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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A One-Year Study Of A Supplemental Air Distribution System For Greenhouses, Samuel Jason Ray, James Baxter Wills Jr., Gary Stephen Honea, Michael Jerome Buschermoble, Richard Allen Straw, D. Raj Raman Jan 2005

A One-Year Study Of A Supplemental Air Distribution System For Greenhouses, Samuel Jason Ray, James Baxter Wills Jr., Gary Stephen Honea, Michael Jerome Buschermoble, Richard Allen Straw, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

The effect of a supplemental air distribution system was evaluated in a greenhouse producing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Trust). The system used centrifugal fans to force warmer air from above the canopy through a perforated duct extending longitudinally through each double-canopy row, with the goal of improving yield and decreasing energy use. The experiment employed two commercial-size greenhouses, one as the treatment greenhouse with the air distribution system and one as the control using conventional air handling. The experiment duration was two growing seasons (spring and fall crop). The system significantly reduced vertical temperature and relative humidity gradients while ...


Estrogen Content Of Dairy And Swine Wastes, D. Raj Raman, Elizabeth L. Williams, Alice C. Layton, Robert T. Burns, James P. Easter, Adam S. Daugherty, Michael D. Mullen, Gary S. Sayler Jul 2004

Estrogen Content Of Dairy And Swine Wastes, D. Raj Raman, Elizabeth L. Williams, Alice C. Layton, Robert T. Burns, James P. Easter, Adam S. Daugherty, Michael D. Mullen, Gary S. Sayler

D. Raj Raman

Naturally occurring estrogens in animal wastes may cause negative environmental impacts, yet their abundance in animal waste treatment and storage structures is poorly documented. To better quantify estrogen concentra tions in animal wastes, multiple waste samples were collected from treatment and storage structures at dairy and swine facilities and analyzed for concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and 17α-estradiol by gas chromatography−mass spectroscopy and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (E2 only). Mass ratios of each estrogen to the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were also determined. Because manure application rates are typically macronutrient-based, estrogen to macronutrient ratios are proportional ...


Periodic Draining Reduces Mosquito Emergence From Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands, Catherine R. Mayhew, D. Raj Raman, Reid R. Gerhardt, Robert T. Burns, Mary Sue Younger Jan 2004

Periodic Draining Reduces Mosquito Emergence From Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands, Catherine R. Mayhew, D. Raj Raman, Reid R. Gerhardt, Robert T. Burns, Mary Sue Younger

D. Raj Raman

Both subsurface flow and free-water surface constructed wetland systems have been used for partial treatment of manure-laden wastewater from animal production systems. Subsurface flow systems are considerably more expensive but do not breed mosquitoes. The less expensive free-water surface systems have significant mosquito production potential, which is a serious drawback, especially because of increasing concerns about emerging mosquito-borne disease organisms. Periodically draining constructed wetlands has been suggested as a method of mosquito control. To test this approach, eight free-water surface constructed wetland mesocosms (0.7 m2 each) were operated on a one-week drain/fill cycle. Simultaneously, four subsurface flow mesocosms ...


Ammonia Concentrations In Poultry Broiler Production Units Treated With Liquid Alum, K. A. Armstrong, Robert T. Burns, F. R. Walker, L. R. Wilhelm, D. Raj Raman Oct 2003

Ammonia Concentrations In Poultry Broiler Production Units Treated With Liquid Alum, K. A. Armstrong, Robert T. Burns, F. R. Walker, L. R. Wilhelm, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

High ammonia concentrations in commercial broiler production houses can result in poor bird performance, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher mortalities. Growers have traditionally controlled in-house ammonia levels by increasing ventilation. During cold weather, increased ventilation rates result in higher heating energy requirements. Granular alum (aluminum sulfate, Al2(SO4)3 · 14H2O) has been successfully used as a litter amendment to reduce ammonia volatilization from litter inside broiler production houses. In this study, liquid aluminum sulfate was investigated as a litter amendment for ammonia suppression in four commercial poultry-broiler units. This project investigates four treatment levels of liquid alum in four ...


Estrogen Concentrations In Dairy And Swine Waste Storage And Treatment Structures In And Around Tennessee, D. Raj Raman, Elizabeth L. Williams, Robert T. Burns, Alice C. Layton, Adam S. Daugherty, Michael D. Mullen Jan 2002

Estrogen Concentrations In Dairy And Swine Waste Storage And Treatment Structures In And Around Tennessee, D. Raj Raman, Elizabeth L. Williams, Robert T. Burns, Alice C. Layton, Adam S. Daugherty, Michael D. Mullen

D. Raj Raman

Naturally occurring estrogens in animal wastes may cause negative environmental impacts in some watersheds. However, there is little published data regarding the concentrations of these estrogenic compounds in full-scale animal waste treatment and storage structures, thus making risk assessment difficult. To address this knowledge gap, the research described in this paper explores estrogen concentrations in 19 animal waste storage and treatment structures at dairy and swine production facilities in and around Tennessee.

Samples have been collected from eight dairy and eleven swine facilities, representing a range of waste storage and treatment structures typical of Tennessee, and much of the southeastern ...


Incidence Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes , And Salmonella Species On A Tennessee Dairy Farm, T. L. Ervin, R. E. Yoder, F. A. Draughon, Robert T. Burns, D. Raj Raman Jul 2001

Incidence Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes , And Salmonella Species On A Tennessee Dairy Farm, T. L. Ervin, R. E. Yoder, F. A. Draughon, Robert T. Burns, D. Raj Raman

D. Raj Raman

In response to public awareness of foodborne pathogens due to recent outbreaks of illness, a study was conducted on the incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella species on a dairy farm in middle Tennessee. Sampling locations included water samples from up- and down-stream in a creek running through the farm, free stall bedding, silage, separator liquids, separator solids, pumped liquid from a holding pond, feed, and bulk tank milk. Three samples were taken monthly at each location for 12 months. These samples were tested to determine the incidence of pathogens on the dairy farm and to ...


Liquid Dairy Waste Transport And Land Application Cost Comparisons Considering Herd Size, Transport Distance, And Nitrogen Versus Phosphorus Application Rates, Robert T. Burns, A. S. Daugherty, T. L. Cross, D. Raj Raman, G. F. Grandle Jul 2001

Liquid Dairy Waste Transport And Land Application Cost Comparisons Considering Herd Size, Transport Distance, And Nitrogen Versus Phosphorus Application Rates, Robert T. Burns, A. S. Daugherty, T. L. Cross, D. Raj Raman, G. F. Grandle

D. Raj Raman

This study provides cost comparisons for the transport and application of dairy waste slurries based on both phosphorus and nitrogen application rates. Estimated cost comparisons are made for several commonly used systems for dairy waste transport and application. Five dairy sizes ranging from 50 to 2,000 cows using 13 transport and application systems were evaluated. For each dairy size, the costs associated with the transport and application system combinations were determined for transport distances of 0.5, 1.5, and 4.5 miles for both nitrogen and phosphorus-based application rates. Total annual system cost, cost per acre, cost per ...


Determination Of 17ß-Estradiol Concentrations In Runoff From Plots Receiving Dairy Manure, A. R. Dyer, D. Raj Raman, M. D. Mullen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, A. C. Layton Jan 2001

Determination Of 17ß-Estradiol Concentrations In Runoff From Plots Receiving Dairy Manure, A. R. Dyer, D. Raj Raman, M. D. Mullen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, A. C. Layton

D. Raj Raman

Because of growing concern about estrogenic compounds in animal wastes, the objective of this research was to measure 17 ß -estradiol concentrations in runoff from plots fertilized with liquid dairy waste. Nine plots were established at The University of Tennessee Dairy Experiment Station located at Lewisburg, Tennessee, and dairy manure was applied to six of the nine plots. Three of the plots received manure at a rate sufficient to meet the nitrogen (N) requirement for winter wheat; three received manure at a rate sufficient to meet the phosphorus (P) requirement for winter wheat, and three received no manure. Runoff samples ...


Enhancing Dairy Lagoon Performance With High-Rate Anaerobic Digesters, Gary L. Hawkins, D. Raj Raman, Robert T. Burns, Ronald E. Yoder, Tim L. Cross Jan 2001

Enhancing Dairy Lagoon Performance With High-Rate Anaerobic Digesters, Gary L. Hawkins, D. Raj Raman, Robert T. Burns, Ronald E. Yoder, Tim L. Cross

D. Raj Raman

In a two–stage study, the possibility of using high–rate anaerobic digesters to enhance the performance of dairy lagoons was explored. Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) and four downflow anaerobic filters (DFAF) were tested, with two of each type operated at 25C, and the other two at 35C. The first stage of the experiment explored using the high–rate digesters on liquid effluent from a screw–press treating dairy manure slurry. The first–stage experiment demonstrated that settling processes, rather than biodegradation, accounted for most of the organic matter reduction in both reactor types, when operated at a ...


Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns Jan 2001

Degradation Of Estrogens In Dairy Waste Solids: Effects Of Acidification And Temperature, D. Raj Raman, Alice C. Layton, Lara B. Moody, James P. Easter, Gary S. Sayler, Robert T. Burns

D. Raj Raman

Manure–borne estrogens are increasingly recognized as a potential ecological hazard. However, sample–handling protocols for these compounds are not clearly delineated in the literature, nor are comparisons between assays for estrogens. A study was conducted to explore the degradation of estrogen in separated dairy manure waste solids (press cake), using three popular assay types. Estrogens were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gas–chromatography mass–spectroscopy (GC–MS) and a recombinant yeast estrogen reporter assay. As measured by GC–MS, background estrone concentrations were approximately 100 ppb, while 17β–estradiol concentrations were one–third of the estrone concentration ...


An Insect-Based Detector Of Bovine Manure Odors, D. Raj Raman, Reid R. Gerhardt Jan 1997

An Insect-Based Detector Of Bovine Manure Odors, D. Raj Raman, Reid R. Gerhardt

D. Raj Raman

We designed, constructed, and tested a single-stream insect odormeter for the measurement of bovine manure odors. The biosensing element in the odormeter is a group of six gravid face flies (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) in a 360 mL chamber. A microphone, mounted above the chamber, senses sounds made by the flies’ activity. The microphone signal is processed by an analog root-mean-square power-measuring circuit connected to a computer data acquisition system. The apparatus allows electronic measurement of insect activity. Initial experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this system for odor detection (yes/no). Kinetic experiments show that a dose-response curve can be produced ...