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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fate And Transport Of Pathogen Indicators From Pasturelands, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2007

Fate And Transport Of Pathogen Indicators From Pasturelands, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

The U.S. EPA has identified pathogen indicators as a leading cause of impairments in rivers and streams in the U.S. Elevated levels of bacteria in streams draining the agricultural watersheds cause concern because they indicate the potential presence of pathogenic organisms. Limited understanding of how bacteria survive in the environment and are released from fecal matter and transported along overland flow pathways results in high uncertainty in the design and selection of appropriate best management practices (BMPs) and in the bacterial fate and transport models used to identify sources of pathogens.

The overall goal of this study was ...


Dynamic Water Adsorption Characteristics Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Nov 2007

Dynamic Water Adsorption Characteristics Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is one of the coproducts obtained from dry-grind ethanol manufacturing. As the ethanol industry is growing exponentially, the production of DDGS has been significantly increasing as well. To optimize the use of DDGS, it has to be economically transported from one part of the country to other parts, and stored efficiently. But DDGS has some flow issues, which often makes storage and transportation very problematic. So the objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic water adsorption characteristics of DDGS with four soluble levels at four temperatures and four relative humidities. Three mathematical ...


Characterization Of Ddgs Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2007

Characterization Of Ddgs Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

DDGS is one of the main coproducts obtained from corn dry grind ethanol processing. Cake formation/agglomeration in DDGS has been recognized as a major problem in its flowability and long term storage. In our previous studies, the physical and flow properties of DDGS were investigated using the Carr powder tester and Jenike shear testing. In addition to those, the surface characteristics of DDGS are very important, as these properties will impact the resulting flow behavior of DDGS during storage, handling, and transportation. These types of properties, however, have not been determined for DDGS. As a first step toward that ...


Modeling The Flow Properties Of Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Oct 2007

Modeling The Flow Properties Of Ddgs, V. Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants. With the remarkable growth of the U.S. fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. DDGS flow is often restricted by caking and bridging during its storage and transportation. In our previous works, increased soluble and moisture levels significantly affected the flow properties of DDGS. Currently, however, there is no model available to predict the flowability of DDGS. So the objectives of this study were to thoroughly investigate the data obtained from our ...


Examining The Properties Of Deoiled Vs. Unmodified Ddgs, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Oct 2007

Examining The Properties Of Deoiled Vs. Unmodified Ddgs, Vyku Ganesan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent feed ingredient for ruminant livestock and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flowability of DDGS has become a problem throughout the industry, as it is often restricted by caking and bridging during storage and transportation. As DDGS contains modest levels of corn oil (typically between 3 and 13% db), some studies are being directed at removing the fat from DDGS, to improve the marketability of DDGS by ...


Towards An Understanding Of Ddgs Flowabilitycharacteristics, Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2007

Towards An Understanding Of Ddgs Flowabilitycharacteristics, Rumela Bhadra, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a major coproduct from the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is primarily used as livestock feed. Due to high protein, fiber, and energy contents, there is a high demand for DDGS. Flowability of DDGS is often hindered due the phenomenon of “caking”. Shipping and handling of DDGS has thus become a major issue due to bridge formation between the DDGS particles. The objective of this investigation was to measure flowability of DDGS samples from five ethanol plants in the north central region of the U.S. Carr and Jenike tests were performed, and the resulting ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Feed Blends Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Sep 2007

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Feed Blends Containing Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix, and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin-screw extruder. The properties of extrudates were studied in experiments conducted using a full-factorial design with three levels of DDGS content, two levels of moisture content, and two levels of screw speed. Increasing the DDGS content from 20 to 60% resulted in a 36.7% decrease in the radial expansion, leading to a 159 and 61.4% increase in the unit density and ...


Surface Modification Of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Capped Gold Nanorods To Make Molecular Probes, Chenxu Yu, Leo Varghese, Joseph Irudayaraj Aug 2007

Surface Modification Of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Capped Gold Nanorods To Make Molecular Probes, Chenxu Yu, Leo Varghese, Joseph Irudayaraj

Chenxu Yu

A chemical procedure to replace the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) cap on gold nanorods (GNRs) fabricated through seed-mediated growth with organothiol compounds [3-animo-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMTAZ) and 11-mercaptoundecaonic acid (MUDA)] was developed to reduce the cytotoxity of GNRs and facilitate further biofunctionalization. Compared to phosphatidylcholine (PC) modification, our procedure yields stable GNRs that are biocompatible and suitable for whole-cell studies. The PC-, AMTAZ-, and MUDA-activated GNRs all showed low cytotoxicity. By choosing different organothiols, net positive or negative charges could be created on the nanorod surface, for different applications. Gold nanorod molecular probes (GNrMPs) were fabricated by subsequent attachment of antibodies ...


Identity Profiling Of Cell Surface Markers By Multiplex Gold Nanorod Probes, Chenxu Yu, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Joseph Irudayaraj Aug 2007

Identity Profiling Of Cell Surface Markers By Multiplex Gold Nanorod Probes, Chenxu Yu, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Joseph Irudayaraj

Chenxu Yu

Gold nanorod molecular probes (GNrMPs) were designed and fabricated for multiplex identification of cell surface markers in HBECs. Cells were probed directly using dark field microscopy integrated with a spectral imager for simultaneous detection of up to three surface markers. The immunophenotype composition of these cell lines indicative of their metastasis potential was assessed using the GNrMPs. The technique has the potential to become an important tool for diagnosis and prognosis of breast and other cancers.


Temporal Variations In Gas And Odor Emissions From A Dairy Manure Storage Pond, Lingying Zhao, Matthew J. Darr, X. Wang, Roderick B. Manuzon, M. Brugger, E. Imerman, G. Arnold, H. Keener, Albert J. Heber Jun 2007

Temporal Variations In Gas And Odor Emissions From A Dairy Manure Storage Pond, Lingying Zhao, Matthew J. Darr, X. Wang, Roderick B. Manuzon, M. Brugger, E. Imerman, G. Arnold, H. Keener, Albert J. Heber

Matthew J. Darr

As dairy production evolves towards larger and more concentrated operations, air and water quality on and around dairy farms is becoming a significant concern. It is necessary to understand air emission temporal variations for development and implementation of effective abatement technologies and management practices. The objectives of this study were to understand temporal variations in H2S, NH3, and odor emissions from a dairy manure storage pond, the effects of manure characteristics and environmental conditions on gas emissions, and gas management need of dairy manure storage ponds. One representative Ohio dairy farm with a 675-cow free-stall barn and one outside earthen ...


Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Based Nonfluorescent Probe For Multiplex Dna Detection, Lan Sun, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj Jun 2007

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Based Nonfluorescent Probe For Multiplex Dna Detection, Lan Sun, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj

Chenxu Yu

To provide rapid and accurate detection of DNA markers in a straightforward, inexpensive, and multiplex format, an alternative surface-enhanced Raman scattering based probe was designed and fabricated to covalently attach both DNA probing sequence and nonfluorescent Raman tags to the surface of gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuP-RTag). The intensity of Raman signal of the probes could be controlled through the surface coverage of the nonfluorescent Raman tags (RTags). Detection sensitivity of these probes could be optimized by fine-tuning the amount of DNA molecules and RTags on the probes. Long-term stability of the DNA-AuP-RTag probes was found to be good (over 3 months ...


Physical Properties Of Extrudates Containing Distillers Grains Extruded In A Twin Screw Extruder, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jun 2007

Physical Properties Of Extrudates Containing Distillers Grains Extruded In A Twin Screw Extruder, Nehru Chevanan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of DDGS along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% in a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with experiments conducted in full factorial design with 3 levels of DDGS content, 2 levels of moisture content and 2 levels of screw speed were studied. Increasing the DDGS content from 20% to 60%, resulted in 36.7% decrease in the radial expansion leading to 159%, 61.4% increase in the unit density and bulk density of the extrudates. Increasing ...


Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson Jun 2007

Effect Of Die Dimensions On Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Ddgs-Based Aquaculture Feeds, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater, James L. Julson

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of die nozzle dimensions, barrel temperature profile, and moisture content on DDGS-based extrudate properties and extruder processing parameters. An ingredient blend containing 40% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, whey, mineral and vitamin mix, with a net protein content adjusted to 28% was extruded in a single-screw laboratory extruder using seven different die nozzles. Increasing moisture content of the ingredient mix from 15 to 25% resulted in a 2.0, 16.0, 16.3, 22.9, 18.5, 32.5, and 63 ...


Characterization Of Chemical And Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grain With Solubles (Ddgs) For Value Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Characterization Of Chemical And Physical Properties Of Distillers Dried Grain With Solubles (Ddgs) For Value Added Uses, Rumela Bhadra, K. Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

One of the fastest growing industries in the United States is the fuel ethanol industry. Since 2000 there has been an increase of more than 300%. There was production of 4.9 billion gallons of ethanol in 2006. The major coproducts from this industry include Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide. DDGS is used as a livestock feed since it contains high quantities of protein, fiber, amino acids, and other nutrients. The goal of this study was to quantify various chemical and physical properties of DDGS, Distillers Wet Grains (DWG), and Distillers Dried Grain (DDG) from several ...


Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Flour Milling Facilities. Part I: Planning, Structural, And Life Safety Considerations, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Flour Milling Facilities. Part I: Planning, Structural, And Life Safety Considerations, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the art design procedures for flour milling facilities constructed in the United States, an overview of accepted standards and procedures has been assembled and discussed. With this paper engineers should become more familiar with specific design considerations for flour milling production facilities and develop appropriate references to expand their knowledge base. Educators may find this paper useful too.


Neural Network And Regression Modeling Of Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Extrudates Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Neural Network And Regression Modeling Of Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Extrudates Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Two extrusion experiments using a single screw extruder were conducted with an ingredient blend containing 40% DDGS, along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, and mineral mix, with the net protein content adjusted to 28%. The variables controlled in the first experiment included 7 levels of die size, 3 levels of moisture content, 3 levels of temperature gradient in the barrel, and one screw speed. The variables altered in the second experiment included 3 levels of moisture content, 3 levels of temperature gradient in the barrel, 5 levels of screw speed, and one die size. Regression models ...


Modeling The Flow Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Modeling The Flow Properties Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, V. Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants, and are also used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. DDGS flow is often restricted by caking and bridging during its storage and transportation. In our previous works, it has been found that increased soluble and moisture levels significantly affected the flow properties of DDGS. Currently, however there is no model available to predict the flowability of DDGS. So, the ...


Physical Properties Of Low Oil Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Jessica A. Herr Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Physical Properties Of Low Oil Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Jessica A. Herr Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of nutrients, energy, and protein. Currently DDGS is sold by ethanol processors as livestock feed, thereby increasing profit for the production plants. As the industry continues to grow, there will be a growing need to find additional uses for DDGS. Physical and chemical properties of coproduct streams are becoming increasingly investigated, as these ...


The Strength Of Seeds And Their Destruction By Granivorous Insects, Jonathan G. Lundgren, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

The Strength Of Seeds And Their Destruction By Granivorous Insects, Jonathan G. Lundgren, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The influence of seed structure and strength on their destruction by granivores is central to understanding the dynamics of granivore-plant interactions. For up to nine seed species, the effects of seed size (cm3), mass (mg), density (mg/cm3) and coat strength (MPa) on the damage inflicted by three post-dispersal granivores (Harpalus pensylvanicus, Anisodactylus sanctaecrucis, and Gryllus pennsylvanicus) were evaluated. Seed destruction rates by G. pennsylvanicus were statistically unrelated to the size and toughness of the seeds. Seed densities significantly affected their destruction by A. sanctaecrucis and H. pensylvanicus, as did seed size, mass, and strength in H. pensylvanicus under choice ...


Quantifying Total And Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources In South Dakota, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Russell Persyn, Dennis Todey Jun 2007

Quantifying Total And Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources In South Dakota, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Russell Persyn, Dennis Todey

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Conversion of biomass is considered the next major advance in biorenewable fuels, energy, and products. Wholesale conversion to biomass utilization could result in removal of current crop residues from agricultural fields or even implementation of different crops and cropping strategies (i.e., switchgrass). To date, the driver for biomass processing has been economics and limitations on the conversion of the lignocellulose. Over the last forty years significant investments and resultant changes in management practices in the agricultural sector have focused on soil and water conservation. One of the major efforts has focused on conservation-till or no-till, with the goal of ...


Potential Bleaching Techniques For Use In Distillers Grains, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban G. Krishnan Jun 2007

Potential Bleaching Techniques For Use In Distillers Grains, Jessica A. Saunders, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Padmanaban G. Krishnan

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. previous research has shown promising avenues for the use of DDG and DDGS in human foods. The low starch, high protein and high fiber grains seem ideally suited for medical conditions such as diabetes and Celiac's disease. Processing methods need to be investigated to create functional flours that can be used effectively. Refining aspects such ...


Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jun 2007

Flow Properties Of Ddgs With Varying Soluble And Moisture Contents Using Jenike Shear Testing, Vykundeshwari Ganesan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants and are used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. Flow of DDGS is often restricted by caking and bridging during its storage and transportation. In our previous works, the Carr powder tester was used to measure various flow properties of DDGS. The objective of this study was to measure the flow properties (cohesion, effective angle of friction, internal angle of ...


Compression Molding Of Phenolic Resin And Corn-Based Ddgs Blends, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. A. Tatara, S. Suraparaju Apr 2007

Compression Molding Of Phenolic Resin And Corn-Based Ddgs Blends, Kurt A. Rosentrater, R. A. Tatara, S. Suraparaju

Kurt A. Rosentrater

With the rapid growth in the ethanol fuel industry in recent years, considerable research is being devoted to optimizing the use of processing coproducts, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in livestock diets. Because these residues contain high fiber levels, they may be amendable to incorporation into bio-based composites. Thus, the goal of this study was to demonstrate the viability of using corn-based DDGS as a biofiller with phenolic resin, in order to produce a novel biomaterial. DDGS was blended with phenolic resin at 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90%, by weight, and then compression molded at ...


Multiplex Biosensor Using Gold Nanorods, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj Jan 2007

Multiplex Biosensor Using Gold Nanorods, Chenxu Yu, Joseph Irudayaraj

Chenxu Yu

Gold nanorods (GNRs) with different aspect ratios were fabricated through seed-mediated growth and surface activation by alkanethiols for the attachment of antibodies to yield gold nanorod molecular probes (GNrMPs). Multiplex sensing was demonstrated by the distinct response of the plasmon spectra of the GNrMPs to binding events of three targets (goat anti-human IgG1 Fab, rabbit anti-mouse IgG1 Fab, rabbit anti-sheep IgG (H+L)). Plasmonic sensors are highly specific and sensitive and can be used to monitor refractive index changes caused by molecular interactions in their immediate vicinity with potential to achieve single-particle biosensing. This technique can play a key role ...


A New Course To Teach Microcontrollers And Embedded Networking To Biosystems And Agricultural Engineers, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, Richard S. Gates Jan 2007

A New Course To Teach Microcontrollers And Embedded Networking To Biosystems And Agricultural Engineers, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, Richard S. Gates

Matthew J. Darr

One of the fundamental skills required of biosystems and agricultural engineers is an ability to interact with systems that affect the production and processing of biological materials. This involves monitoring and controlling parameters within complex biological systems. Also, there is often a need to link multiple systems over a network to allow control and feedback data to be shared at several points. These monitoring systems and more sophisticated embedded networks are enhancing the ability of biosystems and agricultural engineers to solve problems by facilitating real-time data collection and enabling control actions. The use of microcontrollers in industry applications is growing ...


A Robust Sensor For Monitoring The Operational Status Of Agricultural Ventilation Fans, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Ji-Qin Ni, Christopher Gecik Jan 2007

A Robust Sensor For Monitoring The Operational Status Of Agricultural Ventilation Fans, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Ji-Qin Ni, Christopher Gecik

Matthew J. Darr

A new vibration sensor for monitoring the operational status of exhaust fans in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and other ventilated structures was developed and tested. The sensor utilizes integrated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (iMEMS) technology to accurately and reliably detect the vibration of agricultural fans, an indicator of fan operating status. When coupled with a sensor to measure pressure drop across the fan and an appropriate fan performance curve, the vibration sensor can enable the collection of real-time building ventilation airflow data. The sensor integrated an iMEMS accelerometer along with signal conditioning components to convert the cyclic acceleration signal ...


Neural Network And Regression Modeling Of Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Extrudates Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2007

Neural Network And Regression Modeling Of Extrusion Processing Parameters And Properties Of Extrudates Containing Ddgs, Nehru Chevanan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Two sets of experiments using a single-screw extruder were conducted with an ingredient blend containing 40% DDGS (distillers dried grains with solubles), along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, and mineral mix, with the net protein content adjusted to 28%. The variables controlled in the first experiment included seven levels of die size, three levels of moisture content, three levels of temperature gradient in the barrel, and one screw speed. The variables altered in the second experiment included three levels of moisture content, three levels of temperature gradient in the barrel, five levels of screw speed, and ...


A Prototype Acid Spray Scrubber For Absorbing Ammonia Emissions From Exhaust Fans Of Animal Buildings, Roderick B. Manuzon, Lingying Yang, Harold M. Keener, Matthew J. Darr Jan 2007

A Prototype Acid Spray Scrubber For Absorbing Ammonia Emissions From Exhaust Fans Of Animal Buildings, Roderick B. Manuzon, Lingying Yang, Harold M. Keener, Matthew J. Darr

Matthew J. Darr

Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal production buildings has been a challenge because of the large volume of low NH3 concentration laden air being released. Among emission mitigation technologies for concentrated animal feeding operations, acid spray scrubbers have the greatest potential for adaptation to the existing large animal facilities because of their lower fan airflow reduction, ability to simultaneously remove particulate and gaseous pollutants, and viability for zero or less waste generation by recycling effluents as liquid fertilizer. A multi-stage wet scrubber prototype that can be operated with a maximum of three stages was developed and optimized for reducing ...


Microbial Development In Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production From Corn (Zea Mays), R. Michael Lehman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2007

Microbial Development In Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production From Corn (Zea Mays), R. Michael Lehman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable ...


Implementation Of Controller Area Networks For Monitoring Of Animal Environments, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. Reza Ehsani Jan 2007

Implementation Of Controller Area Networks For Monitoring Of Animal Environments, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. Reza Ehsani

Matthew J. Darr

Livestock and poultry industries play an important role in the food supply and economy of US agriculture. To meet the growing demand for food and to be economically competitive, animal production over the past decade has grown toward confined, highly concentrated, and large-scale facilities. While structural development and facility mechanization have enabled housing the growing number of livestock, environmental sensing and control have not seen similar growth. Scientific data on indoor environment control, air emissions, and effectiveness of mitigation technologies are limited but urgently needed. Measurement technology has been a limiting factor in the acquisition of sufficient data. Research is ...