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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Narrowing Of Particle Size Distribution Followed By Aspiration, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2012

Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Narrowing Of Particle Size Distribution Followed By Aspiration, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve three screening and three air classification unit operations. In the present study, an alternative process involving fewer unit operations is demonstrated. DDGS are subjected to a single screening, and the oversize particles are processed in a mill setup so that it narrows the particle size distribution of the oversize fraction. The milled DDGS is then processed in an air ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown Jul 2012

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Five isocaloric (~3.06 kcal/g) ingredient blends, adjusted to a target protein content of 36.7% db, were formulated with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at an initial moisture content of 5–7% db, with appropriate amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin ...


A Reference-Free Algorithm For Computational Normalization Of Shotgun Sequencing Data, C. Titus Brown, Adina Howe, Qingpeng Zhang, Alexis B. Pyrkosz, Timothy H. Brom May 2012

A Reference-Free Algorithm For Computational Normalization Of Shotgun Sequencing Data, C. Titus Brown, Adina Howe, Qingpeng Zhang, Alexis B. Pyrkosz, Timothy H. Brom

Adina Howe

Deep shotgun sequencing and analysis of genomes, transcriptomes, amplified single-cell genomes, and metagenomes has enabled investigation of a wide range of organisms and ecosystems. However, sampling variation in short-read data sets and high sequencing error rates of modern sequencers present many new computational challenges in data interpretation. These challenges have led to the development of new classes of mapping tools and {\em de novo} assemblers. These algorithms are challenged by the continued improvement in sequencing throughput. We here describe digital normalization, a single-pass computational algorithm that systematizes coverage in shotgun sequencing data sets, thereby decreasing sampling variation, discarding redundant data ...


Effects Of Pre-Treatments And Drying Temperatures On The Drying Rate And Qualityof African Catfish (Claris Gariepinus), Michael Ayodele Omodara, Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan Apr 2012

Effects Of Pre-Treatments And Drying Temperatures On The Drying Rate And Qualityof African Catfish (Claris Gariepinus), Michael Ayodele Omodara, Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan

Michael Ayodele Omodara

Effects of pre-treatments and drying temperatures on the drying rate and the quality of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus was examined by drying samples of catfish under four different temperatures (40 0C, 45 0C, 50 0C and 55 0C) and four different pre-treatment methods (Salting, Sugaring, Blanching, and Control) using an experimental dryer. Drying of the fish samples for all the pre-treatments at 40 0C to 55 0C occurred in the falling rate period only showing that the predominant mechanism of mass transfer in drying process of catfish is that of internal mass transfer. The drying rate increases with increase in ...


Development Of Vitamin And Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace And Wheat Flour Based Buns, Navneet Kumar Jan 2012

Development Of Vitamin And Dietary Fibre Enriched Carrot Pomace And Wheat Flour Based Buns, Navneet Kumar

Navneet Kumar

Buns are basically small sized wheat based bread, which are very popular due to its small shape and complete consumption at one time. The buns are generally used as burgers and other fast food items. The buns do not possess a good quantity of vitamins and dietary fiber. Hence, studies were conducted to develop carrot pomace and fine wheat flour based buns. Product development was done by conventional method utilizing carrot pomace in the different proportions of (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%). All the ingredients were mixed to obtain good consistency dough, later on these were baked ...


Drying Of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus); Effects Of Some Drying Parameters On The Drying Rate And Quality Of African Catfish., Michael Ayodele Omodara, Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan, Shuaeeb Niyi Oyewole Jan 2012

Drying Of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus); Effects Of Some Drying Parameters On The Drying Rate And Quality Of African Catfish., Michael Ayodele Omodara, Adesoji Matthew Olaniyan, Shuaeeb Niyi Oyewole

Michael Ayodele Omodara

No abstract provided.


Landscape Management For Sustainable Supplies Of Bioenergy Feedstock And Enhanced Soil Quality, Douglas L. Karlen, David J. Muth Jr. Jan 2012

Landscape Management For Sustainable Supplies Of Bioenergy Feedstock And Enhanced Soil Quality, Douglas L. Karlen, David J. Muth Jr.

David J. Muth

Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fi ber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show ...


Nutritional Composition And Use Of Common Carp Muscle In Yellow Perch Diets, Travis W. Schaeffer, Matthew J. Hennen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2012

Nutritional Composition And Use Of Common Carp Muscle In Yellow Perch Diets, Travis W. Schaeffer, Matthew J. Hennen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal in fish feed. We completed analyses of common carp whole muscle, formulated diets containing combinations of carp and Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus fish meal, and then evaluated test diets in a feeding trial with yellow perch Perca flavescens. Composition (dry ...


Toward A Scientific Understanding Of Ddgs, Keshun Liu, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2012

Toward A Scientific Understanding Of Ddgs, Keshun Liu, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Recently, many people have asked what the fuel ethanol industry is going to do about the growing piles of nonfermented leftovers. Actually this question has been around for quite some time. As early as the 1940s, one report stated that "Grain distillers have developed equipment and an attractive market for their recovered grains" (Boruff, 1947), while another report described that "Distillers are recovering, drying, and marketing their destarched grain stillage as distillers dried grains and dried solubles" (Boruff, 1952). So it appears that a viable solution had already been developed as far back as the 1940s. And by the early ...


Manufacturing Of Fuel Ethanol And Distillers Grains—Current And Evolving Processes, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Klein Ileleji, David B. Johnson Jan 2012

Manufacturing Of Fuel Ethanol And Distillers Grains—Current And Evolving Processes, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Klein Ileleji, David B. Johnson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Before examining all of the different possible uses of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a discussion regarding ethanol and DDGS production methods is warranted. This chapter will cover current production processes and some of the new practices that have been developed and are being adopted at plants, including front-end fractionation and back-end fractionation. Additionally, standard coproduct definitions will be discussed, as they govern the marketing and sales of these materials.


Surface Roughness And Diametral Consistency Of Holes Drilled Into Ddgs/Phenolic Resin Blends, J. W. Shanafield, A. W. Otieno, R. A. Tatara, D. J. Schroeder, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2012

Surface Roughness And Diametral Consistency Of Holes Drilled Into Ddgs/Phenolic Resin Blends, J. W. Shanafield, A. W. Otieno, R. A. Tatara, D. J. Schroeder, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In this study, corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has been utilized as a filler and blended with phenolic resin. The blends were compression molded into rectangular test specimens, into which holes have been machined using a standard 9.52 mm (3/8 in) diameter, two-fluted twist drill. A series of tests was then conducted to examine the effects of DDGS content, cutting speed, and feed rate upon the surface finish (roughness) of the interior hole slot, as well as the consistency of the drilled hole diameter. DDGS content was 0, 25, 50, and 75%, by weight. Cutting speed ...


Overview Of Fuel Ethanol Production And Distillers Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2012

Overview Of Fuel Ethanol Production And Distillers Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Modern societies face many challenges, including growing populations, increased demands for food, clothing, housing, consumer goods, and the concomitant raw materials required to produce all of these. Additionally, there is a growing need for energy, which is most easily met by use of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, natural gas, and petroleum). In 2008, the overall U.S. demand for energy was 99.3 x 1015 Btu (1.05 x 1014 MJ); 84% of this was supplied by fossil sources (U.S. EIA, 2009). Transportation fuels accounted for 28% of all energy consumed during this time, and nearly 97% of ...


Alternative Protein Sources For Aquaculture Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jan 2012

Alternative Protein Sources For Aquaculture Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With a global seafood production of about 51.7 million ton in 2006 and an annual growth rate of 6.9% from 1970-2006, aquaculture is one of the fastest growing sectors in the food industry. Feed represents 40-70% of operating costs for aquaculture operations. Fish diets typically contain between 20 and 55% crude protein, depending on the fish species. High quantities of fish meal are commonly used in these feeds to supply fish with essential proteins, amino acids and fatty acids. However, during the last 3 years prices for fish meal have remained above $1000 ton-1 and have even approached ...


Landscape Management For Sustainable Supplies Of Bioenergy Feedstock And Enhanced Soil Quality, Douglas L. Karlen, David J. Muth Jr. Dec 2011

Landscape Management For Sustainable Supplies Of Bioenergy Feedstock And Enhanced Soil Quality, Douglas L. Karlen, David J. Muth Jr.

Douglas L Karlen

Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fi ber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show ...


Biochemical Conversion Of Acid-Pretreated Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) To Alcohol Using Pichia Stipitis Ncim3497, Sandip S. Magdum, Sandeep M. More, Aiyaj A. Nadaf Dec 2011

Biochemical Conversion Of Acid-Pretreated Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) To Alcohol Using Pichia Stipitis Ncim3497, Sandip S. Magdum, Sandeep M. More, Aiyaj A. Nadaf

Sandip S. Magdum

Cleaning and removal of water hyacinth from lakes and various historical places government spends lacks of rupees per year. High rate of propagation and easy availability, water-hyacinth could be used as a renewable carbon source for alcohol (fuel ethanol) production. Water-hyacinth’s (Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate has been utilized as a substrate for alcohol production using Pichia stipitis NCIM3497. Acid hydrolysis were carried out by using (1% v/v) sulfuric acid. Perhydrolysate was detoxified, boiled and overlimed up to pH 10.0 with NaOH to produce acid hydrolysate. Acid hydrolysate had higher fermentability than perhydrolysate. Freshly prepared acid hydrolysate ...