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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Flowability And Handling Characteristics Of Bulk Solids And Powders—A Review With Implications For Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Dec 2008

Flowability And Handling Characteristics Of Bulk Solids And Powders—A Review With Implications For Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Much research regarding handling and storage characteristics of bulk solids has been conducted over the years. Physical properties of granular solids play a significant role in their resulting storage and flow behaviour, and are therefore essential to design appropriate, efficient, and economic bulk solids handling and storage equipment and structures. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and non-ruminants for more than two decades. Distillers grains are energy and nutrient dense, and are often used as a replacement for corn in animal diets. With the exponential ...


Understanding Consumer Preference For Functional Barley Tortillas Through Sensory, Demographic, And Behavioral Data, Ayako Toma, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elizabeth A. Arndt, Naruemon Prasopsunwattana, Sutida Chongcham, Rolando A. Flores Nov 2008

Understanding Consumer Preference For Functional Barley Tortillas Through Sensory, Demographic, And Behavioral Data, Ayako Toma, Maria Botero Omary, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elizabeth A. Arndt, Naruemon Prasopsunwattana, Sutida Chongcham, Rolando A. Flores

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Consumption of whole grains as part of a health-promoting diet is encouraged among Americans due to beneficial nutrients and phytochemicals. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of whole barley flour particle size on consumer acceptance of whole grain and soluble fiber-enriched tortillas; to examine the effect of demographic and behavioral data on consumer acceptance; and to establish relationships between consumer acceptance and survey results to identify market opportunities among particular groups of consumers. Four experimental tortillas and two representative commercial brands were tested by 95 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale for appearance, color ...


Determination Of Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater Nov 2008

Determination Of Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various grades of this material. Three types of samples were studied: 100%, 75% and 50% phenolic samples. The milling operation was carried out with a fixed depth of cut of 2.0 mm using a 12.5 mm diameter two-fluted end-mill. The cutting speed was varied between 120 and 160 m/min at feeds between ...


No Evidence That Bacillus Thuringiensis Genes And Their Products Influence The Susceptibility Of Corn Residue To Decomposition, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater Nov 2008

No Evidence That Bacillus Thuringiensis Genes And Their Products Influence The Susceptibility Of Corn Residue To Decomposition, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The possibility that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn (Zea mays L.) residues resist decomposition compared to non-Bt residues would present direct (soil carbon turnover times) and indirect (changes in tillage practices) effects on carbon budgets in agricultural systems. We evaluated the relative decomposition of residue from two pairs of Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids from different seed manufacturers buried in the root zone of adjacent Bt and non-Bt corn plots over a period of 384 d. We found no persistent differences in residue decomposition among the different hybrids regardless of the seed manufacturer or the presence of the Bt genes (both ...


Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2008

Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flow of DDGS is often restricted by caking and bridging during its storage and transportation. In our previous works, the Carr powder tester was used to measure various flow properties of DDGS. The objective of this study was to measure the flow properties (cohesion, effective angle of friction, internal angle of ...


Improved Uses And Values For The Byproducts Of The Developing Biofuels Industry, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2008

Improved Uses And Values For The Byproducts Of The Developing Biofuels Industry, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

No abstract provided.


On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Klein Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2008

On The Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Klein Ileleji, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a complex heterogeneous granular solid that exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. This fact is one of the major reasons that livestock nutritionists often find it difficult to include it in their feed rations. The rapid growth of the corn ethanol industry, the primary generator of DDGS, has resulted in a huge influx of this product into the marketplace. Unfortunately, the lack of standard methods for product quality determination and reporting is becoming a bottleneck to expanding the market for this product. Challenges in the logistics of moving DDGS through ...


Effect Of Moisture Content And Soluble Level On The Physical, Chemical, And Flow Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2008

Effect Of Moisture Content And Soluble Level On The Physical, Chemical, And Flow Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a bulk material that has been widely used as a protein source for ruminants and nonruminants for more than two decades. DDGS is the nonfermentable processing residue (i.e., protein, fiber, fat, and ash) from fuel ethanol manufacturing. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities (≈13.0 million tons in 2007) of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these coproduct streams in the domestic market, DDGS must be transported greater distances and must be stored until final use. DDGS flow is ...


Not Just Informative, But Necessary: Infusing Green And Sustainable Topics Into Engineering And Technology Curricula, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar Jun 2008

Not Just Informative, But Necessary: Infusing Green And Sustainable Topics Into Engineering And Technology Curricula, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Generally accepted duties of engineers and technologists encompass designing and implementing solutions to problems. When so doing, it is their responsibility to be cognizant of the impacts of their designs on, and thus their accountability to, not only society in general, but also subsequent effects upon the environment. They need to be able to concurrently satisfy these competing needs, as well as constraints specific to the design challenges at hand. Responding to these requirements are the growing fields of green engineering and sustainable engineering. Both of these areas encompass many concepts, ideas, and tools, all of which are essential information ...


The Biomass Bandwagon: Three Ideas For Engineering And Technology Programs To Get Onboard, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser Jun 2008

The Biomass Bandwagon: Three Ideas For Engineering And Technology Programs To Get Onboard, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser

Kurt A. Rosentrater

As society demands more energy and material goods, engineers and technologists will be relied upon to design and implement systems to produce and deliver these. There is growing interest in using renewable resources to produce fuels, chemicals, and finished products to meet these increasing needs. Additionally, popularity is gaining, both in research as well as industry, in developing and commercializing biobased products. Within this arena, there are tremendous opportunities for teaching innovations as well. To date, very limited discussions at ASEE regarding these potentials have occurred. The goal of this paper is to discuss possibilities for augmenting engineering and technology ...


Effects Of Feed And Extruder Parameters On Extrudates Containing Ddgs, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2008

Effects Of Feed And Extruder Parameters On Extrudates Containing Ddgs, S. Kannadhason, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Twenty seven isocaloric (3.05 kcal/g) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25, and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5, and 35% db), and feed moisture content (25, 35, and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of cassava starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin, and mineral mix to produce a balanced diet for tilapia feed. The ingredient blends were extruded using a laboratory-scale single screw extruder with varying screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) and extruder barrel temperatures (100, 125, and 150 o C). The resulting extrudates were subjected to extensive ...


Surface Characteristics And Flowability Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2008

Surface Characteristics And Flowability Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With an annual production of approximately 6.5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol, and projected growth for the foreseeable future, supplies of coproducts such distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) are anticipated to continue to grow as well. DDGS is used primarily as livestock feed. Much of the DDGS must be shipped, often over large distances throughout the country, as much of the livestock (especially large dairies and feedlots) are outside the Corn Belt, where most of the ethanol plants are currently located. “Caking”, or stickiness, among particles is an important issue related to DDGS, especially when it leads to ...


Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown Jun 2008

Twin Screw Extrusion Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, S. Kannadhason, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Micahel L. Brown

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Six isocaloric (3.65 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (35% db protein), ingredient blends were prepared with 0, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27.5% DDGS and other common ingredients, including soybean meal, corn, fish meal, whey, soybean oil, and vitamin and mineral mix, in order to produce balanced rations appropriate for tilapia grower diets. The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, and then extruded in a pilot-scale twin screw extruder. The extrusion process was carried out using two processing conditions: a 2 mm die at 190 rpm (with temperatures ranging from 80 to 110 o C, depending on ...


Understanding And Modeling Flowability Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2008

Understanding And Modeling Flowability Of Ddgs, Rumela Bhadra, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the major coproduct from the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is primarily used as livestock feed. Due to high protein, fiber, and energy contents, there is a high demand for DDGS. Flowability of DDGS is often hindered due the phenomenon of “caking”. Shipping and handling of DDGS has thus become a major issue due to bridge formation between the DDGS particles. The objective of this investigation was to measure flowability characteristics of DDGS samples from five ethanol plants in the north central region of the U.S. Carr and Jenike tests were performed, and the ...


Raman Multiplexers For Alternative Gene Splicing, Lan Sun, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj May 2008

Raman Multiplexers For Alternative Gene Splicing, Lan Sun, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj

Chenxu Yu

Nonfluorescent labels were used for an array-format multiplex detection of alternative splice junctions of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A four-plex detection scheme using nonfluorescent labels was demonstrated for DNA sequences specific to four BRCA1 alternative splice variants:  Δ(11q) (the last 3309 nt deleted from exon 11), Δ(9, 10) (exon 9 and 10 deleted), Δ(5) (exon 5 deleted), and Δ(5q, 6) (the last 22 nt of exon 5 and the entire exon 6 is deleted). This is the first proof-of-concept study to apply SERS-based detection using nonfluorescent labels to investigate ...


Modeling The Effects Of Value-Added Processing And Logistics Using Arena, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar Mar 2008

Modeling The Effects Of Value-Added Processing And Logistics Using Arena, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Elif Kongar

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Scarcity and cost of nonrenewable fossil fuels have been a growing focus of many energy-dependent nations, including the U.S., for the past couple of decades. There are mainly two ways to approach these problems: (1) reducing the energy dependency and/or (2) developing alternative means of energy production. Utilizing biofuels, which are renewable sources of energy, is a promising way to produce energy. But, as this industry grows, so too does the quantity of byproducts, which are known as DDGS. This paper discusses a model that has been developed to analyze the economic viability of DDGS processing, and includes ...


Effect Of Ddgs, Moisture Content, And Screw Speed On Physical Properties Of Extrudates In Single-Screw Extrusion, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Mar 2008

Effect Of Ddgs, Moisture Content, And Screw Speed On Physical Properties Of Extrudates In Single-Screw Extrusion, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Three isocaloric (3.5 kcal/g) ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% (wb) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, and mineral and vitamin mix, with net protein adjusted to 28% (wb) for all blends, were extruded in a single-screw laboratory-scale extruder at screw speeds of 100, 130, and 160 rpm, and 15, 20, and 25% (wb) moisture content. Increasing DDGS content from 20 to 40% resulted in a 37.1, 3.1, and 8.4% decrease in extrudate durability, specific gravity, and porosity, respectively, but a 7.5% increase in bulk ...


Mycotoxins In Corn Distillers Grains: A Concern In Ruminants?, Alvaro Garcia, Kenneth Kalscheur, Arnold Hippen, David Schingoethe, Kurt A. Rosentrater Mar 2008

Mycotoxins In Corn Distillers Grains: A Concern In Ruminants?, Alvaro Garcia, Kenneth Kalscheur, Arnold Hippen, David Schingoethe, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Themain fungi that produce toxins during storage belong to three genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. When dealing with cattle diets, it is not easy to correlate the presence of mycotoxins to that of molds. The same types of molds can produce different types of toxins, and different types ofmolds can produce the samemycotoxin.


A Preliminary Assessment Of The State Of Harvest And Collection Technology For Forest Residues, Erin G. Wilkerson, D. Brad Blackwelder, Robert D. Perlack, David J. Muth, J. Richard Hess Feb 2008

A Preliminary Assessment Of The State Of Harvest And Collection Technology For Forest Residues, Erin G. Wilkerson, D. Brad Blackwelder, Robert D. Perlack, David J. Muth, J. Richard Hess

David J. Muth

To meet the “Twenty in Ten Initiative” goals set in the 2007 State of the Union address, forest resources will be needed as feedstocks for lignocellulosic ethanol production. It has been estimated that 368 million dry tons can be produced annually in the U.S. from logging residues and fuel treatment thinnings. Currently, very little of this woody biomass is used for energy production due to the costs and difficulty in collecting and transporting this material. However, minimizing biomass costs (including harvest, handling, transport, storage, and processing costs) delivered to the refinery is necessary to develop a sustainable cellulosic ethanol ...


No Differences In Decomposition Rates Observed Between Bacillus Thuringiensis And Non-Bacillus Thuringiensis Corn Residue Incubated In The Field, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2008

No Differences In Decomposition Rates Observed Between Bacillus Thuringiensis And Non-Bacillus Thuringiensis Corn Residue Incubated In The Field, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Recent speculation of slower residue decomposition for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids compared with non-Bt corn hybrids has prompted investigative study. We evaluated the residue decomposition rates of Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids over a period of 22 mo under field conditions using the litter bag technique. The four corn hybrids used were (i) DKC60–16 (Bt+, Cry1Ab protein active against the leptidopteran European corn borer, event MON810), (ii) DKC60–12 (Bt+, Cry3Bb1 protein active against the coleopteran corn rootworm, event MON863), (iii) DKC60–14 (stacked Bt++, Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 proteins) and, (iv) DKC60–15 (Bt−, base ...


Effect Of Flow Agent Addition On The Physical Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Moisture Content And Soluble Levels, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Vykundeshwari Ganesan Jan 2008

Effect Of Flow Agent Addition On The Physical Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Moisture Content And Soluble Levels, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Vykundeshwari Ganesan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds in the domestic market, these coproduct streams have to be transported greater distances, and must be stored in various structures until final use. Unfortunately, DDGS flow is often problematic, as it frequently becomes restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transport. This issue may arise from a number of factors, including storage moisture, temperature, relative ...


Determining Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Andrew W. Otieno, Pratyusha Melampati Jan 2008

Determining Machining Parameters Of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Andrew W. Otieno, Pratyusha Melampati

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various grades of this material. Three types of samples were studied: 100% (0% DDGS), 75% (25% DDGS), and 50% (50% DDGS) phenolic samples. The milling operation was carried out with a fixed depth of cut of 2.0 mm using a 12.5 mm diameter two-fluted end-mill. The cutting speed was varied ...


Physical And Chemical Properties Of Corn Distillers Wet Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. Michael Lehman Jan 2008

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Corn Distillers Wet Grains, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. Michael Lehman

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The production of corn-based ethanol in the United States is dramatically increasing, and consequently, so is the quantity of generated coproducts, all of which are currently fed to livestock. Distillers Wet Grain (DWG) is one of these coproduct feeds. Many studies have investigated the nutritional properties of DWG and the response of livestock (primarily beef and dairy) to inclusion of these ingredients in their diets. To date, physical properties have been largely ignored, but they are needed for the design of storage facilities and equipment. The objective of this research was to quantify physical and chemical property values for typical ...


Properties Of Distillers Grains Composites: A Preliminary Investigation, Vanessa Cheesbrough, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser Jan 2008

Properties Of Distillers Grains Composites: A Preliminary Investigation, Vanessa Cheesbrough, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jerry Visser

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viability of the industry. In light of these developments, this preliminary study aimed to determine the suitability of DDGS for use as a biofiller in low-cost composites that could be produced by rapid prototyping applications. The effects of DDGS content, particle size, curing temperature, and compression on resulting properties, such as flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, water activity ...


Potential Bleaching Techniques For Corn Distillers Grains, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, P. G. Krishnan Jan 2008

Potential Bleaching Techniques For Corn Distillers Grains, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, P. G. Krishnan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The ethanol industry is booming and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. The low starch, high protein and high fiber coproducts appear to be ideally suited for diets treating medical conditions such as diabetes and Celiac’s disease by virtue of their chemical composition. Processing methods need to be investigated to create flours that can be used effectively. Modifying aspects such as color, odor and baking functionality may ...


Concentration Of Key Elements In North American Meat & Bone Meal, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2008

Concentration Of Key Elements In North American Meat & Bone Meal, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Meat & bone meal (MBM) and related rendered protein commodities have potential for use in applications other than animal feed, including use as a fuel or a phosphorus fertilizer. In order to develop these applications, data on the elemental composition are required; the currently available elemental composition data have important limitations. To generate more appropriate and reliable data, MBM samples were collected from 17 North American rendering plants, carefully prepared and analyzed for 20 elements. Preliminary studies showed that the sample preparation process artificially increased levels of sulfur and nickel in a manner that was correctable. Concentrations of many elements were found to agree with previously published values, but concentrations of potassium, magnesium and copper were significantly different from the most authoritative reference. Concentrations of heavy metals tested for were low, and arsenic and cadmium were not detected in any sample ...