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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

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Physical properties

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown Jul 2012

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Five isocaloric (~3.06 kcal/g) ingredient blends, adjusted to a target protein content of 36.7% db, were formulated with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at an initial moisture content of 5–7% db, with appropriate amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin ...


Effect Of Starch Sources And Protein Content On Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing Ddgs, Sankaranandh Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Feb 2011

Effect Of Starch Sources And Protein Content On Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing Ddgs, Sankaranandh Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A 3 × 3 × 3 completely randomized design was used to investigate extrusion cooking behavior and product characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20%, 30%, and 40% wet basis (wb)) were extruded with three different proportions of protein levels (28%, 30%, and 32% wb). The extrusion cooking was performed at a constant feed moisture content of 20% wb, barrel temperature of 120 °C, and a preset screw speed of 130 rpm (13.6 rad/s). Extrudate ...


Effect Of Elusieve Fractionation On Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radhakrishnan Srinivasan Jun 2009

Effect Of Elusieve Fractionation On Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radhakrishnan Srinivasan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, and can partially offset the need for corn in feed rations. As the industry evolves, new technologies are being developed to improve the value proposition of the coproducts, especially distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). One of these is the Elusieve process, which combines sieving and air classification to accomplish fractionation of the DDGS into component-rich (i.e., protein, lipid, fiber) streams ...


Physical And Flow Properties Of Regular And Reduced Fat Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2009

Physical And Flow Properties Of Regular And Reduced Fat Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are now being produced. Flowability of DDGS has become a problem throughout the industry, as it is often restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transport. The objective of this study was to quantify physical and flow properties of commercially produced unmodified (9.3% db fat) and reduced fat (2.1% db) DDGS to determine if fat level affects flowability. The compressive modulus of reduced fat DDGS was 28.2% higher than unmodified DDGS, but ...


Examining The Effects Of Ethanol Processing And Drying Conditions On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian A. Wrenn May 2009

Examining The Effects Of Ethanol Processing And Drying Conditions On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian A. Wrenn

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which partially offsets the need for corn in feed rations. Because of its use as an animal feed, considerable research has been conducted into the nutritional properties, and to some extent the physical properties, of commerciallyavailable distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). There are, however, occasions when the quality of coproducts is not consistent. Thus questions regarding the influence of production operations ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of tapioca starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Properties Of Solvent Extracted Low-Oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jennifer A. Saunders Jan 2009

Properties Of Solvent Extracted Low-Oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jennifer A. Saunders

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Corn-based ethanol is exponentially growing in the US, as is the need for valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Currently, DDGS is used as livestock feed, thereby replacing some corn components in animal diets. As the industry continues to grow, there will be an increased need to find additional uses for DDGS. Physical and chemical properties of coproduct streams are becoming increasingly investigated, as these characteristics affect many aspects of utilization, such as target species, optimal dietary substitution rates, transportation, flowability, and behavior during storage. Potential avenues for future use ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of potato starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Design Properties For Molded, Corn-Based Ddgs-filled Phenolic Resin, R. A. Tatara, Kurt A. Rosentrater, S. Suraparaju Jan 2009

Design Properties For Molded, Corn-Based Ddgs-filled Phenolic Resin, R. A. Tatara, Kurt A. Rosentrater, S. Suraparaju

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the rapid growth in the ethanol fuel industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to maximizing the use of processing coproducts, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), typically for livestock diets. Because these residues contain high fiber levels, they may be amendable to incorporation into polymers as well, which is an option that could garner greater economic returns. Thus, the goal of this study was to demonstrate the viability of using corn-based DDGS as a biofiller with phenolic resin, in order to produce a novel biomaterial. DDGS was blended with phenolic resin at four levels ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using 3 levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of corn starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Klein Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2008

On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Klein Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a complex heterogeneous granular solid that exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. This fact is one of the major reasons that livestock nutritionists often find it difficult to include it in their feed rations. The rapid growth of the corn ethanol industry, the primary generator of DDGS, has resulted in a huge influx of this product into the marketplace. Unfortunately, the lack of standard methods for product quality determination and reporting is becoming a bottleneck to expanding the market for this product. Challenges in the logistics of moving DDGS through ...


Effects Of Feed And Extruder Parameters On Extrudates Containing Ddgs, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2008

Effects Of Feed And Extruder Parameters On Extrudates Containing Ddgs, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Twenty seven isocaloric (3.05 kcal/g) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25, and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5, and 35% db), and feed moisture content (25, 35, and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of cassava starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin, and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125, and 150 o C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive ...


Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown Jun 2008

Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Six isocaloric (3.65 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (35% db protein), ingredient blends were prepared with 0, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27.5% DDGS and other common ingredients, including soybean meal, corn, fish meal, whey, soybean oil, and vitamin and mineral mix, in order to produce balanced rations appropriate for tilapia grower diets. The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, and then extruded in a pilot-scale twin screw extruder. The extrusion process was carried out using two processing conditions: a 2 mm die at 190 rpm (with temperatures ranging from 80 to 110 o C, depending on ...


Properties Of Distillers Grains Composites: A Preliminary Investigation, Vanessa Cheesbrough, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser Jan 2008

Properties Of Distillers Grains Composites: A Preliminary Investigation, Vanessa Cheesbrough, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viability of the industry. In light of these developments, this preliminary study aimed to determine the suitability of DDGS for use as a biofiller in low-cost composites that could be produced by rapid prototyping applications. The effects of DDGS content, particle size, curing temperature, and compression on resulting properties, such as flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, water activity ...


Examining The Properties Of Deoiled Vs. Unmodified Ddgs, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Oct 2007

Examining The Properties Of Deoiled Vs. Unmodified Ddgs, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent feed ingredient for ruminant livestock and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flowability of DDGS has become a problem throughout the industry, as it is often restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transportation. As DDGS contains modest levels of corn oil (typically between 3 and 13% db), some studies are being directed at removing the fat from DDGS, to improve the marketability of DDGS by ...


Physical Properties Of Extrudates Containing Distillers Grains Extruded In A Twin Screw Extruder, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2007

Physical Properties Of Extrudates Containing Distillers Grains Extruded In A Twin Screw Extruder, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of DDGS along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% in a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with experiments conducted in full factorial design with 3 levels of DDGS content, 2 levels of moisture content and 2 levels of screw speed were studied. Increasing the DDGS content from 20% to 60%, resulted in 36.7% decrease in the radial expansion leading to 159%, 61.4% increase in the unit density and bulk density of the extrudates. Increasing ...


Characterization Of Chemical And Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grain With Solubles (Ddgs) For Value Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Characterization Of Chemical And Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grain With Solubles (Ddgs) For Value Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

One of the fastest growing industries in the United States is the fuel ethanol industry. Since 2000 there has been an increase of more than 300%. There was production of 4.9 billion gallons of ethanol in 2006. The major coproducts from this industry include Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide. DDGS is used as a livestock feed since it contains high quantities of protein, fiber, amino acids, and other nutrients. The goal of this study was to quantify various chemical and physical properties of DDGS, Distillers Wet Grains (DWG), and Distillers Dried Grain (DDG) from several ...


Characteristics Of North American Meat & Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores Jul 2006

Characteristics Of North American Meat & Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Unmarketable animal tissues are typically processed by rendering plants, which transform them into meat & bone meal (MBM) or similar products. MBM’s traditional use as animal feed has become increasingly threatened, but MBM has potential for non-feed applications. Development of new products and processes is hindered by lack of reliable data on many of MBM’s chemical and physical properties. MBM samples as well as data on raw material and process were collected from 19 rendering facilities in the United States and Canada. A large majority of the raw material was tissue from cattle, swine and poultry. All facilities surveyed practiced continuous dry rendering; 89% of the facilities use continuous cookers and 11% use falling film evaporators. MBM is high in protein (44.6-62.8%, mfb), but this protein is poorly soluble; at pH 7 solubility ranged from 2.20 to 7.22 %. Among all samples, the particles’ median geometric mean diameter was 387 µm, and the size distribution was broad. The median density of MBM particles was 1.41 (g/ml); median density of MBM in bulk ranged from 0.50 g/ml when loose-filled to 0.68 g ...


Some Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2006

Some Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the rapid growth in the fuel ethanol industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to determining distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) nutritional properties and to optimizing their inclusion in livestock diets; physical properties of these materials, however, have been largely ignored. Using standard laboratory methods, several physical properties for typical DDGS streams were determined, including moisture content, water activity, thermal properties (conductivity, resistivity, and diffusivity), bulk density, angle of repose, and color. The DDGS samples in this study were golden-brown in color and exhibited physical properties similar to other dry feed ingredients, such as hominy feed ...


Characteristics Of North American Meat And Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores Jan 2006

Characteristics Of North American Meat And Bone Meal Relevant To The Development Of Non-Feed Applications, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Unmarketable animal tissues are typically processed by rendering plants, which transform them into meat and bone meal (MBM) or similar products. MBM's traditional use as animal feed has become increasingly threatened, but MBM has potential for non-feed applications. Development of new products and processes is hindered by lack of reliable data on many of MBM's chemical and physical properties. MBM samples, as well as data on raw material and process, were collected from 19 rendering facilities in the United States and Canada. A large majority of the raw material was tissue from cattle, swine, and poultry. All facilities ...


Physical Properties Of Extruded Tilapia Feed With Distiller Dried Grains With Solubles, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jul 2005

Physical Properties Of Extruded Tilapia Feed With Distiller Dried Grains With Solubles, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from ethanol manufacturing plants contain a high percentage of protein, and are primarily used as livestock feed. The conversion efficiency of feed into body tissue is generally much higher in fish than farm animals. Fish can convert up to 36% of feed protein into body protein, whereas beef typically converts only 15%. Extrusion technology is very widely used for the production of floating and non floating aquaculture feeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify physical properties of extrudates containing 20,30 & 40% DDGS and net protein content adjusted to 28%. Three ...