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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Utilization Of Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Ethanol Production Co-Products By Nile Tilapia, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2010

Utilization Of Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Ethanol Production Co-Products By Nile Tilapia, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a fishmeal replacement for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). On a dry matter basis, five isocaloric [19.3 ± 0.4 kJ/g (mean ± SE)], isonitrogenous (39.1 ± 0.5% crude protein) diets were formulated to contain 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, 25%, and 27.5% DDGS and compared against a 0% DDGS, reference diet (gross energy = 14.5 kJ/g; crude protein = 39.8%). The reference diet resulted in significantly higher body weight gain (BWG), food conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio ...


Granular Packing Influences Bulk Density Of Ddgs, Christine Keierleber, Kurt A. Rosentrater Nov 2010

Granular Packing Influences Bulk Density Of Ddgs, Christine Keierleber, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

As the quantity of ethanol produced continues to increase, the amount of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the primary coproduct of ethanol manufacturing, has become more widely available. Currently, the main consumer of DDGS is the livestock industry, but new value-added uses are garnering interest. With the increase in the availability of, and demand for DDGS, transportation has become an important issue because DDGS must be shipped increasingly long distances using railways. Rail transportation is expensive, especially considering the quantities of DDGS that can be loaded onto unit trains. DDGS often has low bulk density and poor flowability characteristics ...


Tilapia: Profile And Economic Importance, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Oct 2010

Tilapia: Profile And Economic Importance, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Tilapia is the common name broadly applied to a group of cichlid fishes native to Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. Tilapia are some of the oldest cultured fishes, as depicted in line drawings found in Egyptian tombs that date back to 2000 BC. This group consists of three economically important genera, which are taxonomically distinguished according to their reproductive behaviors: Tilapia, Oreochromis, and Sarotherodon, all are commonly known as “tilapia.” Tilapia are biparental caring-substrate spawners; Oreochromis are generally maternal mouth brooders; and Sarotherodon are generally paternal or biparental mouth brooders. Currently, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; fig. 1) and ...


Tilapia: Environmental Biology And Nutritional Requirements, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Oct 2010

Tilapia: Environmental Biology And Nutritional Requirements, Kamal Mjoun, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Tilapia is one of the most widely cultured fish in the world. Currently, farmed tilapia represents more than 75% of world tilapia production (FAO, 2009), and this contribution has been exponentially growing in recent years. Several factors have contributed to the rapid global growth of tilapia. Tilapia are easily cultured and highly adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions. Tilapia feed on a wide variety of dietary sources, including phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplanktons, larval fish, and detritus. Adult tilapia are principally herbivorous but readily adapt to complete commercial diets based on plant and animal protein sources. In the United States ...


Artificial Neural Network Modeling Of Ddgs Flowability With Varying Process And Storage Parameters, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2010

Artificial Neural Network Modeling Of Ddgs Flowability With Varying Process And Storage Parameters, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Neural Network (NN) modeling techniques were used to predict flowability behavior in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) prepared with varying CDS (10, 15, and 20%, wb), drying temperature (100, 200, and 300°C), cooling temperature (-12, 0, and 35°C) and cooling time (0 and 1 month) levels. Response variables were selected based on our previous research results, and included aerated bulk density, Hausner Ratio, Angle of Repose, Total Flowability Index, and Jenike Flow Function. Various neural network models were developed using multiple input variables in order to predict single response variables or multiple response variables simultaneously. The NN ...


Physical And Chemical Characterization Of Fuel Ethanol Coproducts Relevant To Value-Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Sep 2010

Physical And Chemical Characterization Of Fuel Ethanol Coproducts Relevant To Value-Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

One of the fastest growing industries in the United States is the fuel ethanol industry. In terms of ethanol production capability, the industry has grown by more than 600% since the year 2000. The major coproducts from corn-based ethanol include distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide. DDGS is used as a livestock feed because it contains high quantities of protein, fiber, amino acids, and other nutrients. The goal of this study was to quantify various chemical and physical properties of DDGS, distillers wet grains (DWG), and distillers dried grain (DDG) from several plants in South Dakota. Chemical ...


Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2010

Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The relative decomposability of corn (Zea mays L.) residues from insect (Bt)-protected hybrids and conventional hybrids cultivated under insect pressure was investigated in two studies. Above-ground biomass, residue macromolecular composition, and stalk physical strength were also measured. In the first decomposition study, chopped residues (stalks and leaves) were used from a corn rootworm-protected (Cry3Bb1) hybrid and its non-Bt near isoline that were grown in replicated plots infested with corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.). In the second study, residue (intact stalk sections) was used from three European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner)-resistant (Cry1Ab) hybrids representing different seed manufacturer/maturity ...


Malnutrition, A Global Problem, Shirin Pourafshar, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban Krishnan Jun 2010

Malnutrition, A Global Problem, Shirin Pourafshar, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban Krishnan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Malnutrition is a general term for medical conditions caused by an inadequate diet and poor nutrition. Hunger and malnutrition are among the major difficulties confronting many countries around the world. Malnutrition can be caused by several factors, such as the sharp increase in population (current world population is approximately 6,800,000,000), poor distribution of foods, lack of access to highly nutritious foods, and most important, lack of knowledge about healthy diets. Malnutrition can lead to other problems, such as reduced school attendance, learning capacity, spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, and it can have a negative ...


Some Middle Eastern Breads, Their Characteristics And Their Production, Shirin Pourafshar, Padmanaban Krishnan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2010

Some Middle Eastern Breads, Their Characteristics And Their Production, Shirin Pourafshar, Padmanaban Krishnan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In Middle Eastern countries, there are many traditional products which are made from wheat; bread is the most important one, and it is eaten with almost every kind of food. The goals of this study are to 1) in general, review major types of breads in the Middle East, and 2) specifically discuss Iranian breads. There are four major Iranian flat breads; all of these are fundamentally the same, and the dough in all of them consists of water, yeast, baking powder, and wheat flour, but they also have some ingredients which are specific to each product. The first of ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown Jun 2010

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Due to tremendous increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, the need for alternative protein sources cannot be disregarded. Toward that end, twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Five isocaloric (~ 3.06 kcal/g) ingredient blends, adjusted to a similar protein content of 36.7% db, were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at an initial moisture content of 5-7% db, with appropriate amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour ...


A Review Of Alternatives To Wheat Flour, Shirin Pourafshar, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban Krishnan Jun 2010

A Review Of Alternatives To Wheat Flour, Shirin Pourafshar, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban Krishnan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

For centuries, cereals have been major food stuffs used all around the world; because of that, there are many different kinds of breads produced from different types of flours. Despite the variety of flours available, there are still many challenges to produce ingredients which maximize nutrient components, and with which healthier breads and other products can be produced. As studies have shown, traditional wheat flour has some nutritional deficiencies (although this is a matter of perspective), which depend on the level of consumption. Additionally, gluten intolerance and Celiac disease are growing problems. The nutritional value of breads can be enhanced ...


Effects Of Varying Cds, Drying And Cooling Temperatures On Glass Transition Temperature Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2010

Effects Of Varying Cds, Drying And Cooling Temperatures On Glass Transition Temperature Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co product of the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is used widely as an animal feed. Due to increased demand for DDGS in livestock markets it has become essential to transport DDGS over long distances. Flowability problems in DDGS, due to particle caking, often create nuisance in storage and transportation. Materials above the glass transition temperature (Tg) can exist in a “rubbery state,” this condition can often be responsible for structural collapse, particle agglomeration, and caking of materials. This study investigated the effects of varying CDS (10, 15, and 20%, wb), drying (100, 200 ...


Effects Of Varying Cds Levels And Drying And Cooling Temperatures On Flowability Properties Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2010

Effects Of Varying Cds Levels And Drying And Cooling Temperatures On Flowability Properties Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under various environmental conditions. It is often problematic, since caking between the particles can lead to flow problems. In this study we have prepared DDGS by combining condensed distillers solubles (CDS) with distillers wet grains (DWG) and then drying. We investigated the effects of CDS (10, 15, and 20% wb), drying temperature (100, 200, and 300 ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Jun 2010

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The world’s increasing demand for seafood products has resulted in rising demands for fish meal for fish feed, which must be compensated for by searching for effective alternative protein sources. In this study, twin-screw extrusion trials were conducted to study the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for rainbow trout fingerlings (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Six isocaloric (~ 4.61 kcal/g) ingredient blends with a similar protein content of 52.8% db were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other ingredients (i.e. fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal ...


Predicting Stability Of Distiller’S Wet Grains (Dwg) With Color Analysis, R. M. Lehman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Mar 2010

Predicting Stability Of Distiller’S Wet Grains (Dwg) With Color Analysis, R. M. Lehman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distiller’s wet grain (DWG) is one of the coproducts from the fuel ethanol industry. Although many studies have investigated the nutritional properties of DWG, little work has investigated the storability and shelf life for these feed products or how to measure these quantities. The objectives of this research were to measure the development of microorganisms and their respiration over time in freshly produced DWG and to determine if there was a quantitative relationship between these microbiological parameters and a more easily measured physical property, DWG color. The numbers of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts, and carbon dioxide generated ...


Extrusion Of Aquafeeds Containing Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) For Nile Tilapia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Mehmet C. Tulbek Mar 2010

Extrusion Of Aquafeeds Containing Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) For Nile Tilapia, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Mehmet C. Tulbek

Kurt A. Rosentrater

As the global population grows, there is an increasing need to produce food; aquaculture can help meet some of this growing demand. The majority of protein for aquafeeds is fish meal. But due to growing costs and potential scarcity of fish meal supplies in coming years, there is an impending need to find alternative protein sources. DDGS, a coproduct of the fuel ethanol industry, may be suitable for this purpose. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of extrusion processing conditions on two feed blends containing DDGS and other ingredients. Based on previous research, two optimized aquafeeds ...


Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown Feb 2010

Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Six isocaloric (3.65 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (35% dry-basis [db] protein), ingredient blends were prepared with 0, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27.5% distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other ingredients (soybean meal, corn, fish meal, whey, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral mix). The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, then extruded in a twin screw extruder using a 2 mm die at 190 rpm, and a 3 mm die at 348 rpm. Analyses of the extrudates included moisture content, expansion ratio, unit density, bulk density, sinking velocity, color (L*, a*, and b*), water ...


Effects Of Processing Conditions On Single Screw Extrusion Of Feed Ingredients Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Feb 2010

Effects Of Processing Conditions On Single Screw Extrusion Of Feed Ingredients Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed coproduct from the fuel ethanol industry, has been shown to be a viable potential alternative protein source for aquaculture feeds. To investigate this, three isocaloric (3.5kcal/g) ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% DDGS, with a net protein adjusted to 28% (wet basis, wb), were prepared for use as Nile tilapia feed. Extrusion processing was then conducted using three DDGS contents (20, 30, and 40%, wb), three moisture contents (15, 20, and 25%, wb), three barrel temperature gradients (90–100–100°C, 90–130–130°C, and 90–160–160 ...


Evaluation Of Measurement Procedures Used To Determine The Bulk Density Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Clairmont L. Clementson, Klein E. Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2010

Evaluation Of Measurement Procedures Used To Determine The Bulk Density Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Clairmont L. Clementson, Klein E. Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of co-products, especially distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), generated from this industrial sector. DDGS is sold as a commodity for animal feed, and like corn, its bulk physical and chemical properties are quality attributes that can be used in trading by merchandisers. Consistency in product quality has been a cause for concern in the industry, and the lack of standard methods for physical and chemical property determination potentially confounds the issue, especially when results of attributes measured ...