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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook Oct 2019

Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook

Kamyar Enshayan

Most consumers do not understand today’s highly complex global food system. Much of the food production and processing occurs far away from where they live and buy groceries. External environmental and community costs related to the production, processing, storage, and transportation of the food are seldom accounted for in the food’s price, nor are consumers made aware of these external costs. Examples of external environmental costs are the increased amount of fossil fuel used to transport food long distances, and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of these fuels.


Equipment Considerations: Liquid Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Liquid Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on liquid fertilizers and is the last in a series of three articles (other two in April 9, 2001, Integrated Crop Management issue) about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment. A primary consideration for equipment is the relatively high application volumes required. For example, a 150-lb N/acre application of 28 percent UAN solution requires an application of 50 gal/acre.


Equipment Considerations: Anhydrous Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Anhydrous Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

Because of abnormal nitrogen fertilizer production, import, and supply this year and with perhaps a short spring application season, some crop producers may use a form of nitrogen fertilizer with which they are unaccustomed. A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on anhydrous ammonia and is the second in a series of three articles about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment.


Equipment Considerations: Dry Granual Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Equipment Considerations: Dry Granual Fertilizer, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A review of application equipment considerations can help ensure that your nitrogen fertilizer is properly applied. This article focuses on dry granular fertilizers and is the first in a series of three articles about nitrogen fertilizer application and equipment. Because of varying physical properties of dry fertilizer materials, it is important to consider material distribution across the swath as well as application rate.


Equipment Maintenance: Fertilizer Applicators, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Tidman Jul 2016

Equipment Maintenance: Fertilizer Applicators, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Tidman

John E. Sawyer

Winter is a good time for crop producers and fertilizer dealers to work out the kinks in fertilizer application equipment for economic, environmental, efficiency, and safety reasons. Properly working application equipment translates into getting the most out of every fertilizer dollar. Overapplying to compensate for poorly calibrated equipment wastes money and could mean nutrient-rich runoff and consequently, a potential water quality problem. This article provides some tips for maintaining your fertilizer application equipment.


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Manure or fertilizer can be used to supply the phosphorus (P) needs of crops. However, excess P application increases the risk of P loss from fields and of water quality impairment through increased algae growth. Poor water quality in many Iowa lakes has prompted questions about the impact of P management practices on P loss from fields and the effectiveness of using agronomic soil tests for environmental purposes.


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nutrient losses from row-crop land can cause nonpoint source water quality problems and “impaired waters.” Nitrogen (N) losses due to nitrate (NO3) leaching cause drinking water problems and possibly increase hypoxia (low oxygen) problems in the Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus (P) losses can cause eutrophication problems in surface waters (lakes, streams, and reservoirs) in Iowa where algal blooms decrease oxygen, kill fish, and result in murky and bad tasting water. The U.S. EPA and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources are developing nutrient criteria/standards and implementation plans to address TMDL’s (Total Maximum Daily Load) and to improve ...


Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer Jul 2016

Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

Depending on postharvest field conditions, some producers will soon be considering anhydrous ammonia application. Using fall labor to apply fertilizer can be attractive but needs to be balanced with the potential for nutrient loss. To avoid conversion of anhydrous ammonia from ammonium to more leachable forms of nitrogen, application should be delayed until average soil temperature is below 50°F and trending lower. Measure the 4-inch soil temperature at near 10 a.m. or 7 p.m. or check Iowa State University's county soil temperatures and forecast.


Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky Jul 2016

Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First, manure from swine production facilities can have serious impacts on the quality of ground water resources. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, pollution of water resources from nutrients supplied by manure to croplands will help set parameters for developing public policies on the management of manure.


Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino Jul 2016

Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First,swine manure application to land can impact water quality. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, the quality of water resources will help set parameters for developing public policies on management of manure.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

In the fourth year of this ongoing project, the effects of nine N-management practices under different tillage and cropping systems were evaluated. Forty experimental plots equipped with individual sumps and subsurface drainage metering and monitoring devices were used for the study. Overall results indicate that manure application rates and methods can be successfully managed for corn-soybean systems without damaging the water quality if the appropriate amount of N from swine manure can be applied.


Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden

Douglas L Karlen

Sampling shows that agricultural chemicals are occurring increasingly in ground- and surface water in Iowa. The same trend has been reported throughout the United States; one study reported finding 73 pesticides in the groundwater of 34 states. Even pesticides known to be adsorbed to soil particles (and thus relatively immobile) have been found in a few sampled wells in trace concentrations. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is the most common agricultural chemical found in groundwater. Nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides applied to the soil surface prior to and immediately following crop planting are particularly susceptible to surface runoff or leaching to groundwater through the ...


Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

Better nitrogen (N) management practices can improve nitrogen uptake and possibly reduce nitrogen leaching to groundwater. More efficient herbicide use can decrease or eliminate the herbicide leaching losses to water sources. In this project, the effects of seven N management practices on water quality were evaluated after collecting data from 40 experimental plots. Lower rates of N application and strip and hay cropping systems help produce lower concentrations of NO3-N in the shallow groundwater in comparison with the higher rate of N application. Also, banding of herbicides has resulted in lower herbicide losses to shallow groundwater. The use of the ...