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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Liquid Dairy Waste Transport And Land Application Cost Comparisons Considering Herd Size, Transport Distance, And Nitrogen Versus Phosphorus Application Rates, Robert T. Burns, A. S. Daugherty, T. L. Cross, D. Raj Raman, G. F. Grandle Jul 2001

Liquid Dairy Waste Transport And Land Application Cost Comparisons Considering Herd Size, Transport Distance, And Nitrogen Versus Phosphorus Application Rates, Robert T. Burns, A. S. Daugherty, T. L. Cross, D. Raj Raman, G. F. Grandle

D. Raj Raman

This study provides cost comparisons for the transport and application of dairy waste slurries based on both phosphorus and nitrogen application rates. Estimated cost comparisons are made for several commonly used systems for dairy waste transport and application. Five dairy sizes ranging from 50 to 2,000 cows using 13 transport and application systems were evaluated. For each dairy size, the costs associated with the transport and application system combinations were determined for transport distances of 0.5, 1.5, and 4.5 miles for both nitrogen and phosphorus-based application rates. Total annual system cost, cost per acre, cost per ...


Incidence Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes , And Salmonella Species On A Tennessee Dairy Farm, T. L. Ervin, R. E. Yoder, F. A. Draughon, Robert T. Burns, D. Raj Raman Jul 2001

Incidence Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes , And Salmonella Species On A Tennessee Dairy Farm, T. L. Ervin, R. E. Yoder, F. A. Draughon, Robert T. Burns, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

In response to public awareness of foodborne pathogens due to recent outbreaks of illness, a study was conducted on the incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella species on a dairy farm in middle Tennessee. Sampling locations included water samples from up- and down-stream in a creek running through the farm, free stall bedding, silage, separator liquids, separator solids, pumped liquid from a holding pond, feed, and bulk tank milk. Three samples were taken monthly at each location for 12 months. These samples were tested to determine the incidence of pathogens on the dairy farm and to ...


Air Sampling With Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Fabio Augusto, Janusz Pawliszyn Jan 2001

Air Sampling With Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Fabio Augusto, Janusz Pawliszyn

Jacek A. Koziel

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) presents many advantages over conventional analytical methods by combining sampling, pre-concentration and direct transfer of the VOCs into a standard gas chromatography (GC) system. Since its introduction SPME has been applied to the sampling and analysis of environmental samples including airborne VOCs and particulates. The first part of this paper presents theory of air sampling with SPME and an overview of the a few current methods for quantitative air sampling and VOC determination with SPME using grab (‘instantaneous”) and time-weighted average (TWA) modes. The second part of this paper is focused on the recent development of ...


Determination Of 17ß-Estradiol Concentrations In Runoff From Plots Receiving Dairy Manure, A. R. Dyer, D. Raj Raman, M. D. Mullen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, A. C. Layton Jan 2001

Determination Of 17ß-Estradiol Concentrations In Runoff From Plots Receiving Dairy Manure, A. R. Dyer, D. Raj Raman, M. D. Mullen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, A. C. Layton

D. Raj Raman

Because of growing concern about estrogenic compounds in animal wastes, the objective of this research was to measure 17 ß -estradiol concentrations in runoff from plots fertilized with liquid dairy waste. Nine plots were established at The University of Tennessee Dairy Experiment Station located at Lewisburg, Tennessee, and dairy manure was applied to six of the nine plots. Three of the plots received manure at a rate sufficient to meet the nitrogen (N) requirement for winter wheat; three received manure at a rate sufficient to meet the phosphorus (P) requirement for winter wheat, and three received no manure. Runoff samples ...


Enhancing Dairy Lagoon Performance With High-Rate Anaerobic Digesters, Gary L. Hawkins, D. Raj Raman, Robert T. Burns, Ronald E. Yoder, Tim L. Cross Jan 2001

Enhancing Dairy Lagoon Performance With High-Rate Anaerobic Digesters, Gary L. Hawkins, D. Raj Raman, Robert T. Burns, Ronald E. Yoder, Tim L. Cross

D. Raj Raman

In a two–stage study, the possibility of using high–rate anaerobic digesters to enhance the performance of dairy lagoons was explored. Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) and four downflow anaerobic filters (DFAF) were tested, with two of each type operated at 25C, and the other two at 35C. The first stage of the experiment explored using the high–rate digesters on liquid effluent from a screw–press treating dairy manure slurry. The first–stage experiment demonstrated that settling processes, rather than biodegradation, accounted for most of the organic matter reduction in both reactor types, when operated at a ...


Evaluation Of Fabric Swatch Types For Relative Odor Intensity At Beef Cattle Feedyards, Sean D. See, David B. Parker, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel, John Sweeten Jan 2001

Evaluation Of Fabric Swatch Types For Relative Odor Intensity At Beef Cattle Feedyards, Sean D. See, David B. Parker, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel, John Sweeten

Jacek A. Koziel

A research project was conducted to determine which type of fabric swatch was best suited for on-site sampling of odor intensity at open-lot beef cattle feeding operations. Five different types of fabric were tested: cotton flannel, cotton muslin, acetate, polyester and polyester felt. Square swatches (20 × 20 cm) were suspended 1 m above the ground surface downwind of cattle pens for 24 hours. The swatches were placed in glass jars and presented to 8-10 human panelists who were asked to rank the swatches based on relative odor intensity. Five trials were conducted at 3 feedyards. Sums of ranks and Spearman ...


Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns Dec 2000

Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns

Gary S. Sayler

Manure–borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample–handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas–chromatography mass–spectroscopy (GC–MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC–MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17β–estradiol concentrations were one–third of the estrone concentration ...


Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns Dec 2000

Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns

D. Raj Raman

Manure–borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample–handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas–chromatography mass–spectroscopy (GC–MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC–MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17β–estradiol concentrations were one–third of the estrone concentration ...