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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Spots Available At The Webgro Training Workshops, William D. Batchelor Dec 2003

Spots Available At The Webgro Training Workshops, William D. Batchelor

Integrated Crop Management News

The genetic yield potential of soybeans in the Midwestern United States is estimated to be approximately 100 bushels per acre, based on results from small-plot studies. However, field and statewide average yields are much lower. Soybean yield is the result of complex interactions between genetics, management, environment, fertility, and stresses. Water stress is often viewed as the biggest underlying factor resulting in yield loss. However, other factors such as soybean cyst nematodes, Rhizoctonia root rot, and hail damage can also cause significant injury to soybean yields.


Crop Rotation Considerations For 2004 Management Season Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Dec 2003

Crop Rotation Considerations For 2004 Management Season Rotation, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

There are many management strategies for improving soil productivity. Crop rotation or cropping sequence is proven to be very effective in addressing concerns related to soil, water, and environment quality from long- or short-term perspectives. Producers who are innovative in diversifying their cropping systems and management strategies will be more successful than others who are not.


Application Uniformity Of An Impellicone Anhydrous Ammonia Manifold, H. Mark Hanna, Kyle J. Baumgartner, Thomas S. Colvin, J. L. Baker Dec 2003

Application Uniformity Of An Impellicone Anhydrous Ammonia Manifold, H. Mark Hanna, Kyle J. Baumgartner, Thomas S. Colvin, J. L. Baker

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Since the 1960's anhydrous ammonia (NH) has become the most widely used source of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in agriculture. In fact over 8.1 billion pounds of NH3 is used in the United States every year (Terry and Kirby, 1997). With the cost and wide spread use of NH3 operators are seeking ways to improve uniformity and reduce rates of application. This is because most NH3 tends to be over-applied due to variability in NH3 equipment. Reducing variability will put more money into producers' pockets and reduce the likelihood of N leaching into water supplies. At a cost of ...


Performance Of Vegetative Filters Considering Conservation Practices, Field Slope, And Storm Characteristics, Matthew J. Helmers, Dean E. Eisenhauer Dec 2003

Performance Of Vegetative Filters Considering Conservation Practices, Field Slope, And Storm Characteristics, Matthew J. Helmers, Dean E. Eisenhauer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Vegetative filter systems are being used nationwide as a management practice for controlling sediment delivery to water bodies, especially in agricultural settings. The installation of vegetative filter systems has increased in agricultural areas in part because of the National Conservation Buffer Initiative implemented by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Vegetative filters have the effect of retarding the velocity and reducing the sediment transport capacity of water flow (Tollner et al., 1982). As a result, a portion of the sediment in the water flowing through the filter will be deposited thus decreasing the movement of sediment to water bodies.


Quality Of The 2003 Soybean Crop In The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Nov 2003

Quality Of The 2003 Soybean Crop In The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

Quality continues to be an important soybean marketing issue. This report summarizes current knowledge on the following soybean quality topics: • Protein and oil composition of the 2003 U.S. soybean crop •The 2003 crop in historical and geographic perspective Weather conditions affecting the 2003 crop Programs by growers and U.S. processors to improve quality The data and analyses in this report are intended to assist customers in the sourcing and use of U.S. soybeans.


Using Peer Assessments In Team Activities, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth Nov 2003

Using Peer Assessments In Team Activities, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Regardless of the path industrial technology students take upon graduation, they will be required to work effectively as part of a team. To help students develop the skills necessary for this, many industrial technology faculty incorporate team activities into their curricula. Time constraints placed on busy faculty and research supporting the positive benefits of cooperative learning 1 represent two additional reasons for incorporating cooperative group-based learning activities into classes. But, how do faculty assess student progress and assign grades when using team activities? Most who have tried have confronted the inevitable group versus individual problems. While most cooperative learning experts ...


European Food-Safety Concerns: From Farm To Market, D. Burden, Lawrence A. Johnson Nov 2003

European Food-Safety Concerns: From Farm To Market, D. Burden, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In May of this year, 14 students from Iowa State University (ISU) had the opportunity to visit England and Scotland to examine food-safety issues, with emphasis on increasing the exposure to and understanding of European food-safety concerns, farming practices,the regulatory environment,research activities, and consumer attitudes.


Economic Simulation Modeling Of Reprocessing Alternatives For Corn Masa Byproducts, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Thomas L. Richard, Carl J. Bern, Rolando A. Flores Nov 2003

Economic Simulation Modeling Of Reprocessing Alternatives For Corn Masa Byproducts, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Thomas L. Richard, Carl J. Bern, Rolando A. Flores

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increasing production of corn masa for tortillas, chips, and related snack foods is resulting in large quantities of organic residuals requiring environmentally sound management. These byproduct streams appear suitable for use as livestock feed material, thus eliminating landfilling costs. Possibilities for developing livestock feed include direct shipping to livestock feeding facilities, blending prior to shipping, extrusion processing, pellet mill processing, and dehydration. To assess the viability of these options for reprocessing masa byproducts as livestock feed materials, an economic model was developed and applied to each of these alternatives. Through a series of simulation runs with this model, it was ...


2003 Ag Chemical Dealer Updates, Brent A. Pringnitz Oct 2003

2003 Ag Chemical Dealer Updates, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Update meetings for ag chemical and fertilizer dealers will be held at 11 locations in Iowa during November and December. These meetings review crop production problems experienced during the 2003 growing season and help prepare for management decisions for the 2004 season. Iowa State University Extension specialists discuss disease, insect, and weed management techniques, including results of research studies and field trials.


New Software Estimates Soybean Yield Losses, William D. Batchelor, Joel Obien Paz Oct 2003

New Software Estimates Soybean Yield Losses, William D. Batchelor, Joel Obien Paz

Integrated Crop Management News

The genetic yield potential of soybeans in the midwestern United States is estimated to be approximately 100 bu/acre based on results from small plot studies. However, field and statewide average yields are much lower each year. Do you ever wonder how much yield was lost from different stresses or management decisions made during the year? Iowa State University has developed a Web-based system to help you estimate yield losses due to different stresses and management practices. The software, called WebGro, was developed with funding from the Soybean Research and Development Council and is the culmination of six years of ...


Estimations Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Fluxes From Cattle Feedlot Surfaces In Texas High Plains, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole Oct 2003

Estimations Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Fluxes From Cattle Feedlot Surfaces In Texas High Plains, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole

Jacek A. Koziel

A dynamic flow-through chamber system and continuous analyzers were used for on-site measurements of ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and hydrogen sulfide-sulfur (H 2 S-S) fluxes from commercial feedlot surfaces in northwestern Texas during two week period in the summer of 2002. Ambient air and air inside chamber temperatures, and manure pack temperature were measured continuously. Manure pack moisture content, pH, and TKN were measured daily to characterize its correlation with NH 3 -N fluxes. The preliminary average NH 3 -N flux from the feedlot surface for the entire measurement period was 1,669 ± 1,212 NH 3 -N µ g ...


Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne Oct 2003

Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne

Jacek A. Koziel

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are major components of odors associated with agricultural operations and livestock housing, solid waste processing and disposal, and industrial and municipal wastewater collection and treatment systems. Emissions estimation and assessment of odor control methods depend on reliable air sampling and analysis methods for VFAs. The objective of this research was to develop and test a method for continuous and reliable generation of standard gas mixtures for VFAs based on permeation tubes. Standard gas mixtures for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids were generated with permeation tubes and monitored for a 100-day period. The ...


Ventilation Requirements To Prevent Pit Air Up-Drafting In A Swine Finishing Barn, R. E. Nicolai, Steven J. Hoff Oct 2003

Ventilation Requirements To Prevent Pit Air Up-Drafting In A Swine Finishing Barn, R. E. Nicolai, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Curtain sided deep-pit swine finishing buildings are popular in the industry due to concerns related to odors from outdoor manure storage systems. Local regulators are requesting additional odor reduction from the building. Biofiltration is a technology that reduces odors exhausted from swine buildings if the exhaust air can be controlled. Upward air movement through the slatted floor must be eliminated to treat all pit gasses when the ventilation is operating in a mode with the curtains lowered.

Critical (minimal) pit ventilation rates were determined to insure downward air flow through the slatted floor in a swine finishing barn with 8 ...


The Transfer Of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Calibrations Between Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers Using Three Standardization Techniques, Wendy Ye, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Hailin Zhang, Jeffory Hattey Oct 2003

The Transfer Of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Calibrations Between Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers Using Three Standardization Techniques, Wendy Ye, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Hailin Zhang, Jeffory Hattey

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The application of Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in livestock manure samples has been limited by the requirement that each instrument must be individually calibrated. One possible solution to the problem is the transfer of NIR calibrations from one instrument to another. Seventy-two beef cattle feedlot manure samples were collected and scanned through the Foss NIRSystem 6500 (master) and the Foss NIRSystem 5000 (slave) instruments. Calibration equations for analyzing 11 constituents, total solids (TS), volatile solid (VS), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) of ...


Corn And Soybean Quality Affected By Late Season Drought, Charles R. Hurburgh Oct 2003

Corn And Soybean Quality Affected By Late Season Drought, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

The continued shortage of rainfall has increased the impact of weather on both yield and quality for corn and soybeans. Recent yield projections underscore the major effect of drought timing - greater on soybeans than on corn.


Harvest Equipment Considerations, H. Mark Hanna, Graeme R. Quick Oct 2003

Harvest Equipment Considerations, H. Mark Hanna, Graeme R. Quick

Integrated Crop Management News

Harvest conditions in fields this fall will be determined by the extent of drought damage to each crop, especially soybeans. Decisions about equipment use for harvesting the drought-damaged crops must consider the plant moisture content, crop use, and equipment availability if owned, leased, or custom. In most cases, plant moisture content has already dropped below the 60 to 70 percent recommended moisture level for ensilage. Forage material still may be collected in bales or stacks if plant material is dry enough for appropriate storage.


Ammonia Concentrations In Poultry Broiler Production Units Treated With Liquid Alum, K. A. Armstrong, Robert T. Burns, F. R. Walker, L. R. Wilhelm, D. Raj Raman Oct 2003

Ammonia Concentrations In Poultry Broiler Production Units Treated With Liquid Alum, K. A. Armstrong, Robert T. Burns, F. R. Walker, L. R. Wilhelm, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

High ammonia concentrations in commercial broiler production houses can result in poor bird performance, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher mortalities. Growers have traditionally controlled in-house ammonia levels by increasing ventilation. During cold weather, increased ventilation rates result in higher heating energy requirements. Granular alum (aluminum sulfate, Al2(SO4)3 · 14H2O) has been successfully used as a litter amendment to reduce ammonia volatilization from litter inside broiler production houses. In this study, liquid aluminum sulfate was investigated as a litter amendment for ammonia suppression in four commercial poultry-broiler units. This project investigates four treatment levels of liquid alum in four ...


A Literature Review Of Swine Heat And Moisture, T. M. Brown-Brandl, J. A. Nienaber, H. Xin, R. S. Gates Oct 2003

A Literature Review Of Swine Heat And Moisture, T. M. Brown-Brandl, J. A. Nienaber, H. Xin, R. S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Current ASAE standards of heat and moisture production are based primarily on data collected nearly four decades ago. Feedstuffs, swine practices, growth rate, and lean percentage have changed considerably in that time period and have a substantial effect on both heat and moisture production. In fact, recent research has shown that high-lean gain swine are more susceptible to high environmental temperatures – partially due to increased heat production. This increase in heat production cannot be met physiologically through increased sensible heat loss (i.e. surface area); therefore, latent heat loss must increase. Furthermore, synthetic amino acids can more closely match diet ...


Time To Evaluate Fall Soil Conditions, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Sep 2003

Time To Evaluate Fall Soil Conditions, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

This year, some producers have already started to harvest in very dry soils, and their risk of soil compaction is very low. But if the weather changes and it rains, producers will have to monitor soil conditions. When saturated, soil aggregates are 'lubricated' by water and readily reposition themselves through the air spaces, especially when heavy harvest equipment is used. In addition, farmers and equipment operators need to remember that compaction can occur during the application of manure or anhydrous when soil moisture exceeds field capacity (maximum amount of moisture retained by the soil).


Simulation Of Fixed– And Variable–Rate Application Of Granular Materials, John Patrick Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Michael E. Anderson, Thomas F. Burks, Stephen F. Higgins Sep 2003

Simulation Of Fixed– And Variable–Rate Application Of Granular Materials, John Patrick Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Michael E. Anderson, Thomas F. Burks, Stephen F. Higgins

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Research has shown that application errors exist with variable–rate technology (VRT) systems. Consequently, using prescription maps for economic and agronomic analyses can generate misleading results. The intent of this article was to develop and validate a spatial data model for generating “as–applied” maps to support the advancement of precision agriculture practices. Previous research modified ASAE Standard S341.2 to include a 2–D matrix of collection pans to assess fixed–rate and variable–rate (VR) deposition of granular fertilizers and agricultural lime from a spinner disc spreader. The “as–applied” spatial data model uses GIS functionality to generate ...


Carbon Sequestration, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Aug 2003

Carbon Sequestration, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Carbon is essential for life on earth -- it sustains biological activity, diversity, and ecosystem productivity. Humans and animals release carbon dioxide (CO2), while plants take it in and release oxygen, returning carbon to the soil when they die. It's generally accepted that the carbon cycle flowed more or less in balance until the late 1880s.


Setting Combines For Harvesting Best Soybean Seed Quality And Maximum Yield, H. Mark Hanna Aug 2003

Setting Combines For Harvesting Best Soybean Seed Quality And Maximum Yield, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

A pocket guide for setting combines to harvest best soybean seed quality and maximum yield with the least amount of grain damage.


Setting Combines For Harvesting Best Quality Seed And Field Corn, Graeme R. Quick, H. Mark Hanna Aug 2003

Setting Combines For Harvesting Best Quality Seed And Field Corn, Graeme R. Quick, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

A pocket guide for setting combines to harvest best quality seed and field corn with the least amount of grain damage.


Release And Transport Of Bacteria And Nutrients From Livestock Manure Applied To Pastureland, Michelle L. Soupir Jul 2003

Release And Transport Of Bacteria And Nutrients From Livestock Manure Applied To Pastureland, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

Transport of fecal bacteria and nutrients from point and nonpoint sources to surface water bodies is of significant concern in Virginia and the United States. In Virginia, 4,320 river miles are impaired for one or more beneficial use and 72% of the streams are impaired due to pathogen indicators (VDEQ, 2002). Land applications of manure from confined animal systems and by direct deposit by grazing animals are both major sources of fecal bacteria and nutrients in runoff. Therefore, an understanding of the overland transport mechanisms for fecal bacteria and nutrients is very important for the development of best management ...


Managing Your Pasture To Reduce Soil Erosion, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Jul 2003

Managing Your Pasture To Reduce Soil Erosion, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

When it comes to soil erosion and surface runoff from agriculture land, tillage and row-crop management attract a lot of attention. However, most Iowa land currently in pasture is unsuitable for crop production because of steep slopes. These slopes make pasture even more vulnerable to water erosion. Mismanaged pasture can contribute substantially to water quality degradation due to soil erosion and sediment transport to nearby water bodies.


Modeling Of Sediment Trapping In A Vegetative Filter Accounting For Two-Dimensional Overland Flow, Matthew J. Helmers, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Thomas G. Franti, Michael G. Dosskey Jul 2003

Modeling Of Sediment Trapping In A Vegetative Filter Accounting For Two-Dimensional Overland Flow, Matthew J. Helmers, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Thomas G. Franti, Michael G. Dosskey

Matthew J. Helmers

Vegetative filters (VF) are used to remove sediment and other pollutants from overland flow. When modeling the hydrology of VF it is often assumed that overland flow is planar but our research indicates that it can be two-dimensional with converging and diverging pathways. Our hypothesis is that flow convergence will negatively influence the sediment trapping capability of VF. The objectives were to develop a two-dimensional modeling approach for estimating sediment trapping in VF and to investigate the impact of converging overland flow on sediment trapping by VF. In this study, the performance of a VF that has field-scale flow path ...


Soil Moisture Estimation From Remotely Sensed Hyperspectral Data, Amy L. Kaleita, Lei Tian, Haibo Yao Jul 2003

Soil Moisture Estimation From Remotely Sensed Hyperspectral Data, Amy L. Kaleita, Lei Tian, Haibo Yao

Amy L. Kaleita

A methodology for mapping surface soil moisture content across an agricultural field from optical remote sensing and ground sampling is developed. This study uses both ground-based and remotely sensed spectral measurements of soil reflectance in visible and near-infrared wavelengths and concurrent measurements of volumetric soil moisture within the top 6 cm. After determining appropriate wavelengths for soil moisture estimation from spectral reflectance, a cokriging scheme was used to generate soil moisture maps. Results indicate that combining reflectance and ground measurements can yield more detailed maps of soil moisture than ground measurement alone.


Checking The Food Odometer: Comparing Food Miles For Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales To Iowa Institutions, Richard S. Pirog, Andrew Benjamin Jul 2003

Checking The Food Odometer: Comparing Food Miles For Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales To Iowa Institutions, Richard S. Pirog, Andrew Benjamin

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This analysis found that locally grown produce traveled an average of 56 miles from farm to point of sale, compared to an average of 1,494 miles for 30 types of produce from conventional sources.


Estimation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From Cattle Feedlots In Texas, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole Jul 2003

Estimation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From Cattle Feedlots In Texas, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole

Jacek A. Koziel

A dynamic flow-through chamber system and continuous analyzers were used for on-site measurements of ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and hydrogen sulfide-sulfur (H 2 S-S) fluxes from commercial feedlot surfaces in northwestern Texas during two week period in the summer of 2002. Manure pack moisture content, pH, and TKN were measured daily to characterize its relation with NH 3 -N fluxes. The preliminary average NH 3 -N and H 2 S-S flux from the feedlot surface were 1,669 ± 1,212 NH 3 -N µ g/m 2 /min and 1.884 ± 1.497 H 2 S-S µ g S/m ...


Background Odors In Tedlar® Bags Used For Cafo Odor Sampling, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett Spinhirne Jul 2003

Background Odors In Tedlar® Bags Used For Cafo Odor Sampling, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett Spinhirne

Jacek A. Koziel

Tedlar® film is manufactured in a wet solvent process and continues to emit organic compounds after manufacturing. Tedlar® bags are used for odor sampling at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Odor regulations for CAFOs vary widely, but maximum detection thresholds (DTs) of 2 to 15 have been proposed downwind of feeding operations. Results at the WTAMU Olfactometry Laboratory have shown that both commercially available Tedlar® bags and homemade Tedlar® bags have a detectable background odor (DTs of 20 to 60 typical) even following standard protocols for purging. Purging the bags before sampling was not effective in reducing DTs to acceptable ...