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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar Oct 2019

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Societies around the world are at a critical juncture. As the planetary population grows, there are increasing demands for expanding available food, more nutritious and healthy foods, and contemporaneously the need for greater efficiencies and decreased impacts upon the environment.

The sustainability of food production systems is a complex issue that requires a global and multidisciplinary approach, combining not only agronomy, ecology, nutrition, epidemiology, processing, energy use, but also marketing and sociology. It is within this context that this special issue aims to illustrate, through review articles, case studies, as well as modeling and simulation studies, some means of understanding ...


Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff Aug 2019

Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes performance and consumes minimal energy. Currently, controllers only monitor and describe the TE with dry-bulb temperature (tdb); however, tdb does not account for all the factors that influence the TE. Therefore, a novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) network and accompanying data acquisition systems were developed for a preliminary investigation inside a commercial, ~800 hd, positive pressure ventilated, filtered breeding facility located in central Iowa. Data from the ...


Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing ...


Narasin Effects On Energy, Nutrient, And Fiber Digestibility In Corn-Soybean Meal Or Corn-Soybean Meal-Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles Diets Fed To 16-, 92-, And 141-Kg Pigs, Brian J. Kerr, S. L. Trabue, Daniel S. Andersen Sep 2017

Narasin Effects On Energy, Nutrient, And Fiber Digestibility In Corn-Soybean Meal Or Corn-Soybean Meal-Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles Diets Fed To 16-, 92-, And 141-Kg Pigs, Brian J. Kerr, S. L. Trabue, Daniel S. Andersen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of narasin on growth performance and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with either 0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet. In Exp. 1 (64 gilts, initial BW = 9.0 kg, SD = 1.0 kg) and Exp. 2 (60 gilts. initial BW = 81.1 kg, SD = 6.1 kg), gilts were allotted into individual pens and fed their experimental diets for 24 and 21 d ...


Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen Jul 2016

Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen

John E. Sawyer

This publication provides an overview of farm energy use related to corn and soybean production in Iowa. Three areas of row crop production--field operations, fertilizer and pesticide application, and artificial drying--are used to illustrate on-farm energy consumption.


Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Jul 2016

Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

John E. Sawyer

Optimum corn yields require nitrogen fertilization in most crop rotations, but the energy consumed during the production of nitrogen fertilizer is considerable. Learn more about maximizing economic, environmental, and energy returns for nitrogen and other fertilizers.


Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Iowa Select Farms Jan 2016

Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Iowa Select Farms

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes performance and consumes minimal energy. Currently, controllers only monitor and describe the TE with dry-bulb temperature (tdb); however, tdb does not account for all the factors that influence the TE. Therefore, a novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) network and accompanying data acquisition systems were developed for a preliminary investigation inside a commercial, ~800 hd, positive pressure ventilated, filtered breeding facility located in central Iowa. Data from the ...


Development And Optimization Of Biofilm Based Algal Cultivation, Martin Anthony Gross Jan 2015

Development And Optimization Of Biofilm Based Algal Cultivation, Martin Anthony Gross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Future Precision Field Robots, Olga M. Toledo, Brian L. Steward, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang Jul 2014

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Future Precision Field Robots, Olga M. Toledo, Brian L. Steward, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Precision agriculture (PA) technology provides a means to increase equipment productivity and field efficiency, and input efficiency; however, the potential of PA technologies to enable smaller, autonomous machines has yet not been realized in the market place. In developed countries, the size of tractors and implements continue to increase. Such trend cannot continue indefinitely because of size, technical and cost constraints. A long operating life for agricultural equipment enables a greater benefit relative to the high initial cost and investment. However, long equipment life can lead to technologically obsolete machines with potential incompatibility and sub-optimality, since machinery and PA technology ...


Farm Energy: Case Studies—Tractor Fuel Consumption At Nashua, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer Apr 2014

Farm Energy: Case Studies—Tractor Fuel Consumption At Nashua, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

A recent case study at the Iowa State University Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm looked at techniques such as shifting to a higher gear and pulling back on the tractor's throttle as a way to reduce fuel consumption on Iowa farms.


Forest Biomass Supply Chains In Ireland: A Life Cycle Assessment Of Ghg Emissions And Primary Energy Balances, Fionnuala Murphy Jan 2014

Forest Biomass Supply Chains In Ireland: A Life Cycle Assessment Of Ghg Emissions And Primary Energy Balances, Fionnuala Murphy

Fionnuala Murphy

The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps ...


Implementing Green Roofs On Movie Theaters And Shopping Centers: Business Cases In Profitable Sustainability, Ryan J. Miller Jan 2014

Implementing Green Roofs On Movie Theaters And Shopping Centers: Business Cases In Profitable Sustainability, Ryan J. Miller

Pomona Senior Theses

This thesis presents the business case for installing green roofs on movie theaters and shopping centers. These businesses can then derive increased profits from the environmental benefits of reduced energy use and increased stormwater retention. After presenting the basic design and benefits of a green roof, the thesis develops stand-alone business plans for a movie theater and shopping center. The author finds that green roofs are a profitable sustainability solution for the commercial enterprise.


Electricity And Fuel Use Of Aviary-Laying Hen Houses In The Midwestern United States, Morgan D. Hayes, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Timothy A. Shepherd, John P. Stinn Jan 2014

Electricity And Fuel Use Of Aviary-Laying Hen Houses In The Midwestern United States, Morgan D. Hayes, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Timothy A. Shepherd, John P. Stinn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There is a growing interest in and movement toward alternative housing systems for laying hens. Associated with the movement are many questions to be addressed concerning sustainability of these systems. This study quantified electricity and propane use in two side-by-side aviary houses each with a holding capacity of 50,000 laying hens, located in Iowa. Electricity use was partitioned into different housing components, including ventilation, lighting, and manure-drying. Results indicate that electricity consumption for ventilation had the most variation, accounting for 30% of the total electrical demand in the summer but less than 5% in the winter. Manure-drying blowers ran ...


Biogas As A Sustainable Alternative For Current Energy Need Of India., Gauri P. Minde, Sandip S. Magdum, Kalyanraman V. Jan 2013

Biogas As A Sustainable Alternative For Current Energy Need Of India., Gauri P. Minde, Sandip S. Magdum, Kalyanraman V.

Sandip S. Magdum

Per capita energy consumption of India is declining with increasing its population, which has direct impact on national economy. Biogas technology seems promising to attain sustainable energy yields without damaging the environment. Waste management, manure creation, health care and employment foundation are the benefits of biogas system. Use of biogas assures renewable energy supply and balance of green house gases. India is traditionally using biogas since long time but there is need to improve the technology, applications and deployment strategies. Bioenergy centralization in urban and decentralization in rural can help government to minimize both the import of fuel derivatives and ...


Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers Jan 2013

Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers

Open Access Theses

A flailing knife shredder was designed and tested as an alternative to a hammermill for processing biomass. The machine was comprised of two cylinders with four rungs, each with five free-swinging blades. Each of the two cylinders had adjustable clearance hoods and variable speed drives. Energy usage, output characteristics and device capacities were compared with corn stover processed at moisture contents (MC) of 10%, 35% and 50% wet basis (WB). The hammermill produced a more uniform particle size distribution in comparison to the shredder. Accessibility, indicated by conductivity index, to plant constituents, revealed that the method of treatment was not-significant ...


Farm Energy: Conserving Energy By Using Localized Heating In Swine Housing, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin, Dana Petersen Jun 2012

Farm Energy: Conserving Energy By Using Localized Heating In Swine Housing, Jay D. Harmon, Hongwei Xin, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Using heat lamps, heat mats, and brooders for localized heating can improve energy efficiency in swine housing. Learn about small adjustments and management considerations for implementing localized heating.


Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen Jun 2012

Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

This publication provides an overview of farm energy use related to corn and soybean production in Iowa. Three areas of row crop production--field operations, fertilizer and pesticide application, and artificial drying--are used to illustrate on-farm energy consumption.


Farm Energy: Energy Considerations For Low-Temperature Grain Drying, Shawn C. Shouse, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen May 2012

Farm Energy: Energy Considerations For Low-Temperature Grain Drying, Shawn C. Shouse, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Harvested corn often requires artificial drying to lower moisture content for safe storage. Learn about energy considerations for drying corn with natural-air or low-temperature systems.


Farm Energy: Managing Swine Ventilation Controller Settings To Save Energy, Jay D. Harmon, Michael C. Brumm, Dana Petersen Mar 2012

Farm Energy: Managing Swine Ventilation Controller Settings To Save Energy, Jay D. Harmon, Michael C. Brumm, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Ventilation is by far the largest source of heating energy loss in swine facilities. To maintain air quality, it is essential to provide proper minimum ventilation without losing excessive energy from the building. Learn how modern controllers interlock equipment operation to avoid conflicts that waste energy.


Farm Energy: Estimating Payback For Energy Efficiency, H. Mark Hanna, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen Nov 2011

Farm Energy: Estimating Payback For Energy Efficiency, H. Mark Hanna, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Just because a new piece of farm equipment is more energy efficient doesn't mean that replacing older equipment is a wise investment. Learn how to calculate simple payback for energy savings. Find out how quickly the returns from reduced energy costs will help the investment reach its break-even point.


Farm Energy: Indoor Lighting For Livestock, Poultry, And Farm Shop Facilities, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen Oct 2011

Farm Energy: Indoor Lighting For Livestock, Poultry, And Farm Shop Facilities, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Indoor lighting for farm facilities needs to be safe, efficient, and economical. Get an overview of lighting types suited for livestock, poultry, and farm shop facilities.


Farm Energy: Improving Corn Drying Efficiency, Shawn C. Shouse, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Sep 2011

Farm Energy: Improving Corn Drying Efficiency, Shawn C. Shouse, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Get info to help effectively control corn drying energy costs – that in some years can rival costs used to plant and harvest the crop. Content gives basic concepts of heated air and natural air drying -- as well as factors affecting in-field drying.


Farm Energy: Conserve Heat Energy In The Farm Shop, L. Gregory Brenneman, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen Aug 2011

Farm Energy: Conserve Heat Energy In The Farm Shop, L. Gregory Brenneman, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Proper insulation and a well-designed heating system are important for an energy efficient and comfortable farm shop.


Farm Energy: Fuel Efficiency Factors For Tractor Selection, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Jul 2011

Farm Energy: Fuel Efficiency Factors For Tractor Selection, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Considering fuel efficiency factors is important when adding new or used tractors to the farm equipment fleet. This publication provides pointers on what you should consider.


Farm Energy: Energy Fundamentals For Farm Lighting, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen Jun 2011

Farm Energy: Energy Fundamentals For Farm Lighting, Jay D. Harmon, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Find basic information about several farm lighting options for security, worker safety, livestock production, and work after dark. Also gives a brief overview of energy efficiency for lighting options.


Farm Energy: Shift Up And Throttle Back To Save Tractor Fuel, H. Mark Hanna, Stuart J. Birrell, Dana Petersen Mar 2011

Farm Energy: Shift Up And Throttle Back To Save Tractor Fuel, H. Mark Hanna, Stuart J. Birrell, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Shifting up and throttling back can save tractor fuel under certain conditions. This brochure offers tips on how much you'll save and the best times to use the technique.


Farm Energy: Tractor Maintenance To Conserve Energy, H. Mark Hanna Feb 2011

Farm Energy: Tractor Maintenance To Conserve Energy, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Machinery represents a significant portion of capital costs in farming operations. Learn tips to manage a well-kept fleet of machinery, able to respond to changing field conditions and other seasonal needs.


Farm Energy: Dryeration And Combination Drying For Increased Capacity And Efficiency, Shawn C. Shouse, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Jan 2011

Farm Energy: Dryeration And Combination Drying For Increased Capacity And Efficiency, Shawn C. Shouse, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

When harvest requires high-temperature grain drying, dryeration and combination drying can be implemented to increase the drying rate and save fuel.


Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Sep 2010

Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Optimum corn yields require nitrogen fertilization in most crop rotations, but the energy consumed during the production of nitrogen fertilizer is considerable. Learn more about maximizing economic, environmental, and energy returns for nitrogen and other fertilizers.


Farm Energy: Energy Efficient Fans For Poultry Production, Jay D. Harmon, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen Aug 2010

Farm Energy: Energy Efficient Fans For Poultry Production, Jay D. Harmon, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Ventilation fans are the driving force behind the exchange of air that is necessary to create a healthy environment for animals and farm employees.