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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Flux From Beef Cattle Pens: Implications For Air Quality Measurement Methodologies And Evaluation Of Emission Controls, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Bok-Haeng Baek, Kevin J. Bush, Marty Rhoades, Zena Perschbacher-Buser May 2005

Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Flux From Beef Cattle Pens: Implications For Air Quality Measurement Methodologies And Evaluation Of Emission Controls, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Bok-Haeng Baek, Kevin J. Bush, Marty Rhoades, Zena Perschbacher-Buser

Jacek A. Koziel

Ammonia (NH 3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) are emitted from beef cattle feedlots with NH 3 being greater by nearly three orders of magnitude. Nearly 30% of the U.S. beef cattle are fed in the High Plains of Texas. Earlier research indicates that abatement technologies may be needed to significantly reduce NH 3 emissions. To date, little is known about the appropriate measurement methods to evaluate the effectiveness of NH 3 emission controls. In this research, we determined the (a) variability of NH 3 and H 2 S fluxes within a single pen and (b) the relationships ...


Ambient Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations At A Beef Cattle Feedlot In Texas, Jacek A. Koziel, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Park Aug 2004

Ambient Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations At A Beef Cattle Feedlot In Texas, Jacek A. Koziel, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Park

Jacek A. Koziel

Concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ambient air were semicontinuously measured at a 50,000-head cattle feedyard in Texas panhandle in three seasons: fall 2002 (10 days), winter 2003 (14 days), and spring 2003 (15 days). Sampling was conducted at 1.5 m above the ground at one location each season at the western fence line of cattle pens. Gas concentrations were measured using continuous analyzers housed in an onsite instrument shelter. Measured concentrations were upwind or downwind of the feedyard pens depending on the wind direction. Wind directions, wind velocity, and air temperature were measured to ...


Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry For Identification And Prioritization Of Malodors From Confined Animal Feeding Operations, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen, Fred W. Kuhrt, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker Aug 2004

Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry For Identification And Prioritization Of Malodors From Confined Animal Feeding Operations, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen, Fred W. Kuhrt, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker

Jacek A. Koziel

Odor profiling efforts were directed at applying to high-density livestock operations, some of the lessons learned in resolving past, highly diverse, odor-focused investigations in the consumer product industry. Multidimensional-GC-Olfactometry was utilized in an attempt to define and prioritize the basic building blocks of odor character associated with representative cattle feedyard and swine feeding operations. Although scores of potential odorant volatiles have been previously identified in high-density livestock operations, the odor profile results developed herein suggest that only a very few of these may constitute the preponderance of the odor complaints associated with these environments. This appeared to be especially true ...


Application Rate And Timing Effects On Urease Inhibitor Performance For Minimizing Ammonia Emissions From Beef Cattle Feedyards, David B. Parker, Syam Pandrangi, L. Wayne Greene, Lal K. Almas, N. Andy Cole, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel Aug 2004

Application Rate And Timing Effects On Urease Inhibitor Performance For Minimizing Ammonia Emissions From Beef Cattle Feedyards, David B. Parker, Syam Pandrangi, L. Wayne Greene, Lal K. Almas, N. Andy Cole, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate how rate and timing of urease inhibitor application affects ammonia emissions from simulated beef cattle feedyard surfaces. The urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) was applied at rates of 0, 1 and 2 kg/ha, at 8, 16, and 32 day frequencies, and with or without simulated rainfall. Synthetic urine was added every 2 days to the manure surface. Gaseous NH3 was trapped in a sulfuric acid solution using a vacuum system and analyzed for nitrogen using automated procedures. NBPT applied every 8 days was most effective, with the 1 and 2 ...


Evaluation Of Sample Recovery Of Malodorous Gases From Air Sampling Bags, Spme, And Sampling Canisters, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jenny D. Lloyd, David B. Parker, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen Aug 2004

Evaluation Of Sample Recovery Of Malodorous Gases From Air Sampling Bags, Spme, And Sampling Canisters, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jenny D. Lloyd, David B. Parker, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen

Jacek A. Koziel

Odorous gases associated with livestock operations are complex mixtures of hundreds if not thousands of compounds. Research is needed to know how best to sample and analyze these compounds. The main objective of this research was to compare recoveries of a standard gas mixture of 11 odorous compounds from the Carboxen/PDMS 75 µ m SPME fibers, PVF (Tedlar), FEP (Teflon), foil, and PET (Melinex) air sampling bags, and standard 6 L Stabilizer™ sampling canisters after sample storage at room temperature. A standard mixture consisted of 7 VFAs from acetic to hexanoic, and 4 semi-VOCs including p-cresol, indole, 4-ethylphenol, and ...


Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne Oct 2003

Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne

Jacek A. Koziel

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are major components of odors associated with agricultural operations and livestock housing, solid waste processing and disposal, and industrial and municipal wastewater collection and treatment systems. Emissions estimation and assessment of odor control methods depend on reliable air sampling and analysis methods for VFAs. The objective of this research was to develop and test a method for continuous and reliable generation of standard gas mixtures for VFAs based on permeation tubes. Standard gas mixtures for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids were generated with permeation tubes and monitored for a 100-day period. The ...


Estimations Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Fluxes From Cattle Feedlot Surfaces In Texas High Plains, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole Oct 2003

Estimations Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Fluxes From Cattle Feedlot Surfaces In Texas High Plains, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole

Jacek A. Koziel

A dynamic flow-through chamber system and continuous analyzers were used for on-site measurements of ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and hydrogen sulfide-sulfur (H 2 S-S) fluxes from commercial feedlot surfaces in northwestern Texas during two week period in the summer of 2002. Ambient air and air inside chamber temperatures, and manure pack temperature were measured continuously. Manure pack moisture content, pH, and TKN were measured daily to characterize its correlation with NH 3 -N fluxes. The preliminary average NH 3 -N flux from the feedlot surface for the entire measurement period was 1,669 ± 1,212 NH 3 -N µ g ...


Assessment Of Moisture Control And Additives For Odor Reduction From Open-Lot Feedyard Surfaces, Jocelyn D. Buchanan, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, William J. Rogers Jul 2003

Assessment Of Moisture Control And Additives For Odor Reduction From Open-Lot Feedyard Surfaces, Jocelyn D. Buchanan, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, William J. Rogers

Jacek A. Koziel

Amendments for reducing odor from open-lot beef cattle feedyards were evaluated in the laboratory. Manure was placed in small Tupperware® containers. Water and amendments were added to the manure surface and the containers were attached to a vacuum pump that continually passed 2.5 L/min of carbon-filtered air over the surface. Eleven different amendments were tested, at two different concentrations, in a series of five experiments. Odor samples were collected 3 times during a 10-day period in each experiment and were analyzed by trained panelists for detection threshold (DT), intensity and hedonic tone. None of the amendments showed any ...


Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds In Bovine Breath Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Norbert K. Chirase Jul 2003

Characterization Of Volatile Organic Compounds In Bovine Breath Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Norbert K. Chirase

Jacek A. Koziel

A face mask sampling device, DVB/Carboxen/PDMS 50/30 µ m solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, and a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS) were used for sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bovine breath. Breath of 3 morbid steers with respiratory tract infections and 3 healthy steers were sampled 7 times in 19 days for 15 min at each sampling. A total of 21 VOCs were detected, many of them for the first time in cattle breath. Preliminary statistical analyses using Chi-square Test on the frequency of detection of each VOC in each ...


Odor Characterization At Open-Lot Beef Cattle Feedyards Using Triangular Forced Choice Olfactometry, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel Jul 2003

Odor Characterization At Open-Lot Beef Cattle Feedyards Using Triangular Forced Choice Olfactometry, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Odor samples were collected two to four times per month over a one-year period in 2002-2003 at three large open-lot beef cattle feedyards in the Texas panhandle. Samples were collected in 10 L Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber upwind of the feedyard, downwind of the pens, and downwind of the runoff storage pond. Samples were analyzed in the odor lab for detection threshold (DT) using triangular forced choice olfactometry with trained human odor panelists. Full-strength odor samples were also analyzed for intensity and hedonic tone. Weather data was collected on-site at each of the feedyards for correlation to odor ...


Background Odors In Tedlar® Bags Used For Cafo Odor Sampling, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett Spinhirne Jul 2003

Background Odors In Tedlar® Bags Used For Cafo Odor Sampling, David B. Parker, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett Spinhirne

Jacek A. Koziel

Tedlar® film is manufactured in a wet solvent process and continues to emit organic compounds after manufacturing. Tedlar® bags are used for odor sampling at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Odor regulations for CAFOs vary widely, but maximum detection thresholds (DTs) of 2 to 15 have been proposed downwind of feeding operations. Results at the WTAMU Olfactometry Laboratory have shown that both commercially available Tedlar® bags and homemade Tedlar® bags have a detectable background odor (DTs of 20 to 60 typical) even following standard protocols for purging. Purging the bags before sampling was not effective in reducing DTs to acceptable ...


Estimation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From Cattle Feedlots In Texas, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole Jul 2003

Estimation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From Cattle Feedlots In Texas, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Parker, Nolan A. Cole

Jacek A. Koziel

A dynamic flow-through chamber system and continuous analyzers were used for on-site measurements of ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and hydrogen sulfide-sulfur (H 2 S-S) fluxes from commercial feedlot surfaces in northwestern Texas during two week period in the summer of 2002. Manure pack moisture content, pH, and TKN were measured daily to characterize its relation with NH 3 -N fluxes. The preliminary average NH 3 -N and H 2 S-S flux from the feedlot surface were 1,669 ± 1,212 NH 3 -N µ g/m 2 /min and 1.884 ± 1.497 H 2 S-S µ g S/m ...


Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid-Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne Jan 2003

Generation And Calibration Of Standard Gas Mixtures For Volatile Fatty Acids Using Permeation Tubes And Solid-Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne

Jacek A. Koziel

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are major components of odors associated with agricultural operations and livestock housing, solid waste processing and disposal, industrial and municipal wastewater collection, and treatment systems. Emission estimation and assessment of odor control methods depend on reliable air sampling and analysis methods for VFAs. The objective of this research was to develop and test a method for continuous and reliable generation of standard gas mixtures for VFAs based on permeation tubes. Standard gas mixtures for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids were generated with permeation tubes and monitored for a 100-day period. The gravimetric ...


Characterizing Volatile Fatty Acids And Other Gases In A Rumen Closed In Vitro Fermentation System Using Solid Phase Microextraction, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jacek A. Koziel, Norbert K. Chirase Jan 2003

Characterizing Volatile Fatty Acids And Other Gases In A Rumen Closed In Vitro Fermentation System Using Solid Phase Microextraction, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jacek A. Koziel, Norbert K. Chirase

Jacek A. Koziel

A new method for rapid sampling and qualitative characterization of the headspace gases of closed in vitro cultures using solid phase microextraction (SPME) was evaluated for ruminal fluid and ruminal fluid with feed containing a feed additive. Gas sample collection was achieved by exposing a DVB/Carboxen/PDMS 50/30 .m SPME fiber to the headspace of cultures for 1 min every hour. This was followed by immediate analysis on a GC–MS and then reuse of the SPME fiber. Acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids and toluene, dimethyl disulfide, and pentadecane were identified in the headspace ...


Noninvasive Sampling And Analysis Of Bovine Breath Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A Feasibility Study, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Norbert K. Chirase Jul 2002

Noninvasive Sampling And Analysis Of Bovine Breath Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A Feasibility Study, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Norbert K. Chirase

Jacek A. Koziel

An experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of detecting unique volatile organic biomarkers exhaled by healthy and morbid heifer calves on-site using noninvasive sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two heifers were selected on the bases of health status and were sampled from 5 to 15 min with a special facemask sampling system using DVB/Carboxen/PDMS 50/30 µ m and PDMS 100 µ m SPME fibers. The samples were sealed and transported to the laboratory and analyzed with ion trap GC-MS. Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, pentadecane, and nonanal were ...


Screening For Volatile Fatty Acids In Agricultural Air Using Solid Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Darren L. Williams, N. Andy Cole, John M. Sweeten Jul 2002

Screening For Volatile Fatty Acids In Agricultural Air Using Solid Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Darren L. Williams, N. Andy Cole, John M. Sweeten

Jacek A. Koziel

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a major component of odorous gases associated with agricultural sources. Because of typically low VFA air concentrations, conventional air sampling methods including sorbent tubes and vacuum canisters are often not sensitive enough to detect them. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used in this research because it is very sensitive, reusable, fast, and combines sampling and sample preparation, allowing for rapid detection of low concentrations of organics in air. This research focused on 7 VFAs: acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids. Field experiments were conducted to test this method for air sampling of ...


Air Sampling With Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Fabio Augusto, Janusz Pawliszyn Jan 2001

Air Sampling With Solid Phase Microextraction, Jacek A. Koziel, Fabio Augusto, Janusz Pawliszyn

Jacek A. Koziel

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) presents many advantages over conventional analytical methods by combining sampling, pre-concentration and direct transfer of the VOCs into a standard gas chromatography (GC) system. Since its introduction SPME has been applied to the sampling and analysis of environmental samples including airborne VOCs and particulates. The first part of this paper presents theory of air sampling with SPME and an overview of the a few current methods for quantitative air sampling and VOC determination with SPME using grab (‘instantaneous”) and time-weighted average (TWA) modes. The second part of this paper is focused on the recent development of ...


Evaluation Of Fabric Swatch Types For Relative Odor Intensity At Beef Cattle Feedyards, Sean D. See, David B. Parker, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel, John Sweeten Jan 2001

Evaluation Of Fabric Swatch Types For Relative Odor Intensity At Beef Cattle Feedyards, Sean D. See, David B. Parker, Brent W. Auvermann, Jacek A. Koziel, John Sweeten

Jacek A. Koziel

A research project was conducted to determine which type of fabric swatch was best suited for on-site sampling of odor intensity at open-lot beef cattle feeding operations. Five different types of fabric were tested: cotton flannel, cotton muslin, acetate, polyester and polyester felt. Square swatches (20 × 20 cm) were suspended 1 m above the ground surface downwind of cattle pens for 24 hours. The swatches were placed in glass jars and presented to 8-10 human panelists who were asked to rank the swatches based on relative odor intensity. Five trials were conducted at 3 feedyards. Sums of ranks and Spearman ...