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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

2014

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nông Thôn Mới And Rural Development In The Mekong Delta: A Comparative Study Of Bàu Môn And Hòa Phụng C Hamlets, Alex Lintz Dec 2014

Nông Thôn Mới And Rural Development In The Mekong Delta: A Comparative Study Of Bàu Môn And Hòa Phụng C Hamlets, Alex Lintz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vietnam’s Nông Thôn Mới or New Rural Development program is a relatively new target program introduced in 2010. As of yet there has been little research done on its effects on the economies in rural areas. This paper attempts to analyze the economic situation in the Bàu Môn and Hòa Phụng C hamlets with a particular emphasis placed on income and factors that affect income in terms of Vietnam’s Nông Thôn Mới or New Rural Development program. In order to assess the economic situation in the hamlets, a survey was administered to 25 participants in each hamlet and ...


Energy Costs For Grain Drying And Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer, Shawn Shouse, Jay D. Harmon Dec 2014

Energy Costs For Grain Drying And Field Operations, H. Mark Hanna, Dana D. Schweitzer, Shawn Shouse, Jay D. Harmon

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa spends about one billion dollars annually on the purchase of diesel fuel, electricity, propane, gasoline, and natural gas. Specifically, Iowa spent more than one billion dollars on energy in 2012 including $866,990,000 for gasoline, fuels, and oils (primarily diesel fuel and LP) and $329,138,000 for utilities (primarily electricity) according to the USDA Agricultural Census (USDA, 2014). Correspondingly, farm enterprises nationwide spent $16,573,188,000 for gasoline, fuels, and oils and $8,261,978,000 for utilities in 2012. Purchases of diesel fuel, liquid propane (LP), and natural gas are included in gasoline, fuels, and ...


Cover Crops, Bioreactors, And Wetlands For Nitrate Reduction, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2014

Cover Crops, Bioreactors, And Wetlands For Nitrate Reduction, Matthew J. Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With the release of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy in early 2013 there has been increased interest in what practices can be utilized by farmers to reduce nutrient export to downstream water bodies. As highlighted by the ISU Extension and Outreach Special Publication 235 (2013) there are many in-field, land use, and edge-of-field practices that have potential to reduce nutrient export. Three practices that have garnered a substantial amount of interest are cover crops, bioreactors, and wetlands. These three practices span the scale from in-field (cover crops) to edge-of-field (bioreactors) to watershed scale (wetlands).


Big Data—The Catalyst For A Transformation To Digital Agriculture, Matt Darr Dec 2014

Big Data—The Catalyst For A Transformation To Digital Agriculture, Matt Darr

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The digital transformation of row crop agriculture has been a work in progress for over 20 years. It started with the development of combine yield monitoring equipment in 1992, gained additional traction with the adoption of GPS targeted soil sampling in the mid 1990’s, and developed into a major ag industry by the mid 2000’s as documented by widespread adoption of autosteering and section control technology. Precision agriculture initiatives focused on right time, right place, and right rate input management as well as waste reduction associated with automated machine controls has played a key role in improving on-farm ...


Quality And Handling Of The 2014 Iowa Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh Dec 2014

Quality And Handling Of The 2014 Iowa Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every year brings on a new set of challenges for harvest and grain management. In the past five years we have gone from very wet to very dry. Scorching heat at the very end of the 2013 season caused large variations in quality even within the same field. In 2014, planting pace was about normal, temperatures were 1-3 degrees below normal and moisture was well above normal—especially in the August and September grain fill period. Western and southwestern Iowa were 3-6 inches over normal for moisture in this period. This combination of weather conditions put the 2014 crop 7-10 ...


The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee Dec 2014

The Benefit Of Understanding Biotechnology, Don Lee

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

If you would answer yes to the questions below, then you would benefit from understanding biotechnology: 1. Do farmers ask me to predict the work-load consequences of making different seed product choices? 2. Would the farmers I serve be happy if I can help them slow the evolution of their pest populations? 3. Can I describe how biotechnology will develop to bring new approaches to addressing crop management problems in the future? and 4. Am I considered an expert in my community on the science behind our food production system? This session will provide a chance to explore several on-line ...


Effect Of Different Extrusion Processing Parameters On Physical Properties Of Soy White Flakes And High Protein Distillers Dried Grains-Based Extruded Aquafeeds, Sushil Kumar Singh, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2014

Effect Of Different Extrusion Processing Parameters On Physical Properties Of Soy White Flakes And High Protein Distillers Dried Grains-Based Extruded Aquafeeds, Sushil Kumar Singh, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nutritionally balanced ingredient blends for catla (Catla catla), belonging to the family Cyprinidae, were extruded using single screw extruder. The extrusion was carried out at five levels of soy white flakes content (21%, 29%, 40%, 52%, and 59% db), five levels of moisture content (15, 19, 25, 31, and 35% db) and five levels of barrel temperature (100, 110, 125, 140, and 150 ºC) using three different die nozzles (having L/D ratios 3.33, 5.83, and 7.25). Blends with net protein content of 32.5% contains soy white flakes, along with high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG ...


Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson Dec 2014

Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three anaerobic digestion trials were conducted to evaluate methane production from feedlot manure. As organic matter content of manure decreased, degradation of manure and methane production also linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.02). Quality, or organic matter content of manure, had a greater impact on anaerobic digestion than diet (with and without distillers grains) fed to cattle. Minerals are concentrated in effluent removed from anaerobic digesters.

Knowing mineral retention within cattle allows for more accurate calculation of mineral excretion in manure. Three serial slaughter trials measured mineral retention in growing and finishing cattle. During a growing phase, beef cattle gaining 1 ...


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


Potential For Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization In Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) In Arkansas, Kamil H. Rosales Rodriguez Dec 2014

Potential For Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization In Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) In Arkansas, Kamil H. Rosales Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeekerTM (GS), ii ...


First Proof Of Concept Of Sustainable Metabolite Production From High Solids Fermentation Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using A Bacterial Co-Culture And Cycling Flush System, Wanying Yao, Sue E. Nokes Dec 2014

First Proof Of Concept Of Sustainable Metabolite Production From High Solids Fermentation Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using A Bacterial Co-Culture And Cycling Flush System, Wanying Yao, Sue E. Nokes

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

To improve the lignocellulose conversion for ABE in high solids fermentation, this study explored the feasibility of cycling the process through the cellulolytic or/and solventogenic phases via intermittent flushing of the fermentation media. Five different flushing strategies (varying medium ingredients, inoculum supplement and cycling through phases) were investigated. Flushing regularly throughout the cellulolytic phase is necessary because re-incubation at 65 °C significantly improved glucose availability by at least 6-fold. The solvents accumulation was increased by 4-fold using corn stover (3-fold using miscanthus) over that produced by flushing only through the solventogenic phase. In addition, cycling process was simplified by ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling).

Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


Use Of Risk Mapping Tools To Identify Hazards In Bulk Material Handling, Saxon J. Ryan, Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2014

Use Of Risk Mapping Tools To Identify Hazards In Bulk Material Handling, Saxon J. Ryan, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The identification, assessment, and mitigation of risk in complex systems are challenging tasks. Risk analysis is often used in complex systems to reduce the probability of negative events occurring in such systems, and to enhance the decisions made under uncertain conditions (Clemons & Simmons, 1998). The conventional risk analysis framework includes three sub-components: assessment of risk, management of risk, and communication of risk (Codex, 2007). Mapping the risk analysis process within a specific system allows for the identification of the most high-stakes hazards, allowing an efficient application of management and mitigation activities (Clemons & Simmons, 1998; Stamatelatos et al., 2002).


An Investigation Of Quality Climate And Its Association With Implementation Of Quality Management System, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2014

An Investigation Of Quality Climate And Its Association With Implementation Of Quality Management System, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Quality management and continuous improvement are paramount for businesses to survive and thrive in today’s competitive landscape (Goetsch & Davis, 2003; Abdullah et al., 2009). One effective approach to operationalize quality processes and continuous improvement goals is a formalized quality management system (Khanna et al., 2010; Mosher et al., 2013). Quality management systems are embodiments of the organization’s policies, procedures, plans, resources, processes and delegation of responsibility and authority designed to achieve customer satisfaction within the boundaries of organizational objectives (Goetsch & Davis, 2003). While these systems are being used extensively across many industries, the ideas are relatively new to the bulk commodity handling and processing industries (Hurburgh & Lawrence, 2003). Although factors such as globalization and legislation have been external drivers for the adoption of quality management systems in these industries, internal benefits have also been noted as a result of these systems (Laux, 2007; Laux & Hurburgh, 2010).


Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi Nov 2014

Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Plant breeding is an extremely important route to genetic improvements that can increase yield and plant adaptability. Genetic improvement requires careful measurement of plant phenotypes or plant trait characteristics, but phenotype measurement is a tedious and error-prone task for humans to perform. High-throughput phenotyping aims to eliminate the problems of manual phenotype measurement. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the efficacy of an automatic corn plant phenotyping system based on 3D holographic reconstruction. Point cloud image data were acquired from a time-of-flight 3D camera, which was integrated with a plant rotating table to form a screening station. Our method ...


What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil Nov 2014

What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) results from natural and human processes interacting across time and space, and leads to large variation in the minimum difference in SOC that can be detected with a particular experimental design. Here we report a unique comparison of minimum detectable differences (MDDs) in SOC, and the estimated times required to observe those MDDs across the north central United States, calculated for the two most common SOC experiments: (1) a comparison between two treatments, e.g., moldboard plow (MP) and no-tillage (NT), using a randomized complete block design experiment; and (2) a comparison of changes ...


Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2014

Pay Attention To Stewardship Requirements For Biotech Grains, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

Most of us have been following developments in biotechnology approval for many years. The most recent issue is the non-approval of certain corn events by China. Viptera (MIR162) corn has not been approved there since its introduction in 2010; Duracade, new this year, is in the same situation. The greatest impact of the Chinese situation is on distillers grains from ethanol production. China is a major importer of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS); much less so for whole corn.


Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Mycotoxins Videos Released, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

For a more in-depth discussion and overview of mycotoxins, the Grain Quality Initiative and the Crop Advisor Institutehave prepared two video modules, Mycotoxins in Feed and Grain Industries.


Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher Oct 2014

Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Generally, capstone courses focus on the integration and application of technical knowledge and skills acquired in previous coursework along with a consideration of multiple realistic constraints. However, capstone courses also require students to focus on a variety of professional skills, including teamwork, unstructured task completion, and project management. Because students are often new at these skills, they may find it difficult to resolve issues as they arise, particularly when working with an actual industrial client.

Capstone courses also pose challenges to faculty. Finding a consistent stream of projects that are at the appropriate level for senior level students can be ...


Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez Oct 2014

Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The Sustainable Engineering and International Development course was first offered to engineering majors at the Iowa State University (ISU) in 2005. The course is focused on describing, discussing and comparing the key concepts of sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable engineering. In 2005, sustainability was not a major part of the engineering curricula and students had little to no knowledge about these concepts. Nine years later, sustainability has become an integral part of our daily lives. In this study, we wanted to understand student perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of sustainability, sustainable development and its implementation across various engineering systems. The assessment ...


Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher Oct 2014

Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Virtual learning simulations have received increasing attention due various proposed educational, instructional, and institutional advantages; with literature focusing largely on perceptions of this technology and empirical comparisons to other instructional methods. Compared to traditional learning environments, virtual learning environments may present methodological advantages in studying learning processes through applying behavioral tracing techniques.

This paper will discuss behavioral indicators of cognitive learning processes used in virtual decision scenarios designed for third year engineering and engineering technology students. Behavioral measures to quantitatively analyze the learning process will be presented. Implications for assessing student learning, instructional strategy selection, and improving higher education quality ...


Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers Oct 2014

Update On 2014 Crop Quality, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Erin Louise Bowers

Integrated Crop Management News

It seems like a broken record...weather changes have shifted expectations of new crop corn quality. Three weeks ago, somewhat wetter corn than normal but high quality was the forecast. It is clear that the wetter part will come true; early harvest moistures are generally coming in at 18 – 22 percent, which is above average but not high enough to cause severe complications in drying. Field drydown is probably nearly over so do not expect much change in moisture from here on.


Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac Oct 2014

Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac

Open Access Theses

Gerovac, Joshua R. M.S., Purdue University, December 2014. Using Energy-Efficient Technologies to Produce Bedding Plants and Microgreens in Protected and Controlled Environments. Major Professor: Roberto G. Lopez. Production of bedding plants in commercial greenhouses (GHs) located in northern latitudes begins in late winter and continues through late spring when low outdoor temperatures generally necessitate active heating to maintain temperatures suitable for growth and development. Meanwhile, year-round production of microgreens using multi-layer systems requires sole-source (SS) photosynthetic lighting for production. Energy used to provide active heating in commercial GHs or SS lighting in multi-layer systems is second only to labor ...


The Impact Of Prairie Strips On Aphidophagous Predator Abundance And Soybean Aphid Predation In Agricultural Catchments, Rachael Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal, Rene Hessel, Lisa A. Schulte, Matthew J. Helmers Oct 2014

The Impact Of Prairie Strips On Aphidophagous Predator Abundance And Soybean Aphid Predation In Agricultural Catchments, Rachael Cox, Matthew E. O'Neal, Rene Hessel, Lisa A. Schulte, Matthew J. Helmers

Entomology Publications

Reconstructing prairie vegetation in row crop-dominated agricultural landscapes may contribute to several ecosystem services, including the biological control of insect pests, such as the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. The influence of the amount and configuration of reconstructed prairie vegetation on the delivery of ecosystem services was investigated in several small catchments at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa. Treatments include catchments entirely in row crops under a no-till, corn—soybean (Zea maysL.—Glycine max [L.] Merrill) rotation, catchments with 10% of the land in prairie located at the base, and catchments with 10 or 20% of the ...


Fumonisins In Conventional And Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended For Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications For Fermentation Efficiency And Ddgs Co-Product Quality, Erin L. Bowers, Gary P. Munkvold Sep 2014

Fumonisins In Conventional And Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended For Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications For Fermentation Efficiency And Ddgs Co-Product Quality, Erin L. Bowers, Gary P. Munkvold

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mycotoxins in maize grain intended for ethanol production are enriched in co-product dried distiller’s grains and solubles (DDGS) and may be detrimental to yeast in fermentation. This study was conducted to examine the magnitude of fumonisin enrichment in DDGS and to analyze the impacts of insect injury, Fusarium ear rot severity, and fumonisin contamination on final ethanol yield. Samples of naturally-contaminated grain (0 to 35 mg/kg fumonisins) from field trials conducted in 2008–2011 were fermented and DDGS collected and analyzed for fumonisin content. Ethanol yield (determined gravimetrically) was unaffected by fumonisins in the range occurring in this ...


Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang Sep 2014

Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Within-row plant spacing plays an important role in uniform distribution of water and nutrients among plants which affects the final crop yield. While manual in-field measurements of within-row plant spacing is time and labour intensive, little work has been done on an alternative automated process. We have attempted to develop an automatic system making use of a state-of-the-art 3D vision sensor that accurately measures within-row maize plant spacing. Misidentification of plants caused by low hanging canopies and doubles were reduced by processing multiple consecutive images at a time and selecting the best inter-plant distance calculated. Based on several small scale ...


Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Sep 2014

Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Aeration is the process of mixing air into the manure to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria. Oxygen must be supplied either naturally, mechanically through mixing, or using oxygen diffusion systems. This technology can provide dramatic odor reduction from livestock waste management facilities, but has not found frequent application in agriculture due to intensive energy use and resulting added utility costs.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate ...


Crop Decision-Making To Protect Soil And Water, David J. Muth Aug 2014

Crop Decision-Making To Protect Soil And Water, David J. Muth

David J. Muth

David Muth, a founding partner and senior vice president for analytics at AgSolver Inc., discusses crop decision making in the context of soil and water protection.


Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle Aug 2014

Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates that U.S. transportation fuel producers blend specific volumes of ethanol and other biofuels with fossil fuels to spur U.S. biofuel production and to minimize foreign oil imports. Ethanol is more corrosive to auto engines than gasoline, and although vehicles manufactured since 2001 are approved to use up to a 15% ethanol blend (E15) (Naylor & Falcon, 2011), E10 is much more widely available. Ethanol producers therefore face a so-called blend wall at 10 percent—a maximum amount of ethanol that is usable domestically based on the demand for gasoline.

Meanwhile, gasoline demand in ...


A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu Aug 2014

A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The Doulthabad[1] Mandal is a hot semi-arid agro-ecological sub-region (Rao et al. 2006) located in Mahbubnagar District on the North Telangana Plateau in the state of Telangana. Agriculture is the main occupation in this region, which is populated mostly with small and marginal farmers. This study uses the time period from 1971 to 2004 to study the variation in cropping pattern diversity and distribution of rainfall during the monsoons and understand the implications on production risk in agriculture. Quantitative methods were used in determining the changes in rainfall while qualitative methods were used to study cropping system changes. The ...