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Modeling The Effects Of Pelleting On The Logistics Of Distillers Grains Shipping, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar Dec 2009

Modeling The Effects Of Pelleting On The Logistics Of Distillers Grains Shipping, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The energy security needs of energy importing nations continue to escalate. It is clear that biofuels can help meet some of the increasing need for energy. Theoretically, these can be produced from a variety of biological materials, including agricultural residues (such as corn stover and wheat straw), perennial grasses, legumes, algae, and other biological materials. Currently, however, the most heavily utilized material is corn starch. Industrial fuel ethanol production in the US primarily uses corn, because it is readily converted into fuel at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of corn-based ethanol in the US ...


Costs Of Pelleting To Enhance The Logistics Of Distillers Grains Shipping, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar Oct 2009

Costs Of Pelleting To Enhance The Logistics Of Distillers Grains Shipping, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Biofuels, especially corn-based ethanol, can help meet some of the increasing demand for transportation fuels. Currently, the most heavily utilized substrate is corn grain, which is readily converted into ethanol at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing during the last several years; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues are most often dried and sold as distillers dried grains with solubles – DDGS. Even though these materials are used to feed livestock in local markets, as the size of the industry continues ...


Sensory Evaluation Of Barley Chocolate Chip Cookies By Consumers With Different Demographic Background And Eating Patterns, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Douglas L. Lewis, Elizabeth Arndt, Diana J. Frost, Lauren M. Winstone Sep 2009

Sensory Evaluation Of Barley Chocolate Chip Cookies By Consumers With Different Demographic Background And Eating Patterns, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Douglas L. Lewis, Elizabeth Arndt, Diana J. Frost, Lauren M. Winstone

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Health organizations have recommended an increase in consumption of whole grains, total dietary fiber, and soluble fiber to help reduce the potential risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, among others. The purpose of this project was to determine the sensory characteristics of chocolate chip (CC) cookies containing a high-soluble fiber whole barley flour (HSFWB). Cookies with 0, 30, 50, and 70% HSFWB were evaluated for appearance, color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. Forty-nine students, faculty, and staff tested the cookies on three different days. Demographic and behavioral data on ...


The Effects Of Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown Sep 2009

The Effects Of Extrusion Processing Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Feeds, Ferouz Y. Ayadi, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Michael L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (~ 3.21 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed moisture content of 60-65% db, with appropriate amounts of soybean meal, fish meal, vitamin and mineral mix. Extrusion cooking was performed using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder at a constant barrel temperature profile of 40ºC-90ºC-100ºC, and a constant screw speed of 230 rpm (24.1 rad/s). During processing the mass ...


Measurement Of Sticky Point Temperature Of Coffee Powder With A Rheometer, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Aug 2009

Measurement Of Sticky Point Temperature Of Coffee Powder With A Rheometer, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study we developed a new methodology to measure sticky point temperature using a rheometer, and validated our Ts data with previously published coffee powder data. Our Ts measurement using a rheometer was performed in two replications. The behavior of Ts as a function of moisture content (%, db) was observed to be non-linear. After 16% (db) moisture content, however, there were no ...


Survey Of Us Fuel Ethanol Plants, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2009

Survey Of Us Fuel Ethanol Plants, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to ...


A Comparison Of Measurement Procedures Used To Determine The Bulk Density Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Clairmont L. Clementson, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Klein E. Heleji Jun 2009

A Comparison Of Measurement Procedures Used To Determine The Bulk Density Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Clairmont L. Clementson, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Klein E. Heleji

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of co-product, distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) generated from this processing sector. DDGS is sold as a commodity for animal feed and like corn; its bulk physical and chemical properties are quality attributes normally used in trading by merchandisers. Consistency in product quality have been cause for concern in the industry and the lack of standard methods for physical and chemical property determination does potentially confound the issue, especially when results of attributes measured by different methods ...


Extrusion Studies Of Aquaculture Feed Using Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Whey, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2009

Extrusion Studies Of Aquaculture Feed Using Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles And Whey, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three isocaloric (3.5 kcal/g) ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% distiller-dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with 5% whey were prepared with a net protein content adjusted to 28% (wet basis [wb]). Other ingredients in the blends included soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin, and mineral mix. These blends were extruded in a single-screw extruder at 15, 20, and 25% (wb) moisture content and at 130 and 160 rpm screw speeds. Compared to previous research, the durability and unit density of the extrudates in this study were found to increase substantially by the addition of whey ...


Effect Of Elusieve Fractionation On Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radhakrishnan Srinivasan Jun 2009

Effect Of Elusieve Fractionation On Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Radhakrishnan Srinivasan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, and can partially offset the need for corn in feed rations. As the industry evolves, new technologies are being developed to improve the value proposition of the coproducts, especially distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). One of these is the Elusieve process, which combines sieving and air classification to accomplish fractionation of the DDGS into component-rich (i.e., protein, lipid, fiber) streams ...


Cross-Sectional Staining And Surface Properties Of Ddgs Particles And Their Influence On Flowability, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2009

Cross-Sectional Staining And Surface Properties Of Ddgs Particles And Their Influence On Flowability, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the U.S. fuel ethanol industry projected to grow during the next several years, supplies of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are anticipated to continue to grow as well. DDGS is used primarily as livestock feed. Much of the DDGS must be shipped, often over large distances, outside the Corn Belt (which is where most of the corn-based ethanol plants are currently located). Stickiness and caking among particles is a common issue for DDGS, and it often leads to flowability problems. To address this, the objective of this study was to understand the cross-sectional and surface natures of ...


A Treatise On The Application Of Lifecycle Management Principles In Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Israel S. Dunmade, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2009

A Treatise On The Application Of Lifecycle Management Principles In Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Israel S. Dunmade, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a systematic approach, mindset and culture that considers economic, social, and environmental factors among other factors in the decision making process throughout various business or organizational decisions that affect both inputs and outputs of a product or service life cycle. It is a product, process, or activity management system aimed at minimizing environmental and socio-economic burdens associated with an organization’s product or process during its entire life cycle and value chain. LCM’s application is gaining wider acceptance both in the corporate and governmental organizations as an approach to reduce ecological footprints and to ...


Physical And Flow Properties Of Regular And Reduced Fat Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2009

Physical And Flow Properties Of Regular And Reduced Fat Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are now being produced. Flowability of DDGS has become a problem throughout the industry, as it is often restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transport. The objective of this study was to quantify physical and flow properties of commercially produced unmodified (9.3% db fat) and reduced fat (2.1% db) DDGS to determine if fat level affects flowability. The compressive modulus of reduced fat DDGS was 28.2% higher than unmodified DDGS, but ...


Examining The Effects Of Ethanol Processing And Drying Conditions On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian A. Wrenn May 2009

Examining The Effects Of Ethanol Processing And Drying Conditions On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian A. Wrenn

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has been dramatically increasing in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct materials generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which partially offsets the need for corn in feed rations. Because of its use as an animal feed, considerable research has been conducted into the nutritional properties, and to some extent the physical properties, of commerciallyavailable distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). There are, however, occasions when the quality of coproducts is not consistent. Thus questions regarding the influence of production operations ...


Children's Acceptance, Nutritional, And Instrumental Evaluations Of Whole Grain And Soluble Fiber Enriched Foods, A. Toma, M. B. Omary, L. F. Marquart, E. A. Arndt, Kurt A. Rosentrater, B. Burns-Whitmore, L. Kessler, K. Hwan, A. Sandoval, A. Sung Apr 2009

Children's Acceptance, Nutritional, And Instrumental Evaluations Of Whole Grain And Soluble Fiber Enriched Foods, A. Toma, M. B. Omary, L. F. Marquart, E. A. Arndt, Kurt A. Rosentrater, B. Burns-Whitmore, L. Kessler, K. Hwan, A. Sandoval, A. Sung

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 report recommends 3 or more daily ounce-equivalents of whole grains (WG), and the FDA suggests consumption of 25 g of total dietary fiber (TDF) and 6 g of soluble fiber (SF) for a 2000-calorie diet. Efforts to increase the consumption of WG and SF among elementary school-aged children are needed. The objectives of this study were to examine the consumption of WG- and SF-enriched burritos and cookies among elementary school-aged children and to perform a quality evaluation of all products. Children in grades K to 6 from a local elementary school consumed control (CTR ...


Flowability Properties Of Commercial Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Mar 2009

Flowability Properties Of Commercial Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the major coproduct from the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is primarily used as livestock feed. Due to high protein, fiber, and energy contents, there is a high demand for DDGS. Flowability of DDGS is often hindered due the phenomenon of caking. Shipping and handling of DDGS has thus become a major issue due to bridge formation between the DDGS particles. The objective of this investigation was to measure flowability characteristics of DDGS samples from five ethanol plants in the north central region of the United States. Carr and Jenike tests were performed and the ...


Quantifying Total And Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources In South Dakota—A Preliminary Assessment, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Dennis Todey, Russell Persyn Jan 2009

Quantifying Total And Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources In South Dakota—A Preliminary Assessment, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Dennis Todey, Russell Persyn

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Conversion of biomass is considered the next major advance in biorenewable fuels, energy, and products. Wholesale conversion to biomass utilization could result in removal of current crop residues from agricultural fields (on prime agricultural lands) or even implementation of different crops and cropping strategies (i.e., switchgrass on marginal lands). To date, the driver for biomass processing has been economics and limitations on the conversion of the lignocellulose. Over the last forty years significant investments and resultant changes in management practices in the agricultural sector have focused on soil and water conservation. One of the major efforts has focused on ...


Performance Characteristics Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Fuel-Based Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2009

Performance Characteristics Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels Of Fuel-Based Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Travis W. Schaeffer, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A feeding trial was performed to investigate levels of corn-based Distillers Dried Grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of fuel ethanol manufacturing, used as a nutrient source for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three isocaloric (15.7±0.7 MJ kg-1 dry matter), isonitrogenous (29.6±1.0% crude protein) experimental diets were formulated to contain 20, 30 and 40% DDGS; a commercial diet containing fishmeal was used as a reference diet. Glass aquaria (110 L) were stocked with Nile tilapia (mean weight = 6.7 g) with four replicates per diet. Weight gains, conversion ratios and hepatosomatic indices did not ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Tapioca Starch, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of tapioca starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Properties Of Solvent Extracted Low-Oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jennifer A. Saunders Jan 2009

Properties Of Solvent Extracted Low-Oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jennifer A. Saunders

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Corn-based ethanol is exponentially growing in the US, as is the need for valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Currently, DDGS is used as livestock feed, thereby replacing some corn components in animal diets. As the industry continues to grow, there will be an increased need to find additional uses for DDGS. Physical and chemical properties of coproduct streams are becoming increasingly investigated, as these characteristics affect many aspects of utilization, such as target species, optimal dietary substitution rates, transportation, flowability, and behavior during storage. Potential avenues for future use ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Potato Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of potato starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...


Design Properties For Molded, Corn-Based Ddgs-filled Phenolic Resin, R. A. Tatara, Kurt A. Rosentrater, S. Suraparaju Jan 2009

Design Properties For Molded, Corn-Based Ddgs-filled Phenolic Resin, R. A. Tatara, Kurt A. Rosentrater, S. Suraparaju

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the rapid growth in the ethanol fuel industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to maximizing the use of processing coproducts, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), typically for livestock diets. Because these residues contain high fiber levels, they may be amendable to incorporation into polymers as well, which is an option that could garner greater economic returns. Thus, the goal of this study was to demonstrate the viability of using corn-based DDGS as a biofiller with phenolic resin, in order to produce a novel biomaterial. DDGS was blended with phenolic resin at four levels ...


Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason Jan 2009

Effects Of Ingredients And Extrusion Parameters On Properties Of Aquafeeds Containing Ddgs And Corn Starch, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, S. Kannadhason

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Isocaloric (3.05 kcal g-1) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using 3 levels each of DDGS (20, 25 and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5 and 35% db) and feed moisture content (25, 35 and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of corn starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150 and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125 and 150°C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive analyses of physical ...