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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 163

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Methodology To Insure U.S. Genetically Modified (Gm) Grain Sales Into Approved Foreign Markets - Integrating Iso Traceability Standards With Agricultural Quality Management Systems (Qms), Gregory S. Bennet, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Dec 2008

Methodology To Insure U.S. Genetically Modified (Gm) Grain Sales Into Approved Foreign Markets - Integrating Iso Traceability Standards With Agricultural Quality Management Systems (Qms), Gregory S. Bennet, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Expansion and rapid introduction of new transgenic events will be critical elements in increased grain production, which is needed to fill rising world food and energy demands. The US approval process for biotech products is likely to continue to operate faster than that of our major customer nations, potentially creating market disruptions, and artificial barriers to trade. Most likely, new GM events will be used to create increased yield, although GM quality trait events are also being developed. A workable quality management system framework, supported by specific procedures and practices as needed to satisfy individual markets, could provide the customer ...


Prediction Of Fermentable Starch Content By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Allison Burgers, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Dec 2008

Prediction Of Fermentable Starch Content By Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Allison Burgers, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Measuring the starch content of corn allows ethanol plants to know how much ethanol can be produced from a specific lot of corn. The developments of quick and easy starch measurement methods are important in maximizing the ethanol yield of corn. Measurement of starch content in corn has been done through several laboratory procedures. Fermentable starch best indicates the amount of ethanol produced by the dry-grind method. Conventional laboratory fermentable starch measurement can take hours to days to complete. There is a need for rapid and easy methods to identify the suitability of individual corn lots for dry-grind ethanol production ...


Calibration Of Nirs Whole Grain Analyzers For Amino Acid Measurement In Corn, Connie L. Hardy, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Walter A. Goldstein Dec 2008

Calibration Of Nirs Whole Grain Analyzers For Amino Acid Measurement In Corn, Connie L. Hardy, Glen R. Rippke, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Walter A. Goldstein

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In food and feed products, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure an increasing number of chemical parameters that have traditionally been measured by analytical chemistry. The use of NIRS is driven by its speed and relative low cost, thereby allowing users to accurately measure nutrient components and other factors of interest in a matter of seconds versus several hours or days for traditional lab results. Calibration of NIRS analyzers relies on good representative sample sets and consistent reference chemistry; calibration is, in itself, a painstaking process but, once done, accurate calibrations provide rapid, reliable measurements in daily operations.


Impacts Of Extreme Precipitation Events On Performance Of Conservation Practices, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2008

Impacts Of Extreme Precipitation Events On Performance Of Conservation Practices, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Climate-induced changes in the volume and erosive power of precipitation is the most important effect of global climate change on soil erosion and surface runoff (Nearing, 2001). Greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have been observed in the last decades due to the climate change (Milly et al., 2002; SWCS, 2003). One of the direct consequences of those extreme events on agricultural land is the acceleration of topsoil loss, which leads to soil degradation and pollutant transport from the field. A linearly increase of the amount of daily precipitation by 5% or 10% could increase soil erosion by ...


Food And Fuel: Enough Grain But Not Enough Processing, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., John D. Lawrence, Raj. Raman, Connie L. Hardy Dec 2008

Food And Fuel: Enough Grain But Not Enough Processing, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., John D. Lawrence, Raj. Raman, Connie L. Hardy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The rapidly emerging renewable-energy industry has generated a lot of excitement in rural America. Ethanol plants, biodiesel refineries and wind farms are sprouting up across the Midwest as fast as investment bankers and pipe fitters will allow. The people who build and operate these renewable energy facilities are welcome additions to many rural communities. These renewable energy sources are land based. Farmers and rural communities are now as attuned to the Energy Bill as the Farm Bill.


Trends In Precision Agriculture, Matt Darr Dec 2008

Trends In Precision Agriculture, Matt Darr

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Precision agriculture is no longer a generic term defining our desire to more precisely manage equipment and agronomic inputs. As precision agriculture enters its sixteenth year, it has become an industry within itself and features a suite of hardware and software components aimed to improve efficiency in all areas of production agriculture. As we look back on the past sixteen years we can see clear innovations in precision agriculture that have helped shape the future direction of this industry. During its infant years, precision agriculture was focused on methods to collect production data across the field using newly available GPS ...


Effects Of Cover Crops In Reducing Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching In Iowa, Zhiming Qi, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2008

Effects Of Cover Crops In Reducing Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching In Iowa, Zhiming Qi, Matthew J. Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Nitrate-nitrogen (N03-N) has been deemed a main source of pollutant for both shallow groundwater and surface water bodies. The main source of N03-N in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) is linked to tile drainage (Lowrance, 1992; David et al. , 1997). Approximately 25% of agricultural land is artificially drained in Iowa (Baker et al., 2004) and subsurface drainage is the main source of N03-N loss. Schilling and Zhang (2004) reported that while Iowa accounts for 5% of the area of the MRB it contributes approximately 25% of N03-N load (23 lb-N acre-1) over a 28-year period from 1972 to 2000. Plot ...


Tillage Considerations On Previously Flooded Soils, H. Mark Hanna Dec 2008

Tillage Considerations On Previously Flooded Soils, H. Mark Hanna

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Many Iowa fields had wet or underwater areas during part of the growing season. Many wet areas were planted late which resulted in late-maturing crop. Yields have been variable in these areas, sometimes significantly below that of yields in areas not subject to wet soil conditions. In these conditions a frequent concern of growers is that excessive rainfall, wet soil, and/or lower crop yield have damaged soil structure and that these damages may warrant significant tillage operations prior to next season's crop to loosen soil and ameliorate damage to soil structure.


Assessing Student Work To Support Curriculum Development: An Engineering Case Study, Kevin P. Saunders, Thomas J. Brumm, Corly Brooke, Steven K. Mickelson, Steven Freeman Dec 2008

Assessing Student Work To Support Curriculum Development: An Engineering Case Study, Kevin P. Saunders, Thomas J. Brumm, Corly Brooke, Steven K. Mickelson, Steven Freeman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Today's engineering graduates need specialized knowledge and abilities associated with interdisciplinary education. This article discusses how a departmental curriculum committee in Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering used a collaborative assessment protocol to both examine the development of engineering students' integrative thinking and to guide a continuous curricular improvement process.


A Targeted Conservation Approach For Improving Environmental Quality: Multiple Benefits And Expanded Opportunities, Lisa A. Schulte, Heidi Asbjornsen, Ryan Atwell, Chad E. Hart, Matthew J. Helmers, Thomas M. Isenhart, Randy Kolka, Matthew Z. Liebman, Jeri Neal, Matthew E. O'Neal, Silvia Secchi, Richard C. Schultz, Janette R. Thompson, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall Dec 2008

A Targeted Conservation Approach For Improving Environmental Quality: Multiple Benefits And Expanded Opportunities, Lisa A. Schulte, Heidi Asbjornsen, Ryan Atwell, Chad E. Hart, Matthew J. Helmers, Thomas M. Isenhart, Randy Kolka, Matthew Z. Liebman, Jeri Neal, Matthew E. O'Neal, Silvia Secchi, Richard C. Schultz, Janette R. Thompson, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Find out how targeted conservation practices can have the most impact on environmental quality while causing only a small change in overall agricultural production. Environmental benefits are discussed related to clean air and water, productive soils, diverse wildlife and plant habitat, and biological controls for crop protection.


Collaborative Training Results In Safer, Wiser Pesticide Use, Paul Brown Dec 2008

Collaborative Training Results In Safer, Wiser Pesticide Use, Paul Brown

Integrated Crop Management News

With crop out of the fields and snow in the air, farmers and Iowa State University Extension are turning their focus to winter trainings. ISU Extension provides the educational component required to become state certified manure and pesticide applicators.


Flowability And Handling Characteristics Of Bulk Solids And Powders—A Review With Implications For Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2008

Flowability And Handling Characteristics Of Bulk Solids And Powders—A Review With Implications For Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Much research regarding handling and storage characteristics of bulk solids has been conducted over the years. Physical properties of granular solids play a significant role in their resulting storage and flow behaviour, and are therefore essential to design appropriate, efficient, and economic bulk solids handling and storage equipment and structures. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. Distillers grains are energy and nutrient dense, and are often used as a replacement for corn in animal diets. With the exponential ...


Aerate Grain Now, Charles R. Hurburgh Nov 2008

Aerate Grain Now, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

The current cold weather provides some relief from the wet grain issues that have plagued farmers in 2008. There is considerable corn in storage over 18 percent moisture, with some over 20 percent. And there is still wet corn in the field that likely will not dry any more.


Corn Breakage Increases With More Drying, Charles R. Hurburgh Nov 2008

Corn Breakage Increases With More Drying, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

As we observed a few weeks ago, the 2008 corn crop is wetter and lower in test weight than average corn. Long, cool growing seasons produce high yields but the corn is wet and soft, with more soft white starch. This means lower test weight, and reduced storability as mold can invade the softer textured kernels more rapidly. It also takes more energy to remove water from softer corn.


Disaster Recovery: How To Protect Yourself From Farm Dust, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller Nov 2008

Disaster Recovery: How To Protect Yourself From Farm Dust, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Get information on common illnesses caused by breathing in molds/dust. Help also provided in selecting respirators.


Composting Swine Mortalities In Iowa, Thomas D. Glanville Nov 2008

Composting Swine Mortalities In Iowa, Thomas D. Glanville

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Swine producers have found that composting is a flexible and reasonably priced disposal method that can be used year round. Find out about facilities and equipment, procedures, and regulations.


Safety On Iowa Roads: Sharing The Road With Farm Vehicles, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller Nov 2008

Safety On Iowa Roads: Sharing The Road With Farm Vehicles, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

This brochure reviews three common ways that farm vehicles are involved in traffic accidents. Defensive driving tips are given for each situation.


Profitable Corn Harvesting, H. Mark Hanna Nov 2008

Profitable Corn Harvesting, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Every bushel of corn saved by careful operation of your combine adds to your profits. Harvesting losses are inevitable, but this publication can help you to measure losses, as well as discovering where they occur and how to prevent them.


Disaster Recovery: What You Need To Know About Silo Gas, A Deadly Killer, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller Nov 2008

Disaster Recovery: What You Need To Know About Silo Gas, A Deadly Killer, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Here are answers to common questions about silo gas, how to recognize it, and protect yourself from its dangers.


Soybean Drying And Storage, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Nov 2008

Soybean Drying And Storage, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Why would you artifi cially dry a crop that normally dries in the fi eld? One reason would be late planting due to double cropping or wet fi elds, or poor fall weather may result in soybeans that are too wet to store. Second, harvesting early, when soybeans are still wet, reduces fi eld losses, harvest losses, and market weight losses and allows more time for other fall fi eldwork.


Understanding Consumer Preference For Functional Barley Tortillas Through Sensory, Demographic, And Behavioral Data, Ayako Toma, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elizabeth A. Arndt, Naruemon Prasopsunwattana, Sutida Chongcham, Rolando A. Flores Nov 2008

Understanding Consumer Preference For Functional Barley Tortillas Through Sensory, Demographic, And Behavioral Data, Ayako Toma, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elizabeth A. Arndt, Naruemon Prasopsunwattana, Sutida Chongcham, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Consumption of whole grains as part of a health-promoting diet is encouraged among Americans due to beneficial nutrients and phytochemicals. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of whole barley flour particle size on consumer acceptance of whole grain and soluble fiber-enriched tortillas; to examine the effect of demographic and behavioral data on consumer acceptance; and to establish relationships between consumer acceptance and survey results to identify market opportunities among particular groups of consumers. Four experimental tortillas and two representative commercial brands were tested by 95 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale for appearance, color ...


Determination Of Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater Nov 2008

Determination Of Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various grades of this material. Three types of samples were studied: 100%, 75% and 50% phenolic samples. The milling operation was carried out with a fixed depth of cut of 2.0 mm using a 12.5 mm diameter two-fluted end-mill. The cutting speed was varied between 120 and 160 m/min at feeds between ...


No Evidence That Bacillus Thuringiensis Genes And Their Products Influence The Susceptibility Of Corn Residue To Decomposition, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater Nov 2008

No Evidence That Bacillus Thuringiensis Genes And Their Products Influence The Susceptibility Of Corn Residue To Decomposition, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The possibility that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn (Zea mays L.) residues resist decomposition compared to non-Bt residues would present direct (soil carbon turnover times) and indirect (changes in tillage practices) effects on carbon budgets in agricultural systems. We evaluated the relative decomposition of residue from two pairs of Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids from different seed manufacturers buried in the root zone of adjacent Bt and non-Bt corn plots over a period of 384 d. We found no persistent differences in residue decomposition among the different hybrids regardless of the seed manufacturer or the presence of the Bt genes (both ...


Using Quality Management Systems To Meet Food Traceability Requirements Of The Bioterrorism Act Of 2002, Chad M. Laux, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2008

Using Quality Management Systems To Meet Food Traceability Requirements Of The Bioterrorism Act Of 2002, Chad M. Laux, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The events of 9/11 intensified concerns about the safety of food. Legislation requirements for food traceability present challenges for US grain handlers in meeting new regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, 2006). With the goal of protecting the US food supply, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (known as ‘the Act’).


Performance Evaluation Of A Wood-Chip Based Biofilter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy–Olfactometry, Lide Chen, Steven J. Hoff, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Brian Zelle, Gang Sun Nov 2008

Performance Evaluation Of A Wood-Chip Based Biofilter Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy–Olfactometry, Lide Chen, Steven J. Hoff, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Brian Zelle, Gang Sun

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A pilot-scale mobile biofilter was developed where two types of wood chips (western cedar and 2 in. hardwood) were examined to treat odor emissions from a deep-pit swine finishing facility in central Iowa. The biofilters were operated continuously for 13 weeks at different air flow rates resulting in a variable empty bed residence time (EBRT) from 1.6 to 7.3 s. During this test period, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) PDMS/DVB 65 μm fibers were used to extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from both the control plenum and biofilter treatments. Analyses of VOCs were carried out using a multidimentional gas ...


Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2008

Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flow of DDGS is often restricted by caking and bridging during its storage and transportation. In our previous works, the Carr powder tester was used to measure various flow properties of DDGS. The objective of this study was to measure the flow properties (cohesion, effective angle of friction, internal angle of ...


Corn Quality Issues In 2008 - Moisture And Test Weight, Charles R. Hurburgh, Roger W. Elmore Oct 2008

Corn Quality Issues In 2008 - Moisture And Test Weight, Charles R. Hurburgh, Roger W. Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

Weather this fall has benefited the corn crop by allowing late planted corn to mature. Much of the state recently experienced its first killing frost. The USDA October yield estimate of 172 bushels per acre in Iowa surprised many. If this is the final yield, 2008 will produce the third highest yield recorded, behind the 173 bushels per acre of 2005 and 181 bushels per acre in 2004.


Corn Quality Issues In 2008 – Field Molds, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Roger W. Elmore Oct 2008

Corn Quality Issues In 2008 – Field Molds, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson, Roger W. Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

Fall weather has allowed late planted corn to mature, increasing grain yields expectations - the USDA October yield estimate is 172 bushels per acre in Iowa. Although high grain yields are expected, reports of quality issues are surfacing. The cool wet fall conditions also favor the development of fusarium fungi; the white or pink ear rots that are often found in ear corn stored too wet. Field moistures in the low 20s over a long period are favorable for these fungi, which in turn can produce several toxins harmful to people and livestock – vomitoxin, zearalenone, and fumonisin. Grain with field mold ...


Current Science Of Nutrient Flows And Conservation Actions In Iowa: Guiding Principles, Matt Helmers Oct 2008

Current Science Of Nutrient Flows And Conservation Actions In Iowa: Guiding Principles, Matt Helmers

Leopold Center Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Make The Right Tillage Management Decision, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna Oct 2008

Make The Right Tillage Management Decision, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

This year, as producers decide whether to till or not, special consideration should be given to high fuel prices. Generally, producers know what it takes to operate tillage implements and how much fuel it would take to finish the work. Conventional tillage plus planting and spraying in general would require approximately three to four gallons of fuel per acre compared to one gallon per acre for no-tillage. Field operations in general, including tillage and harvesting, along with nitrogen fertilizer use and crop drying consume most of the crop production energy.