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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of Characteristic Odorants From Harmonia Axyridis Beetles Using In Vivo Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Matthew E. O'Neal Nov 2019

Determination Of Characteristic Odorants From Harmonia Axyridis Beetles Using In Vivo Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry–Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Jacek A. Koziel, Matthew E. O'Neal

Matthew E. O'Neal

Homeowners, small fruit growers, and wine makers are concerned with noxious compounds released by multicolored Asian ladybird beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). A new method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (MDGC–MS–O) system was developed for extraction, isolation and simultaneous identification of compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of live H. axyridis. Four methoxypyrazines (MPs) were identified in headspace volatiles of live H. axyridis as those responsible for the characteristic odor: 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP), and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). To the best of our knowledge this is the ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of A Low Temperature Closed-Cycle Grain Drying System, Mingjun Ma, Kurt A. Rosentrater Oct 2019

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of A Low Temperature Closed-Cycle Grain Drying System, Mingjun Ma, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The aim of this study was to understand the environmental and economic impact of the low temperature closed-cycle grain drying system by using techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). For TEA, three scales including small (60 bu/batch), medium (600 bu/batch) and large (6000 bu/batch) were chosen for analysis the total annual drying cost and unit drying cost. For LCA, the greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission was the only environmental impact that considered in this study, since the electricity was the only energy source for this drying system. The TEA result shows that the drying costs for ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Oct 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Lie Tang

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2019

The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and a toxic gas to humans, can be generated during aerobic digestion of organic waste. CO is produced due to thermochemical processes, and also produced or consumed by cohorts of methanogenic, acetogenic, or sulfate-reducing bacteria. The exact mechanisms of biotic and abiotic formation of CO in aerobic digestion (particularly the effects of process temperature) are still not known. This study aimed to determine the temporal variation in CO concentrations during the aerobic digestion as a function of process temperature and activity of microorganisms. All experiments were conducted in controlled temperature reactors using homogeneous materials ...


Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli Oct 2019

Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli

Pankaj Lal

The growing attention to renewable energy and rural development has created greater demand for production of biomass feedstock for bioenergy. However, forest growth rates and the amount of land in most existing forests may not be sufficient to sustainably supply the forest biomass required to support existing forest products industries and the expanding bioenergy industry. Additionally, concerns about agricultural land use competition have dampened expansion of biomass production on agricultural land base. One of the ways to meet the growing forest biomass feedstock demand for bioenergy production is by allocating currently marginal non-forested land for growing bioenergy feedstocks. In Virginia ...


Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Process Kinetics, Kacper Świechowski, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2019

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Process Kinetics, Kacper Świechowski, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Oxytree is a fast-growing energy crop with C4 photosynthesis. In this research, for the first time, the torrefaction kinetic parameters of pruned Oxytree biomass (Paulownia clon in Vitro 112) were determined. The influence of the Oxytree cultivation method and soil class on the kinetic parameters of the torrefaction was also investigated. Oxytree pruned biomass from a first-year plantation was subjected to torrefaction within temperature range from 200 to 300 °C and under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory-scale batch reactor. The mass loss was measured continuously during the process. The relative mass loss increased from 1.22% to 19.56% with ...


Emissions Of Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, And Odor Before, During, And After Slurry Removal From A Deep-Pit Swine Finisher, Steven Hoff, Dwaine S. Bundy, Minda A. Nelson, Brian C. Zelle, Larry D. Jacobson, Albert J. Heber, Jinqin Ni, Yuanhui Zhang, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley Oct 2019

Emissions Of Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, And Odor Before, During, And After Slurry Removal From A Deep-Pit Swine Finisher, Steven Hoff, Dwaine S. Bundy, Minda A. Nelson, Brian C. Zelle, Larry D. Jacobson, Albert J. Heber, Jinqin Ni, Yuanhui Zhang, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Beasley

Jacek A. Koziel

It is a common practice in the midwestern United States to raise swine in buildings with under-floor slurry storage systems designed to store manure for up to one year. These so-called “deep-pit” systems are a concentrated source for the emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and odors. As part of a larger six-state research effort (U.S. Department of Agriculture-Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems Project, “Aerial Pollutant Emissions from Confined Animal Buildings”), real-time NH3 and H2S with incremental odor emission data were collected for two annual slurry removal events. For this study, two 1000-head deep-pit swine finishing ...


Comparison Of Measured Total Suspended Particulate Matter Concentrations Using Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance And A Total Suspended Particulate Sampler, Sheryll B. Jerez, Yuanhui Zhang, Joshua W. Mcclure, Larry Jacobson, Albert Heber, Steven Hoff, Jacek A. Koziel, David Beasley Oct 2019

Comparison Of Measured Total Suspended Particulate Matter Concentrations Using Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance And A Total Suspended Particulate Sampler, Sheryll B. Jerez, Yuanhui Zhang, Joshua W. Mcclure, Larry Jacobson, Albert Heber, Steven Hoff, Jacek A. Koziel, David Beasley

Jacek A. Koziel

A comparison of the concentration of the total suspended particulate (TSP) matter measured by the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor and the isokinetic TSP samplers developed at the University of Illinois was carried out in several types of confinement livestock buildings. In a majority of the measurements done, the dust concentration measured by the TEOM monitor was lower than the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) isokinetic TSP sampler; the TEOM monitor tended to underestimate the total dust concentration by as much as 54%. The difference in measurements can be attributed to the sampling efficiency of the TEOM monitor ...


Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn Oct 2019

Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn

Steven J. Hoff

The US swine industry is shifting towards filtered fresh-air ventilation systems that use pleated filters to improve breeding herd health and reduce airborne disease outbreak frequency. Loaded filters reduce airflow causing a poor environment and elevated energy use. Typical axial fans cannot efficiently maintain the rated differential pressure (DP; 100 Pa) for pleated filters; hence, a lower design filter DP (37 Pa) is used and consequently, more filters are required to achieve design maximum ventilation. Large, common filter banks for multiple staged fans presents significant challenges in using continuous DP measurement to assess filter life, making it impossible to separate ...


Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn Oct 2019

Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn

Jay D. Harmon

The US swine industry is shifting towards filtered fresh-air ventilation systems that use pleated filters to improve breeding herd health and reduce airborne disease outbreak frequency. Loaded filters reduce airflow causing a poor environment and elevated energy use. Typical axial fans cannot efficiently maintain the rated differential pressure (DP; 100 Pa) for pleated filters; hence, a lower design filter DP (37 Pa) is used and consequently, more filters are required to achieve design maximum ventilation. Large, common filter banks for multiple staged fans presents significant challenges in using continuous DP measurement to assess filter life, making it impossible to separate ...


Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn Oct 2019

Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn

Brett Ramirez

The US swine industry is shifting towards filtered fresh-air ventilation systems that use pleated filters to improve breeding herd health and reduce airborne disease outbreak frequency. Loaded filters reduce airflow causing a poor environment and elevated energy use. Typical axial fans cannot efficiently maintain the rated differential pressure (DP; 100 Pa) for pleated filters; hence, a lower design filter DP (37 Pa) is used and consequently, more filters are required to achieve design maximum ventilation. Large, common filter banks for multiple staged fans presents significant challenges in using continuous DP measurement to assess filter life, making it impossible to separate ...


Xenobiotics, Toxic Compounds, Mutagens And Carcinogens Substances. Classification And Regulatory Challenges. Ksenobiotyki, Substancje Toksyczne, Mutagenne I Kancerogenne. Klasyfikacja I Aspekty Prawne, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Bogusław Buszewski, Sebastian Opaliński, Roman Kołacz, Jacek A. Koziel Oct 2019

Xenobiotics, Toxic Compounds, Mutagens And Carcinogens Substances. Classification And Regulatory Challenges. Ksenobiotyki, Substancje Toksyczne, Mutagenne I Kancerogenne. Klasyfikacja I Aspekty Prawne, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Bogusław Buszewski, Sebastian Opaliński, Roman Kołacz, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

A review, with. 54 refs., of legal aspects of using chem. substances in the environment and foods.

Dokonano przeglądu literatury naukowej i omówiono akty prawne dotyczące ksenobiotyków, substancji toksycznych, mutagennych i kancerogennych. Podano klasyfikacje tych substancji wg ECHA (UE), IARC (WHO) oraz ATSDR i OSHA (USA). Przytoczono liczne akty prawne (dyrektywy, ustawy, rozporządzenia) dotyczące rejestracji, oceny, udzielania zezwoleń i stosowanych ograniczeń w zakresie chemikaliów (REACH) i utworzenia Europejskiej Agencji Chemikaliów, w sprawie wprowadzania klasyfikacji, oznakowania i pakowania substancji i mieszanin chemicznych (CLP). Omówiono problematykę substancji chemicznych, ich mieszanin oraz czynników lub procesów technologicznych o działaniu rakotwórczym lub mutagennym w środowisku ...


Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook Oct 2019

Food, Fuel, And Freeways: An Iowa Perspective On How Far Food Travels, Fuel Usage, And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rich S. Pirog, Timothy Van Pelt, Kamyar Enshayan, Ellen Cook

Kamyar Enshayan

Most consumers do not understand today’s highly complex global food system. Much of the food production and processing occurs far away from where they live and buy groceries. External environmental and community costs related to the production, processing, storage, and transportation of the food are seldom accounted for in the food’s price, nor are consumers made aware of these external costs. Examples of external environmental costs are the increased amount of fossil fuel used to transport food long distances, and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of these fuels.


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Michelle L. Soupir

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Adina Howe

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

David Eisenmann

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Brian L. Steward

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Stuart J. Birrell

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Discrete Element Modeling Of Cultivator Sweep-To-Soil Interaction: Worn And Hardened Edges Effects On Soil-Tool Forces And Soil Flow, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Loran R. Balvanz, Jerry L. Hatfield, Sadaf Ghorbani Sep 2019

Discrete Element Modeling Of Cultivator Sweep-To-Soil Interaction: Worn And Hardened Edges Effects On Soil-Tool Forces And Soil Flow, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Loran R. Balvanz, Jerry L. Hatfield, Sadaf Ghorbani

Mehari Tekeste

Simulation of tool-to-soil interaction provides opportunities to accelerate new equipment design and evaluate performance of tillage tools. Simulation based evaluation of worn tillage tools performance on soil flow has not been done. Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) has a potential to simulate worn tool to soil interaction problems, where worn tools CAD can be generated using 3D scanning. The DEM parameters of Hertz-Mindlin with Parallel Bond model were calibrated to match draft force and soil failure zone measured from a tool bar moving at 0.22 m/s and 38 mm cutting depth. The draft force and soil forward failure zone ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Mehari Tekeste

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Jacek A. Koziel

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown Sep 2019

The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown

Jacek A. Koziel

Studies have shown that biochar has the potential to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. pH is known to have a crucial role in the transformation of pollutants. In this research, we explore the feasibility of using biochars properties to control the pH near the water–air interface, so the gaseous emissions from water (or wastewater) could be mitigated. This study aimed to test the effects of a thin layer biochar addition on the spatial and temporal variation of water pH. Two types of biochar and water were tested. Highly alkaline porous (HAP; pH 9.2) biochars made of ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Devin L. Maurer

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Development Of A Mobile Robotic Phenotyping System For Growth Chamber-Based Studies Of Genotype X Environment Interactions, Dylan Shah, Lie Tang, Jingyao Gai, Rajesh Putta-Venkata Sep 2019

Development Of A Mobile Robotic Phenotyping System For Growth Chamber-Based Studies Of Genotype X Environment Interactions, Dylan Shah, Lie Tang, Jingyao Gai, Rajesh Putta-Venkata

Lie Tang

To increase understanding of the interaction between phenotype and genotype x environment to improve crop performance, large amounts of phenotypic data are needed. Studying plants of a given strain under multiple environments can greatly help to reveal their interactions. To collect the labor-intensive data required to perform experiments in this area, a Mecanum-wheeled, magnetic-tape-following indoor rover has been developed to accurately and autonomously move between and inside growth chambers. Integration of the motor controllers, a robot arm, and a Microsoft Kinect (v2) 3D sensor was achieved in a customized C++ program. Detecting and segmenting plants in a multi-plant environment is ...


Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi Sep 2019

Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi

Lie Tang

Plant breeding is an extremely important route to genetic improvements that can increase yield and plant adaptability. Genetic improvement requires careful measurement of plant phenotypes or plant trait characteristics, but phenotype measurement is a tedious and error-prone task for humans to perform. High-throughput phenotyping aims to eliminate the problems of manual phenotype measurement. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the efficacy of an automatic corn plant phenotyping system based on 3D holographic reconstruction. Point cloud image data were acquired from a time-of-flight 3D camera, which was integrated with a plant rotating table to form a screening station. Our method ...


Crop Recognition Under Weedy Conditions Based On 3d Imaging For Robotic Weed Control, Ji Li, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Crop Recognition Under Weedy Conditions Based On 3d Imaging For Robotic Weed Control, Ji Li, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

A 3D time‐of‐flight camera was applied to develop a crop plant recognition system for broccoli and green bean plants under weedy conditions. The developed system overcame the previously unsolved problems caused by occluded canopy and illumination variation. An efficient noise filter was developed to remove the sparse noise points in 3D point cloud space. Both 2D and 3D features including the gradient of amplitude and depth image, surface curvature, amplitude percentile index, normal direction, and neighbor point count in 3D space were extracted and found effective for recognizing these two types of plants. Separate segmentation algorithms were developed ...


Developing A Low-Cost 3d Plant Morphological Traits Characterization System, Ji Li, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Developing A Low-Cost 3d Plant Morphological Traits Characterization System, Ji Li, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

A low-cost three-dimensional (3D) plant reconstruction and morphological traits characterization system was developed. Corn plant seedlings were used as research objects for development and validation of the 3D reconstruction and point cloud data analysis algorithms. In this application, precise alignment of multiple 3D views generated by a 3D time-of-flight (ToF) sensor is critical to the 3D reconstruction of a plant. Previous research indicated that there is strong need for high-throughput, high-accuracy, and low-cost 3D plant reconstruction and trait characterization phenotyping systems. This research produced a 3D reconstruction system for indoor plant phenotyping by innovatively integrating a low-cost 2D camera, a ...


Field-Based Robotic Phenotyping For Sorghum Biomass Yield Component Traits Characterization Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Field-Based Robotic Phenotyping For Sorghum Biomass Yield Component Traits Characterization Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

Sorghum is known as a major potential feedstock for biofuel production. Being able to efficiently discover genetic control of many traits over a large number of genotypes, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a powerful tool for studying sorghum biomass yield components. However, automated high-throughput field-based plant phenotyping is now the bottleneck for scaling up such experiments. This paper presents an auto-guidance enabled utility tractor which navigates itself between crop rows with a predefined path while collecting stereo images of sorghum samples from both sides of the vehicle. Three levels of stereo camera heads were instrumented to capture images of ...


Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

Within-row plant spacing plays an important role in uniform distribution of water and nutrients among plants which affects the final crop yield. While manual in-field measurements of within-row plant spacing is time and labour intensive, little work has been done on an alternative automated process. We have attempted to develop an automatic system making use of a state-of-the-art 3D vision sensor that accurately measures within-row maize plant spacing. Misidentification of plants caused by low hanging canopies and doubles were reduced by processing multiple consecutive images at a time and selecting the best inter-plant distance calculated. Based on several small scale ...