Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

Selected Works

Aquaculture Feeds

Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Alternative Protein Sources For Aquaculture Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jan 2012

Alternative Protein Sources For Aquaculture Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With a global seafood production of about 51.7 million ton in 2006 and an annual growth rate of 6.9% from 1970-2006, aquaculture is one of the fastest growing sectors in the food industry. Feed represents 40-70% of operating costs for aquaculture operations. Fish diets typically contain between 20 and 55% crude protein, depending on the fish species. High quantities of fish meal are commonly used in these feeds to supply fish with essential proteins, amino acids and fatty acids. However, during the last 3 years prices for fish meal have remained above $1000 ton-1 and have even approached ...


Extruded Aquafeeds Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles: Effects On Extrudate Properties And Processing Behaviour, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater Dec 2011

Extruded Aquafeeds Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles: Effects On Extrudate Properties And Processing Behaviour, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

BACKGROUND: The tremendous supply and low cost of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) make it an attractive feedstuff for aquaculture diets. Also, several studies have shown that DDGS can be successfully fed to various finfish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of DDGS (0, 250, 500 g kg−1), feed moisture content (350, 450 g kg−1) and die opening area (die A = 18.85 mm2, die B = 3988.45 mm2) on the properties of the extrudates and on processing behaviour using a single-screw extruder.

RESULTS: Increasing the inclusion rate of DDGS ...


Single-Screw Extrusion Modeling Effects On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Physical Properties Of Ddgs-Based Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis Niloticus ) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Parisa Fallahi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Aug 2011

Single-Screw Extrusion Modeling Effects On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Physical Properties Of Ddgs-Based Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis Niloticus ) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Parisa Fallahi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A single-screw laboratory extruder was used to conduct an L 18 (2 2 X 3 6 ) Taguchi fractional factorial study of aquafeed processing. The ingredients were based on a formulation for nutritionally-balanced Nile tilapia diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal as the main protein sources, in addition to constant amounts of corn flour, whey, and fish meal. The effects of three levels of DDGS (20, 30 and 40%), soybean meal (30, 40 and 50%), ingredient moisture content (20, 30 and 40% db), screw speed (100, 150 and 200 rpm), barrel temperatures (80-100-100°C, 80-120-120°C ...


Effect Of Starch Sources And Protein Content On Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing Ddgs, Sankaranandh Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Feb 2011

Effect Of Starch Sources And Protein Content On Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing Ddgs, Sankaranandh Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A 3 × 3 × 3 completely randomized design was used to investigate extrusion cooking behavior and product characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20%, 30%, and 40% wet basis (wb)) were extruded with three different proportions of protein levels (28%, 30%, and 32% wb). The extrusion cooking was performed at a constant feed moisture content of 20% wb, barrel temperature of 120 °C, and a preset screw speed of 130 rpm (13.6 rad/s). Extrudate ...


Effects Of Dietary Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Soybean Meal On Extruded Pellet Characteristics And Growth Responses Of Juvenile Yellow Perch, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2011

Effects Of Dietary Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Soybean Meal On Extruded Pellet Characteristics And Growth Responses Of Juvenile Yellow Perch, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A 126-d feeding trial was performed to investigate graded combinations of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SBM) in diets formulated for yellow perch Perca flavescens. Six experimental diets contained DDGS and SBM at 0 and 31.5% (dry matter basis), respectively (0/31.5 diet), 10 and 26% (10/26), 20 and 20.5% (20/20.5), 30 and 15% (30/15), 40 and 9.5% (40/9.5), and 50 and 4% (50/4) to obtain similar levels of crude protein (mean ± SE = 30.1 ± 0.2%), crude lipid (16.7 ± 0.7%), and digestible ...


Utilization Of Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Ethanol Production Co-Products By Nile Tilapia, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2010

Utilization Of Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Ethanol Production Co-Products By Nile Tilapia, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a fishmeal replacement for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). On a dry matter basis, five isocaloric [19.3 ± 0.4 kJ/g (mean ± SE)], isonitrogenous (39.1 ± 0.5% crude protein) diets were formulated to contain 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, 25%, and 27.5% DDGS and compared against a 0% DDGS, reference diet (gross energy = 14.5 kJ/g; crude protein = 39.8%). The reference diet resulted in significantly higher body weight gain (BWG), food conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio ...


Tilapia: Environmental Biology And Nutritional Requirements, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Oct 2010

Tilapia: Environmental Biology And Nutritional Requirements, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Tilapia is one of the most widely cultured fish in the world. Currently, farmed tilapia represents more than 75% of world tilapia production (FAO, 2009), and this contribution has been exponentially growing in recent years. Several factors have contributed to the rapid global growth of tilapia. Tilapia are easily cultured and highly adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions. Tilapia feed on a wide variety of dietary sources, including phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplanktons, larval fish, and detritus. Adult tilapia are principally herbivorous but readily adapt to complete commercial diets based on plant and animal protein sources. In the United States ...


Tilapia: Profile And Economic Importance, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Oct 2010

Tilapia: Profile And Economic Importance, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Tilapia is the common name broadly applied to a group of cichlid fishes native to Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. Tilapia are some of the oldest cultured fishes, as depicted in line drawings found in Egyptian tombs that date back to 2000 BC. This group consists of three economically important genera, which are taxonomically distinguished according to their reproductive behaviors: Tilapia, Oreochromis, and Sarotherodon, all are commonly known as “tilapia.” Tilapia are biparental caring-substrate spawners; Oreochromis are generally maternal mouth brooders; and Sarotherodon are generally paternal or biparental mouth brooders. Currently, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; fig. 1) and ...


Extrusion Of Aquafeeds Containing Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) For Nile Tilapia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Mehmet C. Tulbek Mar 2010

Extrusion Of Aquafeeds Containing Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) For Nile Tilapia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Mehmet C. Tulbek

Kurt A. Rosentrater

As the global population grows, there is an increasing need to produce food; aquaculture can help meet some of this growing demand. The majority of protein for aquafeeds is fish meal. But due to growing costs and potential scarcity of fish meal supplies in coming years, there is an impending need to find alternative protein sources. DDGS, a coproduct of the fuel ethanol industry, may be suitable for this purpose. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of extrusion processing conditions on two feed blends containing DDGS and other ingredients. Based on previous research, two optimized aquafeeds ...


Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown Feb 2010

Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Six isocaloric (3.65 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (35% dry-basis [db] protein), ingredient blends were prepared with 0, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27.5% distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other ingredients (soybean meal, corn, fish meal, whey, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral mix). The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, then extruded in a twin screw extruder using a 2 mm die at 190 rpm, and a 3 mm die at 348 rpm. Analyses of the extrudates included moisture content, expansion ratio, unit density, bulk density, sinking velocity, color (L*, a*, and b*), water ...


Effects Of Processing Conditions On Single Screw Extrusion Of Feed Ingredients Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Feb 2010

Effects Of Processing Conditions On Single Screw Extrusion Of Feed Ingredients Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed coproduct from the fuel ethanol industry, has been shown to be a viable potential alternative protein source for aquaculture feeds. To investigate this, three isocaloric (3.5kcal/g) ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% DDGS, with a net protein adjusted to 28% (wet basis, wb), were prepared for use as Nile tilapia feed. Extrusion processing was then conducted using three DDGS contents (20, 30, and 40%, wb), three moisture contents (15, 20, and 25%, wb), three barrel temperature gradients (90–100–100°C, 90–130–130°C, and 90–160–160 ...


The Effects Of Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Sep 2009

The Effects Of Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (~ 3.21 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed moisture content of 60-65% db, with appropriate amounts of soybean meal, fish meal, vitamin and mineral mix. Extrusion cooking was performed using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder at a constant barrel temperature profile of 40ºC-90ºC-100ºC, and a constant screw speed of 230 rpm (24.1 rad/s). During processing the mass ...


Extrusion Studies Of Aquaculture Feed Using Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Whey, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2009

Extrusion Studies Of Aquaculture Feed Using Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Whey, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three isocaloric (3.5 kcal/g) ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% distiller-dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with 5% whey were prepared with a net protein content adjusted to 28% (wet basis [wb]). Other ingredients in the blends included soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin, and mineral mix. These blends were extruded in a single-screw extruder at 15, 20, and 25% (wb) moisture content and at 130 and 160 rpm screw speeds. Compared to previous research, the durability and unit density of the extrudates in this study were found to increase substantially by the addition of whey ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of potato starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Performance Characteristics Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Fuel-Based Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2009

Performance Characteristics Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Fuel-Based Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A feeding trial was performed to investigate levels of corn-based Distillers Dried Grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of fuel ethanol manufacturing, used as a nutrient source for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three isocaloric (15.7±0.7 MJ kg-1 dry matter), isonitrogenous (29.6±1.0% crude protein) experimental diets were formulated to contain 20, 30 and 40% DDGS; a commercial diet containing fishmeal was used as a reference diet. Glass aquaria (110 L) were stocked with Nile tilapia (mean weight = 6.7 g) with four replicates per diet. Weight gains, conversion ratios and hepatosomatic indices did not ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using 3 levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of corn starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of tapioca starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown Jun 2008

Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Six isocaloric (3.65 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (35% db protein), ingredient blends were prepared with 0, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27.5% DDGS and other common ingredients, including soybean meal, corn, fish meal, whey, soybean oil, and vitamin and mineral mix, in order to produce balanced rations appropriate for tilapia grower diets. The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, and then extruded in a pilot-scale twin screw extruder. The extrusion process was carried out using two processing conditions: a 2 mm die at 190 rpm (with temperatures ranging from 80 to 110 o C, depending on ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Feed Blends Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Sep 2007

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Feed Blends Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix, and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin-screw extruder. The properties of extrudates were studied in experiments conducted using a full-factorial design with three levels of DDGS content, two levels of moisture content, and two levels of screw speed. Increasing the DDGS content from 20 to 60% resulted in a 36.7% decrease in the radial expansion, leading to a 159 and 61.4% increase in the unit density and ...


Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jun 2007

Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of die nozzle dimensions, barrel temperature profile, and moisture content on DDGS-based extrudate properties and extruder processing parameters. An ingredient blend containing 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, whey, mineral and vitamin mix, with a net protein content adjusted to 28% was extruded in a single-screw laboratory extruder using seven different die nozzles. Increasing moisture content of the ingredient mix from 15 to 25% resulted in a 2.0, 16.0, 16.3, 22.9, 18.5, 32.5, and 63 ...


Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jul 2006

Modeling Extrusion Processing Of Aquaculture Feed Incorporating Distillers Grains, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three ingredient blends were prepared containing 20%, 30% and 40% DDGS and the net protein adjusted to 28% were formulated and extruded in a single screw extruder. Modeling of the viscosity of dough in the barrel by restricting the reference viscosity has shown shear thinning behavior, and the R2 value obtained between the apparent viscosity calculated by the concentric cylinder method, and viscosity calculated by the model equation, was found to be over 0.99. Increasing the DDGS content had resulted in higher mass flow rate and decreased absolute pressure inside the die. The torque requirement at 40% DDGS was ...


Physical Properties Of Extruded Tilapia Feed With Distiller Dried Grains With Solubles, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jul 2005

Physical Properties Of Extruded Tilapia Feed With Distiller Dried Grains With Solubles, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from ethanol manufacturing plants contain a high percentage of protein, and are primarily used as livestock feed. The conversion efficiency of feed into body tissue is generally much higher in fish than farm animals. Fish can convert up to 36% of feed protein into body protein, whereas beef typically converts only 15%. Extrusion technology is very widely used for the production of floating and non floating aquaculture feeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify physical properties of extrudates containing 20,30 & 40% DDGS and net protein content adjusted to 28%. Three ...


Utilization Of Distillers Dried Grains For Fish Feed By Extrusion Technology—A Review, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jul 2005

Utilization Of Distillers Dried Grains For Fish Feed By Extrusion Technology—A Review, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Protein-rich distillers dried grains (DDG) from ethanol plants has been used as livestock feed for many years. Feed conversion efficiency in fish, however, is typically much higher compared to traditional livestock. But, the cost of fish feed is one of the challenges for profitable fish cultivation. Due to the exponential growth of ethanol plants in recent years, DDG is becoming readily available as a reasonably-priced base material for animal feeds, and because it has a relatively high protein content, it also has much potential for use as a fish feed ingredient. Even though much literature is available on conversion of ...