth and feed consumption data and evaluation of health and metabolic ...


Early Lactation Somatic Cell Count Should Be Low, James R. Dunham Jan 1987

Early Lactation Somatic Cell Count Should Be Low, James R. Dunham

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cows and heifers in milk for fewer than 50 days, as shown on the DHIA Somatic Cell Count report, should have a lower average Somatic Cell Count than cows in milk for more than 300 days, if the dry cow mastitis treatment and management programs are effective. The DHIA Somatic Cell Count (SCC) average for a dairy herd is a good evaluation of a mastitis control program. Since leucocytes migrate to the mammary system during periods of subclinical mastitis, the SCC average indicates the amount of subclinical mastitis in a herd. A realistic goal for a herd average SCC is ...


Use Of Extruded Soy Flour In Milk Replacers For Calves, D.P. Dawson, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy, Keith C. Behnke Jan 1987

Use Of Extruded Soy Flour In Milk Replacers For Calves, D.P. Dawson, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy, Keith C. Behnke

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Oil-extracted, desolveritized soy flour without additional heat treatment was used to prepare protein supplements for calf milk replacers by extrusion processing. Various combinations of temperature, moisture, calcium concentration, sulfur, and acid were used to prepare 32 different products. These products were tested for trypsin inhibitor and antigenic activity and the most promising one was chosen for further testing. This product alone or with supplementary amino acids or amino acids and citric acid was used to provide 70% of the protein in experimental milk replacers. These replacers were compared to an all-milk replacer, using growth and metabolic responses of young Holstein ...


Update On Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Treatments For Repeat Breeders, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1987

Update On Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Treatments For Repeat Breeders, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In three of six studies involving over 1,650 cows, treatment of lactating dairy cows with 100 µg GnRH (2 cc Cystorelin®) at the time of third or fourth insemination improved conception rates by 12 percentage points. When all six studies are considered, rates improved by 10 percentage points. These data provide strong evidence for continued use of GnRH at the time of insemination for repeat breeders.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;


Production From Heifers And First Calvers, G J. Sawyer Jan 1987

Production From Heifers And First Calvers, G J. Sawyer

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Heifers and first calvers present the major problems of the beef breeding herd. Reproduction rates, calf growth and survival of first calvers are generally much poorer than those of adult breeders.

Early successful reproductive performance is important in beef herds because of the high overhead cost of keeping breeding beef heifers or cows, Where possible, beef producers should aim to join heifers at 14 to 15 months of age. To achieve this goal, producers should set production targets for those animals. These targets will differ from farm to farm depending on when calves are turned off and the seasonal feed ...


Evaluation Of A Calf Starter Supplement, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy Jan 1987

Evaluation Of A Calf Starter Supplement, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An experimental calf starter made from a pelleted commercial type supplement and feeds readily available on the farm was compared to a conventional pelleted calf starter in an attempt to demonstrate an economical alternative to commercial calf starter. Calves fed the experimental starter consumed as much starter and gained as much weight as calves fed the conventional starter, thus demonstrating a potential for savings on feed cost. The project is continuing in an attempt to improve the starter composition.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;


Project Reports 1987-1991, Various Authors Jan 1987

Project Reports 1987-1991, Various Authors

Annual Reports

No abstract provided.


Usda-Dhia Sire Summaries-Ai Advantage, Edward P. Call Jan 1987

Usda-Dhia Sire Summaries-Ai Advantage, Edward P. Call

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

USDA-DHIA Sire Summaries are published semiannually and provide the dairy industry with an accurate evaluation of the transmitting ability of bulls for milk and milk components. Genetic potential is established at the time of conception. Therefore, current service sires represent the primary means of improving the genetic base of the future herd. Based upon first evaluation of daughters of AI and non-AI bulls, the data clearly indicate the genetic superiority of bulls selected by the AI industry. Dairy producers are strongly urged to select service sires from the Active AI bull listings.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS ...


Effects Of Isoacids On Ruminal Metabolism And Milk Production, Richard R. Becht Jan 1987

Effects Of Isoacids On Ruminal Metabolism And Milk Production, Richard R. Becht

Iowa State University Veterinarian

The digestion of cellulose in the rumen requires the interaction of both cellulolytic and noncellulolytic bacteria, as well as protozoa.! Even when the energy source is entirely roughage material, the cellulase-producing bacteria comprise only about one-fourth of the total bacterial population. Major cellulolytic species include: Fuminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavzfaciens, Bacteroides succinogenes, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Of these, Bacteroides succinogenes is the most active in digestion of cellulose, especially the more resistant forms.


How Important Is Extra Solids-Not-Fat In Your Milk?, H.A. Roberts Jan 1987

How Important Is Extra Solids-Not-Fat In Your Milk?, H.A. Roberts

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Milk with high solids-not-fat is valuable to the consumer for its flavor and nutritional value and to the manufacturer of milk products, especially relating to cheese yield. Solids-not-fat consists of all solids in milk other than fat. Protein is the most important component of milk because of its nutritional value and its functional properties. Other components, such as milk fat and lactose, also contribute to milk quality and impart certain characteristics to milk products but to a lesser degree.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;


Periparturient Disorders In Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1987

Periparturient Disorders In Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The economic climate in the dairy industry requires producers to operate efficiently to remain competitive. Attention to details and understanding of reproduction, metabolism, digestive functions, milk secretion, and all aspects of husbandry are essential. To be successful, producers must minimize reproductive failure because reproductive performance affects the quantity of milk produced per cow per day of herd life, the number of potential replacements needed to maintain a constant herd size, and the longevity of the cow in the herd. In practice, this translates into well-designed programs of herd health, milking, feeding, and reproductive management that minimize involuntary culling of. problem ...


Influence Of Prebreeding Progesterone Plus Prostaglandin F2-Α On Estrus And Fertility In Lactating Dairy Cows, M.O. Mee, R.E. Stewart, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Edward P. Call Jan 1987

Influence Of Prebreeding Progesterone Plus Prostaglandin F2-Α On Estrus And Fertility In Lactating Dairy Cows, M.O. Mee, R.E. Stewart, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Edward P. Call

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Progesterone administered before breeding may increase estrous expression and subsequent fertility in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=302) were assigned randomly at calving to three groups. Cows received no treatment (controls), one injection of prostaglandin F 2-α (PGF), or progesterone plus one injection of PGF (PRID + PGF). The average interval to estrus was 5 days shorter in PRID + PGF cows compared to cows given only PGF. In addition, more cows were observed in estrus 2 to 5 days after treatment in the PRID + PGF group compared to the PGF group. Average days from calving to conception were reduced in ...


Further Studies Utilizing Hormones To Alter Estrous Cycles And Fertility, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, R.E. Stewart, Edward P. Call Jan 1987

Further Studies Utilizing Hormones To Alter Estrous Cycles And Fertility, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, R.E. Stewart, Edward P. Call

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In one large dairy herd, we examined the reproductive performance of 943 cows following early postpartum hormonal therapy utilizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or Cystorelin®) and prostaglandin F2-α (PGF). None of our hormonal treatments improved reproductive efficiency in this herd, whereas earlier studies at the KSU Dairy Teaching and Research Center had proved beneficial. However, cows given PGF to induce estrus at the beginning of the breeding period had similar reproductive performance to control cows, suggesting a potential use for one injection of PGF to allow the breeding of more cows by a target date after calving (e.g., by 65 ...


Effect Of Ruminal Protozoa On Performance Of Early-Weaned Calves, K.L. Anderson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy Jan 1987

Effect Of Ruminal Protozoa On Performance Of Early-Weaned Calves, K.L. Anderson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, J.L. Morrill, P.G. Reddy

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twenty newborn bull calves assigned to two groups, protozoa-free or protozoa-inoculated, were used to determine the effects of ruminal protozoa on performance of early weaned calves. Calves in the protozoa group were inoculated via stomach tube with a suspension of ruminal protozoa at weekly intervals until a viable population was established. Calves were evaluated weekly for weight gain and feed intake. Feed intake and weight gain were not significantly different between the groups but tended to be higher in protozoa-inoculated than protozoa-free calves.; Dairy Day, 1987, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1987;