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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Temporal Variations In Gas And Odor Emissions From A Dairy Manure Storage Pond, Lingying Zhao, Matthew J. Darr, X. Wang, Roderick B. Manuzon, M. Brugger, E. Imerman, G. Arnold, H. Keener, Albert J. Heber Jun 2007

Temporal Variations In Gas And Odor Emissions From A Dairy Manure Storage Pond, Lingying Zhao, Matthew J. Darr, X. Wang, Roderick B. Manuzon, M. Brugger, E. Imerman, G. Arnold, H. Keener, Albert J. Heber

Matthew J. Darr

As dairy production evolves towards larger and more concentrated operations, air and water quality on and around dairy farms is becoming a significant concern. It is necessary to understand air emission temporal variations for development and implementation of effective abatement technologies and management practices. The objectives of this study were to understand temporal variations in H2S, NH3, and odor emissions from a dairy manure storage pond, the effects of manure characteristics and environmental conditions on gas emissions, and gas management need of dairy manure storage ponds. One representative Ohio dairy farm with a 675-cow free-stall barn and one outside earthen ...


A New Course To Teach Microcontrollers And Embedded Networking To Biosystems And Agricultural Engineers, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, Richard S. Gates Jan 2007

A New Course To Teach Microcontrollers And Embedded Networking To Biosystems And Agricultural Engineers, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, Richard S. Gates

Matthew J. Darr

One of the fundamental skills required of biosystems and agricultural engineers is an ability to interact with systems that affect the production and processing of biological materials. This involves monitoring and controlling parameters within complex biological systems. Also, there is often a need to link multiple systems over a network to allow control and feedback data to be shared at several points. These monitoring systems and more sophisticated embedded networks are enhancing the ability of biosystems and agricultural engineers to solve problems by facilitating real-time data collection and enabling control actions. The use of microcontrollers in industry applications is growing ...


A Robust Sensor For Monitoring The Operational Status Of Agricultural Ventilation Fans, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Ji-Qin Ni, Christopher Gecik Jan 2007

A Robust Sensor For Monitoring The Operational Status Of Agricultural Ventilation Fans, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Ji-Qin Ni, Christopher Gecik

Matthew J. Darr

A new vibration sensor for monitoring the operational status of exhaust fans in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and other ventilated structures was developed and tested. The sensor utilizes integrated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (iMEMS) technology to accurately and reliably detect the vibration of agricultural fans, an indicator of fan operating status. When coupled with a sensor to measure pressure drop across the fan and an appropriate fan performance curve, the vibration sensor can enable the collection of real-time building ventilation airflow data. The sensor integrated an iMEMS accelerometer along with signal conditioning components to convert the cyclic acceleration signal ...


A Prototype Acid Spray Scrubber For Absorbing Ammonia Emissions From Exhaust Fans Of Animal Buildings, Roderick B. Manuzon, Lingying Yang, Harold M. Keener, Matthew J. Darr Jan 2007

A Prototype Acid Spray Scrubber For Absorbing Ammonia Emissions From Exhaust Fans Of Animal Buildings, Roderick B. Manuzon, Lingying Yang, Harold M. Keener, Matthew J. Darr

Matthew J. Darr

Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal production buildings has been a challenge because of the large volume of low NH3 concentration laden air being released. Among emission mitigation technologies for concentrated animal feeding operations, acid spray scrubbers have the greatest potential for adaptation to the existing large animal facilities because of their lower fan airflow reduction, ability to simultaneously remove particulate and gaseous pollutants, and viability for zero or less waste generation by recycling effluents as liquid fertilizer. A multi-stage wet scrubber prototype that can be operated with a maximum of three stages was developed and optimized for reducing ...


Implementation Of Controller Area Networks For Monitoring Of Animal Environments, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. Reza Ehsani Jan 2007

Implementation Of Controller Area Networks For Monitoring Of Animal Environments, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. Reza Ehsani

Matthew J. Darr

Livestock and poultry industries play an important role in the food supply and economy of US agriculture. To meet the growing demand for food and to be economically competitive, animal production over the past decade has grown toward confined, highly concentrated, and large-scale facilities. While structural development and facility mechanization have enabled housing the growing number of livestock, environmental sensing and control have not seen similar growth. Scientific data on indoor environment control, air emissions, and effectiveness of mitigation technologies are limited but urgently needed. Measurement technology has been a limiting factor in the acquisition of sufficient data. Research is ...


Improved Sensor For Agricultural Ventilation Fan Monitoring, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Christopher Gecik, Ji-Qin Ni Jul 2006

Improved Sensor For Agricultural Ventilation Fan Monitoring, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, Christopher Gecik, Ji-Qin Ni

Matthew J. Darr

A new sensor for monitoring the continuous operation of exhaust fans in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) was developed and tested. The sensor relies on integrated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (iMEMS) technology to accurately and reliably detect vibration on the external hood of agricultural fans, caused by the rotation of the fan blade. When coupled with a sensor to measure pressure drop across the fan and an appropriate fan curve, the vibration sensor can enable real-time fan specific collection of emission data from animal housing structures.The sensor integrated an iMEMS accelerometer along with various signal conditioning components to convert ...


Evaluation Of Controller Area Network Data Collection System In Confined Animal Feeding Operations, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. R. Ehsani, J. K. Ward, T. S. Stombaugh May 2005

Evaluation Of Controller Area Network Data Collection System In Confined Animal Feeding Operations, Matthew J. Darr, Lingying Zhao, M. R. Ehsani, J. K. Ward, T. S. Stombaugh

Matthew J. Darr

Livestock and poultry industries play an important role in the food supply and economy of US agriculturalists. Current and historical trends show that the number of animals housed in individual facilities continues to grow on a yearly basis. While design improvements have enabled structures to physically house the growing number of livestock, a new problem exists in maintaining a safe indoor environment due to the increases in animal waste production. The Environmental Protection Agency is also beginning to enforce regulations to limit the daily emission rate of specific gases and odors associated with animal production. Research is needed to identify ...


Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Sherer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh Jan 2005

Rate Response Assessment From Various Granular Vrt Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Sherer, Stephen F. Higgins, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh

Matthew J. Darr

Variable-rate technology (VRT) adds complexity to application equipment, thereby confounding the assessment of applicator performance. The intent of this investigation was to assess the rate response of various VRT granular applicators: two spinner spreaders (A and B), and two pneumatic applicators (C and D). Variable-rate (VR) tests were conducted to quantify the rate response characteristics (delay and transition times) for the applicators. A sigmoidal function was used to model the rate response for five of the six tests. Applicator A exhibited a linear response during decreasing rate changes. Results indicated that only applicator B demonstrated consistent delay and transition times ...


Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timotthy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer Jan 2005

Controller Area Network Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timotthy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer

Matthew J. Darr

The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential of a controller area network (CAN bus) to be used as the communication network for a distributed control system on an autonomous agricultural vehicle. The prototype system utilized microcontroller-driven nodes to act as control points along a CAN bus. Messages were transferred to the steering, transmission, and hitch control nodes via a task computer. The task computer utilized global positioning system data to generate appropriate control commands. Laboratory and field testing demonstrated that each of the control nodes could function simultaneously over the CAN bus. Results showed that the task ...


Can-Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, John P. Fulton Aug 2004

Can-Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, John P. Fulton

Matthew J. Darr

Through the work of researchers and the development of commercially available products, automated guidance has become a viable option for agricultural producers. One limiting factor of many commercially available technologies is that they only automate one function of an agricultural vehicle and that their control systems are proprietary to a single machine model.The objective of this project was to evaluate a controller area network (CAN bus) as the basis of an automated agricultural vehicle. The prototype system utilized several microcontroller-driven nodes to act as control points along a system wide CAN bus. Messages were transferred to the steering, transmission ...


Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins Aug 2004

Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins

Matthew J. Darr

Granular applicators equipped with variable-rate technology have gained popularity in recent years due to increased interests in variable-rate application. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize distribution patterns at varying rates and quantify rate transitions from various granular applicators. Both uniform- and variable-rate tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of variable-rate application from four granular applicators (2 spinner spreaders and 2 pneumatic applicators). The patterns results indicated a consistent triangular pattern for spinner spreader B and consistent patterns for pneumatic applicators C and D. However, applicator D produced pattern variations at the center and right side. Simulated overlap ...


Development Of A Controller Area Network Based Handheld Data Acquisition System For Identity Preservation, Matthew J. Darr, Jason Kellam Ward, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Michael D. Montross Jul 2003

Development Of A Controller Area Network Based Handheld Data Acquisition System For Identity Preservation, Matthew J. Darr, Jason Kellam Ward, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Michael D. Montross

Matthew J. Darr

The development of a diverse, modular and portable system to accurately measure and record field operations is required to effectively bring identity preservation of crops to all farms and farmers. A demonstration system has been built based on a worldwide standard communications protocol and was evaluated for its ability to efficiently measure a variety of field operations and management practices. The CAN Bus 2.0B communication protocol was used to record GPS location data, ground speed and simulated spraying system data. This data was compiled and stored in a form that was compatible with multiple software programs for the purposes ...