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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Crop Rotation Effects On N03-N Leaching And Corn Yields Under Manure Management Practices, R. S. Kanwar, D. L. Karlen, C. A. Cambardella, C. Pederson Aug 2019

Crop Rotation Effects On N03-N Leaching And Corn Yields Under Manure Management Practices, R. S. Kanwar, D. L. Karlen, C. A. Cambardella, C. Pederson

Douglas L Karlen

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First, manure from swine production facilities can have serious impacts on the quality of surface and ground water resources. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, pollution of water resources from nutrients supplied by manure to croplands will set parameters for developing public policies on the management of manure.


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers Aug 2019

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Douglas L Karlen

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


N-Management And Crop Rotation Effects On Yield And Residual Soil Nitrate Levels, A. Bakhsh, R. S. Kanwar, D. L. Karlen, C. A. Cambardella, T. B. Bailey, T. B. Moorman, T. S. Colvin Jun 2017

N-Management And Crop Rotation Effects On Yield And Residual Soil Nitrate Levels, A. Bakhsh, R. S. Kanwar, D. L. Karlen, C. A. Cambardella, T. B. Bailey, T. B. Moorman, T. S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

Swine production facilities are becoming more concentrated in Iowa, and public is concerned about the impact of using swine manure for crop production on soil and water quality. This field study was conducted from 1996 to 1998 to compare the effects of liquid swine manure and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) application on crop yield and residual soil nitrate for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation systems. Six N management treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design at Iowa State University's northeastern research center in Nashua, Iowa. Injected UAN provided ...


Engineering, Nutrient Removal, And Feedstock Conversion Evaluations Of Four Corn Stover Harvest Scenarios, Reed L. Hoskinson, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Corey W. Radtke, W. W. Wilhelm Dec 2015

Engineering, Nutrient Removal, And Feedstock Conversion Evaluations Of Four Corn Stover Harvest Scenarios, Reed L. Hoskinson, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Corey W. Radtke, W. W. Wilhelm

Douglas L Karlen

Crop residue has been identified as a near-term source of biomass for renewable fuel, heat, power, chemicals and other bio-materials. A prototype one-pass harvest system was used to collect residue samples from a corn (Zea mays L.) field near Ames, IA. Four harvest scenarios (low cut, high-cut top, high-cut bottom, and normal cut) were evaluated and are expressed as collected stover harvest indices (CSHI). High-cut top and high-cut bottom samples were obtained from the same plot in separate operations. Chemical composition, dilute acid pretreatment response, ethanol conversion yield and efficiency, and thermochemical conversion for each scenario were determined. Mean grain ...


Challenges Of Managing Liquid Swine Manure, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Dec 2015

Challenges Of Managing Liquid Swine Manure, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Douglas L Karlen

Liquid swine manure can be a resource for providing essential plant nutrients and building soil resources, but its management for maximum productivity with minimum environmental impact is often very difficult. Failure to understand the challenges may result in expectations or even regulations that are impossible to achieve. Our objective is to provide producers and policy makers with information regarding agronomic and environmental challenges of liquid swine manure management based on results from a 6-year study with continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and a corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in Iowa. Challenges that we encountered are openly discussed to increase ...


Influence Of Corn Stover Harvest On Soil Quality Assessments At Multiple Locations Across The U.S., Diane E. Stott, Virginia L. Jin, Thomas F. Ducey, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell Dec 2015

Influence Of Corn Stover Harvest On Soil Quality Assessments At Multiple Locations Across The U.S., Diane E. Stott, Virginia L. Jin, Thomas F. Ducey, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell

Douglas L Karlen

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a biofuel feedstock due to its abundance and a perception that the residues are unused trash material. However, corn stover and other plant residues play a role in maintaining soil quality (health) and enhancing productivity, thus use of this abundant material as feedstock must be balanced with the need to protect the vital soil resource. Plant residues provide physical protection against erosion by wind and water, contribute to soil structure, nutrient cycling, and help sustain the soil microbiota. Replicated plots were established on productive soils at several locations (IA, IN, MN ...


Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, David A. Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt Dec 2015

Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, David A. Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt

Douglas L Karlen

Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus ×giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for ...


Multilocation Corn Stover Harvest Effects On Crop Yields And Nutrient Removal, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger Dec 2015

Multilocation Corn Stover Harvest Effects On Crop Yields And Nutrient Removal, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger

Douglas L Karlen

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover was identified as an important feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production because of the extensive area upon which the crop is already grown. This report summarizes 239 site-years of field research examining effects of zero, moderate, and high stover removal rates at 36 sites in seven different states. Grain and stover yields from all sites as well as N, P, and K removal from 28 sites are summarized for nine longitude and six latitude bands, two tillage practices (conventional vs no tillage), two stover-harvest methods (machine vs calculated), and two crop rotations {continuous corn (maize) vs ...


U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply For A Bioenergy And Bioproducts Industry, Robert D. Perlack, Laurence M. Eaton, Anthony F. Turhollow Jr., Matt H. Langholtz, Craig C. Brandt, Mark E. Downing, Robin L. Graham, Lynn L. Wright, Jacob M. Kavkewitz, Anna M. Shamey, Richard G. Nelson, Bryce J. Stokes, William L. Rooney, David J. Muth Jr., J. Richard Hess, Jared M. Abodeely, Chad Hellwinckel, Danial De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel C. Yoder, James P. Lyon, Timothy G. Rials, Timothy A. Volk, Thomas S. Buchholz, Lawrence P. Abrahamson, Robert P. Anex, Thomas B. Voigt, William Berguson, Don E. Riemenschneider, Douglas Karlen, Jane M. F. Johnson, Robert B. Mitchell, Kenneth P. Vogel, Edward P. Richard Jr., John Tatarko, Larry E. Wagner, Kenneth E. Skog, Patricia K. Lebow, Dennis P. Dykstra, Marilyn A. Buford, Patrick D. Miles, D. Andrew Scott, James H. Perdue, Robert B. Rummer, Jamie Barbour, John A. Stanturf, David B. Mckeever, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr., Edmund A. Gee, P. Daniel Cassidy, David Lightle Dec 2015

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply For A Bioenergy And Bioproducts Industry, Robert D. Perlack, Laurence M. Eaton, Anthony F. Turhollow Jr., Matt H. Langholtz, Craig C. Brandt, Mark E. Downing, Robin L. Graham, Lynn L. Wright, Jacob M. Kavkewitz, Anna M. Shamey, Richard G. Nelson, Bryce J. Stokes, William L. Rooney, David J. Muth Jr., J. Richard Hess, Jared M. Abodeely, Chad Hellwinckel, Danial De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel C. Yoder, James P. Lyon, Timothy G. Rials, Timothy A. Volk, Thomas S. Buchholz, Lawrence P. Abrahamson, Robert P. Anex, Thomas B. Voigt, William Berguson, Don E. Riemenschneider, Douglas Karlen, Jane M. F. Johnson, Robert B. Mitchell, Kenneth P. Vogel, Edward P. Richard Jr., John Tatarko, Larry E. Wagner, Kenneth E. Skog, Patricia K. Lebow, Dennis P. Dykstra, Marilyn A. Buford, Patrick D. Miles, D. Andrew Scott, James H. Perdue, Robert B. Rummer, Jamie Barbour, John A. Stanturf, David B. Mckeever, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr., Edmund A. Gee, P. Daniel Cassidy, David Lightle

Douglas L Karlen

The Report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of “potential” biomass within the contiguous United States based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory and production capacity, availability, and technology. In the 2005 BTS, a strategic analysis was undertaken to determine if U.S. agriculture and forest resources have the capability to potentially produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, in a sustainable manner—enough to displace approximately 30% of the country ...


Simulating Management Effects On Crop Production, Tile Drainage, And Water Quality Using Rzwqm–Dssat, S. A. Saseendran, Liwang Ma, Robert W. Malone, Philip Heilman, Lajpat R. Ahuja, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Douglas L. Karlen, G. Hoogenboom Dec 2015

Simulating Management Effects On Crop Production, Tile Drainage, And Water Quality Using Rzwqm–Dssat, S. A. Saseendran, Liwang Ma, Robert W. Malone, Philip Heilman, Lajpat R. Ahuja, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Douglas L. Karlen, G. Hoogenboom

Douglas L Karlen

The objective of this study was to explore if more crop-specific plant growth modules can improve simulations of crop yields, and N in tile flow under different management practices compared with a generic plant growth module. We calibrated and evaluated the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) with the Decision Support for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v3.5) plant growth modules (RZWQM–DSSAT) for simulating tillage (NT — no till, RT — ridge till, CP — chisel plow, and MP — moldboard plow), crop rotation {CC — continuous corn, and CS — corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]}, and nitrogen (N) (SA — single application ...


Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Impacts Of Swine Manure Application And Alternative N-Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas Moorman, Thomas R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

In the fourth year of this ongoing project, the effects of nine N-management practices under different tillage and cropping systems were evaluated. Forty experimental plots equipped with individual sumps and subsurface drainage metering and monitoring devices were used for the study. Overall results indicate that manure application rates and methods can be successfully managed for corn-soybean systems without damaging the water quality if the appropriate amount of N from swine manure can be applied.


Corn Grain, Stover Yield And Nutrient Removal Validations At Regional Partnership Sites, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger Dec 2015

Corn Grain, Stover Yield And Nutrient Removal Validations At Regional Partnership Sites, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Jane M. F. Johnson, Shannon L. Osborne, Thomas E. Schumacher, Gary E. Varvel, Richard B. Ferguson, Jeff M. Novak, James R. Fredrick, John M. Baker, John A. Lamb, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Emerson D. Nafziger

Douglas L Karlen

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a major feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy. This report summarizes grain and stover yield as well as N, P, and K removal at several Sun Grant Regional Partnership (SGRP) sites. National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) grain yields were used to assess the relevancy of plot-scale yields with county averages. Seasonal variation in weather patterns caused yields to differ substantially among sites and years. Nutrient removal estimates were significantly influenced by the sampling method (i.e. analysis of hand samples between physiologic maturity and grain harvest versus stover collected during the harvest operation ...


Evaluating And Predicting Agricultural Management Effects Under Tile Drainage Using Modified Apsim, Robert W. Malone, N. Huth, P. S. Carberry, Liwang Ma, Thomas C. Kaspar, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Philip Heilman Dec 2015

Evaluating And Predicting Agricultural Management Effects Under Tile Drainage Using Modified Apsim, Robert W. Malone, N. Huth, P. S. Carberry, Liwang Ma, Thomas C. Kaspar, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Philip Heilman

Douglas L Karlen

An accurate and management sensitive simulation model for tile-drained Midwestern soils is needed to optimize the use of agricultural management practices (e.g., winter cover crops) to reduce nitrate leaching without adversely affecting corn yield. Our objectives were to enhance the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) for tile drainage, test the modified model for several management scenarios, and then predict nitrate leaching with and without winter wheat cover crop. Twelve years of data (1990–2001) from northeast Iowa were used for model testing. Management scenarios included continuous corn and corn–soybean rotations with single or split N applications. For 38 ...


Effects Of Liquid Swine Manure Applications On No3–N Leaching Losses To Subsurface Drainage Water From Loamy Soils In Iowa, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen Dec 2015

Effects Of Liquid Swine Manure Applications On No3–N Leaching Losses To Subsurface Drainage Water From Loamy Soils In Iowa, Allah Bakhsh, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Long-term applications of organic or inorganic sources of N to croplands can increase the leaching potential of nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N) for soils underlain by subsurface drainage “tile” network. A field study was conducted for 6 years (1993–1998) to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution fertilizer applications on NO3–N concentrations and NO3–N losses with subsurface drainage water under continuous corn (Zea maize L.) and corn after soybean (Glycine max. L.) production systems. The field data collected at Iowa State University's northeastern research center near Nashua, Iowa ...


Twelve‐Year Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Yields And Soil Chemical Properties In Northeast Iowa, Douglas L. Karlen, Elaine C. Berry, Thomas S. Colvin, Ramesh S. Kanwar Dec 2015

Twelve‐Year Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Yields And Soil Chemical Properties In Northeast Iowa, Douglas L. Karlen, Elaine C. Berry, Thomas S. Colvin, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Douglas L Karlen

Long‐term tillage and crop management studies may be useful for determining crop production practices that are conducive to securing a sustainable agriculture. Objectives of this field study were to evaluate the combined effects of crop rotation and tillage practices on yield and changes in soil chemical properties after 12 years of research on the Clyde‐Kenyon‐Floyd soil association in northeastern Iowa. Continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and a corn‐soybean [Glycine max L. (Herr.)] rotation were grown using moldboard plowing, chisel plowing, ridge‐tillage, or no‐tillage methods. Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil pH, Bray P1 ...


Corn Stover Harvest Strategy Effects On Grain Yield And Soil Quality Indicators, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Adam Wirt, Nathan Schock Dec 2015

Corn Stover Harvest Strategy Effects On Grain Yield And Soil Quality Indicators, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, Adam Wirt, Nathan Schock

Douglas L Karlen

The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to determine which would be most sustainable. A complete block design with 2 ha plots, each replicated three times, was imposed on a 50 ha (125 acre) Clarion-Nicollet- Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, U.S.A. before harvesting the 2008 corn crop. Hand samples were collected from a 1.5 m2 area in each ...


Development Of Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies For Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Stuart J. Birrell, Douglas L. Karlen, Adam Wirt Dec 2015

Development Of Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies For Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Stuart J. Birrell, Douglas L. Karlen, Adam Wirt

Douglas L Karlen

To prepare for a 2014 launch of commercial scale cellulosic ethanol production from corn/maize (Zea mays L.) stover, POET-DSM near Emmetsburg, IA has been working with farmers, researchers, and equipment dealers through “Project Liberty” on harvest, transportation, and storage logistics of corn stover for the past several years. Our objective was to evaluate seven stover harvest strategies within a 50-ha (125 acres) site on very deep, moderately well to poorly drained Mollisols, developed in calcareous glacial till. The treatments included the following: conventional grain harvest (no stover harvest), grain plus a second-pass rake and bale stover harvest, and single-pass ...


Monitoring Soil Quality To Assess The Sustainability Of Harvesting Corn Stover, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell Dec 2015

Monitoring Soil Quality To Assess The Sustainability Of Harvesting Corn Stover, Douglas L. Karlen, Gary E. Varvel, Jane M. F. Johnson, John M. Baker, Shannon L. Osborne, Jeff M. Novak, Paul R. Adler, Greg W. Roth, Stuart J. Birrell

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting feedstock for biofuel production must not degrade soil, water, or air resources. Our objective is to provide an overview of field research being conducted to quantify effects of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a bioenergy feedstock. Coordinated field studies are being conducted near Ames, IA; St. Paul and Morris, MN; Mead, NE; University Park, PA; Florence, SC; and Brookings, SD., as part of the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP). A baseline soil quality assessment was made using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). Corn grain and residue yield for two different stover harvest rates (∼50% and ...


Empirical Analysis And Prediction Of Nitrate Loading And Crop Yield For Corn–Soybean Rotations, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, D. Meek, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Jerry L. Hatfield Dec 2015

Empirical Analysis And Prediction Of Nitrate Loading And Crop Yield For Corn–Soybean Rotations, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Douglas L. Karlen, T. Meade, D. Meek, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Jerry L. Hatfield

Douglas L Karlen

Nitrate nitrogen losses through subsurface drainage and crop yield are determined by multiple climatic and management variables. The combined and interactive effects of these variables, however, are poorly understood. Our objective is to predict crop yield, nitrate concentration, drainage volume, and nitrate loss in subsurface drainage from a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation as a function of rainfall amount, soybean yield for the year before the corn–soybean sequence being evaluated, N source, N rate, and timing of N application in northeastern Iowa, U.S.A. Ten years of data (1994–2003) from a ...


Ridge, Moldboard, Chisel, And No-Till Effects On Tile Water Quality Beneath Two Cropping Systems, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Thomas S. Colvin, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2015

Ridge, Moldboard, Chisel, And No-Till Effects On Tile Water Quality Beneath Two Cropping Systems, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Thomas S. Colvin, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Soil conservation tillage systems, including ridge-tillage, often reduce surface water contamination by pesticides because soil erosion and surface runoff are reduced. However, the effects on losses through subsurface drainage tile are somewhat uncertain. Our field study quantified the effects of four tillage practices in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] rotations on herbicide and nitrate N losses in tile drainage water. Fertilizer and pesticide application methods were uniform for ridge, moldboard, chisel, and no-till systems. Pesticide and nitrate N leaching losses were significantly affected by crop rotation. Tillage practice had little influence on nitrate N ...


Corn-Soybean And Alternative Cropping Systems Effects On No 3 -N Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Richard M. Cruse, Mohammadreza Ghaffarzadeh, Allah Bakhsh, Douglas Karlen, Theodore B. Bailey Dec 2015

Corn-Soybean And Alternative Cropping Systems Effects On No 3 -N Leaching Losses In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Richard M. Cruse, Mohammadreza Ghaffarzadeh, Allah Bakhsh, Douglas Karlen, Theodore B. Bailey

Douglas L Karlen

Alternative cropping systems can improve resource use efficiency, increase corn grain yield, and help in reducing negative impacts on the environment. A 6-yr (1993 to 1998) field study was conducted at the Iowa State University’s Northeastern Research Center near Nashua, Iowa, to evaluate the effects of non-traditional cropping systems [strip inter cropping (STR)-corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.)/oats (Avina sativa L.)]; alfalfa rotation (ROT)-3-yr (1993 to 1995) alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) followed by corn in 1996, soybean in 1997, and oats in 1998), and traditional cropping system (corn after soybean (CS) and soybean after ...


Rzwqm Simulation Of Long-Term Crop Production, Water And Nitrogen Balances In Northeast Iowa, L. Ma, Robert W. Malone, Philip Heilman, Douglas L. Karlen, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, S. A. Saseendran, Lajpat R. Ahuja Dec 2015

Rzwqm Simulation Of Long-Term Crop Production, Water And Nitrogen Balances In Northeast Iowa, L. Ma, Robert W. Malone, Philip Heilman, Douglas L. Karlen, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, S. A. Saseendran, Lajpat R. Ahuja

Douglas L Karlen

Agricultural system models are tools to represent and understand major processes and their interactions in agricultural systems. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) with 26 years of data from a study near Nashua, IA to evaluate year to year crop yield, water, and N balances. The model was calibrated using data from one 0.4 ha plot and evaluated by comparing simulated values with data from 29 of the 36 plots at the same research site (six were excluded). The dataset contains measured tile flow that varied considerably from plot to plot so we calibrated total tile ...


Corn Response To Late-Spring Nitrogen Management In The Walnut Creek Watershed, Douglas L. Karlen, Ana L. Dinnes, Dan B. Jaynes, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Glen R. Rippke Dec 2015

Corn Response To Late-Spring Nitrogen Management In The Walnut Creek Watershed, Douglas L. Karlen, Ana L. Dinnes, Dan B. Jaynes, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin, Glen R. Rippke

Douglas L Karlen

A 400-ha subbasin study within the Walnut Creek watershed near Ames, IA, confirmed that using late-spring soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) test (LSNT) fertilizer recommendations could significantly reduce NO3–N loss in drainage water, but detailed crop response was not reported. Herein we summarize corn (Zea mays L.) response to the LSNT program when implemented across the Clarion–Nicollet–Webster soil association. The LSNT was used to determine the recommended N fertilizer rate that was applied uniformly across each field except on check strips where zero or nonlimiting (>220 kg N ha−1) sidedress N was applied. Leaf ...


Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Groundwater Quality—Nashua Project, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin, William W. Simpkins, Vince J. Mcfadden

Douglas L Karlen

Sampling shows that agricultural chemicals are occurring increasingly in ground- and surface water in Iowa. The same trend has been reported throughout the United States; one study reported finding 73 pesticides in the groundwater of 34 states. Even pesticides known to be adsorbed to soil particles (and thus relatively immobile) have been found in a few sampled wells in trace concentrations. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is the most common agricultural chemical found in groundwater. Nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides applied to the soil surface prior to and immediately following crop planting are particularly susceptible to surface runoff or leaching to groundwater through the ...


Simulated N Management Effects On Corn Yield And Tile-Drainage Nitrate Loss, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Philip Heilman, Douglas L. Karlen, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Jerry L. Hatfield Dec 2015

Simulated N Management Effects On Corn Yield And Tile-Drainage Nitrate Loss, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Philip Heilman, Douglas L. Karlen, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Jerry L. Hatfield

Douglas L Karlen

Thoroughly tested simulation models are needed to help quantify the long-term effects of agriculture. We evaluated the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) response to different N management strategies and then used the tested model with observed weather data from 1961–2003 to quantify long-term effects on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and flow weighted nitrate-N concentration in subsurface “tile” drainage water (Nconc). Fourteen years (1990–2003) of field data from 30, 0.4 ha plots in northeast Iowa were available for model testing. Annual crop yield, nitrate-N loss to subsurface “tile” drainage water (Nloss), Nconc, and subsurface “tile” drainage ...


A Five-Year Assessment Of Corn Stover Harvest In Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, J. Richard Hess Dec 2015

A Five-Year Assessment Of Corn Stover Harvest In Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, Stuart J. Birrell, J. Richard Hess

Douglas L Karlen

Sustainable feedstock harvest strategies are needed to ensure bioenergy production does not irreversibly degrade soil resources. The objective for this study was to document corn (Zea mays L.) grain and stover fraction yields, plant nutrient removal and replacement costs, feedstock quality, soil-test changes, and soil quality indicator response to four stover harvest strategies for continuous corn and a corn–soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation. The treatments included collecting (1) all standing plant material above a stubble height of 10 cm (whole plant), (2) the upper-half by height (ear shank upward), (3) the lower-half by height (from the 10 cm ...


Corn Stover Nutrient Removal Estimates For Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, John Kovar, Stuart J. Birrell Dec 2015

Corn Stover Nutrient Removal Estimates For Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, John Kovar, Stuart J. Birrell

Douglas L Karlen

One of the most frequent producer-asked questions to those persons striving to secure sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock supplies for Iowa’s new bioenergy conversion or other bio-product facilities is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my stover?” Our objective is to summarize six years of field research from central Iowa, U.S.A. where more than 600, 1.5 m2 samples were collected by hand and divided into four plant fractions: vegetative material from the ear shank upward (top), vegetative material from approximately 10 cm above the soil surface to just below the ...


Cropping System Effects On No3-N Loss With Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Theodore B. Bailey, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Cropping System Effects On No3-N Loss With Subsurface Drainage Water, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Theodore B. Bailey, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Douglas Karlen, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

An appropriate combination of tillage and nitrogen management practices will be necessary to develop sustainable farming practices. A six–year (1993–1998) field study was conducted on subsurface–drained Clyde–Kenyon–Floyd soils to quantify the impact of two tillage systems (chisel plow vs. no tillage) and two N fertilizer management practices (preplant single application vs. late–spring soil test based application) on nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching loss with subsurface drain discharge from corn (Zea mays L.) soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation plots. Preplant injected urea ammonium nitrate solution (UAN) fertilizer was applied at the rate of 110 kg ...


Tillage System Effects On 15-Year Carbon-Based And Simulated N Budgets In A Tile-Drained Iowa Field, Douglas L. Karlen, Ajay Kumar, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Tillage System Effects On 15-Year Carbon-Based And Simulated N Budgets In A Tile-Drained Iowa Field, Douglas L. Karlen, Ajay Kumar, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

Tillage influences N fate and transport by changing soil structure, aeration, macropore continuity, plant-residue placement, and organic-matter mineralization rates. Our objective was to use 15-year N budgets to compare four primary tillage treatments for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production on tile-drained Aquic Hapludolls (FAO: Haplic Phaeozems) in northeastern Iowa, USA. A carbon-based N budget used annual grain yield, grain-N concentrations measured in 1992, changes in surface-soil C content between 1977 and 1988 or 1992, surface-soil C : N ratios, and measurements of NO3–N lost in tile-drainage water. It accounted for 98, 104, 99, and 99% of the fertilizer N ...


Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2015

Effect Of Tillage, Crop Rotation And Innovative Nitrogen And Pesticide Management Practices On Productivity, Sustainability And Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Douglas Karlen, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas B. Moorman, T. R. Steinheimer, Thomas S. Colvin

Douglas L Karlen

Better nitrogen (N) management practices can improve nitrogen uptake and possibly reduce nitrogen leaching to groundwater. More efficient herbicide use can decrease or eliminate the herbicide leaching losses to water sources. In this project, the effects of seven N management practices on water quality were evaluated after collecting data from 40 experimental plots. Lower rates of N application and strip and hay cropping systems help produce lower concentrations of NO3-N in the shallow groundwater in comparison with the higher rate of N application. Also, banding of herbicides has resulted in lower herbicide losses to shallow groundwater. The use of the ...