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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino Nov 2014

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Groundwater Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of crops, soil phosphorus accumulation, and the potential of nitrate and phosphorus leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this long-term experimental study was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as fertilizer. A third component of this study was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to ...


Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation Of Ultrasonically Treated Corn Slurry, Melissa Tabada Montalbo-Lomboy, Samir Kumar Khanal, Johannes Van Leeuwen, D. Raj Raman, Larson Dunn Jr., David A. Grewell Nov 2014

Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation Of Ultrasonically Treated Corn Slurry, Melissa Tabada Montalbo-Lomboy, Samir Kumar Khanal, Johannes Van Leeuwen, D. Raj Raman, Larson Dunn Jr., David A. Grewell

Johannes van Leeuwen

The potential application of ultrasonics as a pretreatment process to enhance saccharification of starch in corn-to-ethanol plants is evaluated in this paper. Due to energy intensive use of steam in hydro-cooking, ultrasonics poses a promising alternative as a pretreatment method. Two independent ultrasonic experiments were conducted at a frequency of 20 kHz; batch and continuous flow treatment. Corn slurry was obtained from a nearby ethanol plant and sonicated in batch mode at amplitude of 144┬Ámpeak-to-peak (p-p) for 90 s using a catenoidal horn with a 10 mm diameter face. In the continuous flow treatment, corn slurry was pumped through a ...


Concentrations And Size Distributions Of Airborne Particulate Matter And Bacteria In An Experimental Aviary Laying-Hen Chamber, Weichao Zheng, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Baoming Li, Richard S. Gates, Yuanhui Zhang, Michelle L. Soupir Sep 2014

Concentrations And Size Distributions Of Airborne Particulate Matter And Bacteria In An Experimental Aviary Laying-Hen Chamber, Weichao Zheng, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Baoming Li, Richard S. Gates, Yuanhui Zhang, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

High levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and bacteria may exist in animal housing, which can be detrimental to the health of animals and workers. The sizes of these bioaerosols determine their aerial transport behaviors and depositions in the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. However, little is known regarding the size distribution of airborne PM and bacteria in livestock houses, especially in alternative animal housing systems that aim to enhance animal welfare, such as aviary hen-housing systems. The study reported here was therefore conducted to characterize the concentrations and size distributions of airborne bacteria (in count) and PM (both ...


Association Of Antibiotic Resistance In Agricultural Escherichia Coli Isolates With Attachment To Quartz, Ping Liu, Michelle L. Soupir, Martha R. Zwonitzer, Bridgette Huss, Laura R. Jarboe Sep 2014

Association Of Antibiotic Resistance In Agricultural Escherichia Coli Isolates With Attachment To Quartz, Ping Liu, Michelle L. Soupir, Martha R. Zwonitzer, Bridgette Huss, Laura R. Jarboe

Michelle L. Soupir

Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coliisolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type ...


County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen Mar 2014

County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen

Daniel S. Andersen

During the twentieth century, agricultural production strived to achieve increased food production in order to satisfy demands. This led to increased farm sizes and an operational separation of crop and livestock production. Society fears that the trend of increasing industrialization of animal agriculture has resulted in concentration of waste products associated with their production over relatively small geographic regions that are spatially segregated from crop production areas. A county level analysis of manure nutrients relative to crop nutrient capacity was conducted to assess the prevalence of these issues in Iowa. Results indicated that in general all counties had sufficient nutrient ...


Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen Dec 2013

Opportunities For Energy Crop Production Based On Subfield Scale Distribution Of Profitability, Ian J. Bonner, Kara G. Cafferty, David J. Muth, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Sarah A. Porter, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L ...


Grain Drying Systems, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Poonam Singha Dec 2013

Grain Drying Systems, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Poonam Singha

POONAM SINGHA

Grain drying begins in the field after the grain is fully mature. The primary objective of grain drying and storage is to manage the temperature and moisture of the air around the grain to minimize grain quality and market value losses while holding the grain for better market opportunities. Maintaining grain quality requires drying the grain to safe moisture content levels after harvest followed by lowering and maintaining the grain temperature within a few degrees of ambient air temperatures. Natural drying exposes the wet grains to sun and wind. Artificial dryers employ high temperature directly or indirectly in both natural ...