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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Aug 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Douglas L Karlen

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Aug 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

D. Raj Raman

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Aug 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Amy L. Kaleita

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Annual Swine Manure Applications To Soybean Under Corn-Soybean Rotation, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino Jul 2016

Annual Swine Manure Applications To Soybean Under Corn-Soybean Rotation, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

The response of a corn-soybean rotation system receiving fall manure application to both corn and soybean is not well understood in terms of its impact on nitrate leaching to subsurface drainage water and crop yields. This field study was conducted from 2001 through 2005 with the key objective of determining the effects of manure application to both corn and soybean on NO3-N concentrations in subsurface drainage water and corn-soybean yields. The study was conducted on 0.4 ha plots instrumented with state-of-the-art subsurface drainage monitoring systems at the Iowa State University research center, Nashua, Iowa. Nitrogen application rates from liquid ...


Evaluating And Predicting Agricultural Management Effects Under Tile Drainage Using Modified Apsim, Robert W. Malone, N. Huth, P. S. Carberry, Liwang Ma, Thomas C. Kaspar, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Philip Heilman Dec 2015

Evaluating And Predicting Agricultural Management Effects Under Tile Drainage Using Modified Apsim, Robert W. Malone, N. Huth, P. S. Carberry, Liwang Ma, Thomas C. Kaspar, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Philip Heilman

Douglas L Karlen

An accurate and management sensitive simulation model for tile-drained Midwestern soils is needed to optimize the use of agricultural management practices (e.g., winter cover crops) to reduce nitrate leaching without adversely affecting corn yield. Our objectives were to enhance the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) for tile drainage, test the modified model for several management scenarios, and then predict nitrate leaching with and without winter wheat cover crop. Twelve years of data (1990–2001) from northeast Iowa were used for model testing. Management scenarios included continuous corn and corn–soybean rotations with single or split N applications. For 38 ...


Corn-Soybean And Alternative Cropping Systems Effects On No 3 -N Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Richard M. Cruse, Mohammadreza Ghaffarzadeh, Allah Bakhsh, Douglas Karlen, Theodore B. Bailey Dec 2015

Corn-Soybean And Alternative Cropping Systems Effects On No 3 -N Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Richard M. Cruse, Mohammadreza Ghaffarzadeh, Allah Bakhsh, Douglas Karlen, Theodore B. Bailey

Douglas L Karlen

Alternative cropping systems can improve resource use efficiency, increase corn grain yield, and help in reducing negative impacts on the environment. A 6-yr (1993 to 1998) field study was conducted at the Iowa State University’s Northeastern Research Center near Nashua, Iowa, to evaluate the effects of non-traditional cropping systems [strip inter cropping (STR)-corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.)/oats (Avina sativa L.)]; alfalfa rotation (ROT)-3-yr (1993 to 1995) alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) followed by corn in 1996, soybean in 1997, and oats in 1998), and traditional cropping system (corn after soybean (CS) and soybean after ...


Cropping System Effects On No3-N Loss With Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Theodore B. Bailey, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Cropping System Effects On No3-N Loss With Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Theodore B. Bailey, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

An appropriate combination of tillage and nitrogen management practices will be necessary to develop sustainable farming practices. A six–year (1993–1998) field study was conducted on subsurface–drained Clyde–Kenyon–Floyd soils to quantify the impact of two tillage systems (chisel plow vs. no tillage) and two N fertilizer management practices (preplant single application vs. late–spring soil test based application) on nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching loss with subsurface drain discharge from corn (Zea mays L.) soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation plots. Preplant injected urea ammonium nitrate solution (UAN) fertilizer was applied at the rate of 110 kg ...


Alternative N Fertilizer Management Strategies Effects On Subsurface Drain Effluent And N Uptake, David L. Bjorneberg, Douglas L. Karlen, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella Dec 2015

Alternative N Fertilizer Management Strategies Effects On Subsurface Drain Effluent And N Uptake, David L. Bjorneberg, Douglas L. Karlen, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella

Douglas L Karlen

Demonstrating positive environmental benefits of alternative N fertilizer management strategies, without adversely affecting crop growth or yield, was a major goal for the Midwest Management Systems Evaluation Areas (MSEA) program. Our project objectives within this program were to quantify the effects of split- and single-N fertilization strategies on NO3-N concentration and loss in subsurface drain effluent and N accumulation and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The study was conducted on glacial till derived soils in northeast Iowa from 1993 through 1995 using no-till and chisel plow tillage treatments. One-third of the 2,611 ...


Bioreactor Design Geometry Effects On Nitrate Removal, Laura E. Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Alok Bhandari Mar 2013

Bioreactor Design Geometry Effects On Nitrate Removal, Laura E. Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Alok Bhandari

Matthew J. Helmers

Denitrification bioreactors for nitrate removal in agricultural drainage have recently gained attention for their low cost and effectiveness. While research continues to investigate the optimal sizing of these systems, little work has been done on the optimal design geometry (Length to width ratio and cross sectional shape). To address this lack, pilot-scale (1/10th scale) work performed in Iowa during the summer of 2009 explored three shapes of potential bioreactor designs. The objective was to study the nitrate removal effectiveness of each design at various retention times. The pilot bioreactors had a standard volume (0.71 m3) and depth (0 ...


Fate And Transport Of Pathogen Indicators From Pasturelands, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2007

Fate And Transport Of Pathogen Indicators From Pasturelands, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

The U.S. EPA has identified pathogen indicators as a leading cause of impairments in rivers and streams in the U.S. Elevated levels of bacteria in streams draining the agricultural watersheds cause concern because they indicate the potential presence of pathogenic organisms. Limited understanding of how bacteria survive in the environment and are released from fecal matter and transported along overland flow pathways results in high uncertainty in the design and selection of appropriate best management practices (BMPs) and in the bacterial fate and transport models used to identify sources of pathogens.

The overall goal of this study was ...


Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns Dec 2000

Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns

Gary S. Sayler

Manure–borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample–handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas–chromatography mass–spectroscopy (GC–MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC–MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17β–estradiol concentrations were one–third of the estrone concentration ...


Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns Dec 2000

Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns

D. Raj Raman

Manure–borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample–handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas–chromatography mass–spectroscopy (GC–MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC–MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17β–estradiol concentrations were one–third of the estrone concentration ...