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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nest Substrates Influence Nest Temperature And Offspring Sex Ratio In Painted Turtles, Timothy Mitchell, Fredric Janzen Jan 2015

Nest Substrates Influence Nest Temperature And Offspring Sex Ratio In Painted Turtles, Timothy Mitchell, Fredric Janzen

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the temperature experienced by eggs during incubation determines whether the embryo becomes male or female. Because of this, weather patterns influence the number of males or females being produced in a given year. Over longer time scales, climate changes can produce shifts in population sex ratios, which can be detrimental to population health. Understanding how populations of such reptiles might respond to climate change is important, since most reptiles with TSD are threatened or endangered.


Growth Performance And Ultrasonic Scan Of Purebred Berkshire Pigs Housed In Hoop Buildings In Iowa (Trials 3 And 4), P. Matthew Swantek, David R. Stender, John W. Mabry, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2014

Growth Performance And Ultrasonic Scan Of Purebred Berkshire Pigs Housed In Hoop Buildings In Iowa (Trials 3 And 4), P. Matthew Swantek, David R. Stender, John W. Mabry, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

A certified Berkshire program continues to lead niche pork production markets based on its meat quality advantage over commodity-based pork. This economic advantage is especially valuable for smaller, more traditional pork producers. The disadvantages of Berkshire pigs are fatter carcasses, slower gains, and less efficient feed conversion compared with commodity pork production. Consequently, these pigs are often a better fit for less intensive or lower production systems.


Comparison Of Ivermectin And Extended-Release Eprinomectin Deworming Treatment On Stocker And Subsequent Feedlot Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Fall-Born Angus Heifers, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn, Joe Dedrickson, Jerry Sorenson Jan 2014

Comparison Of Ivermectin And Extended-Release Eprinomectin Deworming Treatment On Stocker And Subsequent Feedlot Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Fall-Born Angus Heifers, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn, Joe Dedrickson, Jerry Sorenson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Severe parasite infections in beef cattle are sometimes associated with decreased growth and performance and clinical disease. Stocker cattle are exposed to many parasites and appropriate deworming strategies can help to minimize parasite burdens when cattle are on grass. Feedlot cattle are often dewormed at arrival and have minimal exposure to additional parasites once placed in the feedlot. The purpose of this study was to evaluate stocker and feedlot performance and carcass characteristics relative to treatment with deworming agents of varying durations of activity.


Utilization Of Pelleted Corn Stover/Ddg Feed As Primary Source Of Roughage And Protein In Beef Feedlot Rations, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2014

Utilization Of Pelleted Corn Stover/Ddg Feed As Primary Source Of Roughage And Protein In Beef Feedlot Rations, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn, Dallas L. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

High feed prices and abundant corn stalk residue have created growing interest in the utilization of corn stalk residue or corn stover as a component of beef feedlot rations.


Isu Angus Cow 98398: A Model Of Longevity, Kevin Maher, Alysta D. Markey, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2014

Isu Angus Cow 98398: A Model Of Longevity, Kevin Maher, Alysta D. Markey, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

ISU purebred Angus cow 98398 is a story of longevity and productivity. As the oldest cow in the ISU McNay herd, she is 16 years old, born April 19, 1998 at the former ISU Rhodes Farm, Rhodes, Iowa, Marshall County. She had her first calf in 2001 and has calved every year since, including twins in 2006 and 2008. She and the rest of the ISU research Angus beef herd moved to the ISU McNay Research Farm, Chariton, Iowa, in 2004. She is due with her 16th calf this fall (a heifer), which will make 16 calves in 14 years ...


The Isu Compost Facility After Five Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2014

The Isu Compost Facility After Five Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The University Compost Facility has completed five full years of operation. The facility is managed by the ISU Research Farms and has a separate revolving account that receives fees and sales and pays expenses. The facility is designed to be self-supporting, i.e. not receive allocations for its operations. The facility is located at 52274 260th Street, Ames, Iowa.


The Effects Of Bedding Pack Clean-Out In Hoop Barns For Feedlot Cattle, Mark S. Honeyman, W. Darrell Busby, Shawn C. Shouse, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2013

The Effects Of Bedding Pack Clean-Out In Hoop Barns For Feedlot Cattle, Mark S. Honeyman, W. Darrell Busby, Shawn C. Shouse, Dallas L. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Bedded hoop barns have become popular for feeding beef cattle. The cattle are kept in the hoop barn, which is bedded to form a manure pack. ISU work has shown that the cattle perform well. However, producers question how to manage the pack and when to clean out.

The objective of this study was to compare three clean-out strategies (none, once, and twice) for beef cattle fed in hoop barns.


The Isu Compost Facility After Four Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2013

The Isu Compost Facility After Four Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The University Compost Facility has completed four full years of operation. The facility is managed by the ISU Research Farms and has a separate revolving account that receives fees and sales and pays expenses. The facility is designed to be self-supporting, i.e. not receive allocations for its operations. The facility is located at 52274 260th Street, Ames, Iowa.


Grass-Finished Beef Pilot Project: Cattle Performance, Peter J. Lammers, Suzanne T. Millman, Reneé Dewell, Jessica R. Juarez, Michelle L. Christianson, Dallas L. Maxwell, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2013

Grass-Finished Beef Pilot Project: Cattle Performance, Peter J. Lammers, Suzanne T. Millman, Reneé Dewell, Jessica R. Juarez, Michelle L. Christianson, Dallas L. Maxwell, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Consumer interest in the potential benefits of grass-finished beef is high, but adoption of this approach to cattle feeding has been limited in Iowa. Although some producers successfully meet this niche market demand, consistently producing a high-value carcass from forage-fed cattle is challenging. Intramuscular fat or marbling is a major factor in quality grading of beef. Marbling is heavily influenced by cattle genetics and energy concentration of the diet. Finishing cattle on grain is a proven approach to consistently produce a high-value carcass for the commodity beef market. Researchers at Iowa State University have pioneered the use of ultrasound measurements ...


Cornstalk Strip Grazing Demonstration With Beef Cows, Dennis R. Maxwell Jan 2013

Cornstalk Strip Grazing Demonstration With Beef Cows, Dennis R. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

In the fall of 2012, the ISU McNay Research Farm, Chariton, Iowa, conducted a trial on strip grazing of cornstalks to extend the normal 40–60 grazing days per cornstalk acre. The goal was to delay feeding hay as long as possible due to limited hay supplies and high costs caused by drought.


Yields Of Corn, Soybeans, And Alfalfa In Western Iowa: 1990 To 2011, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2012

Yields Of Corn, Soybeans, And Alfalfa In Western Iowa: 1990 To 2011, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The ISU Western Research Farm, Castana, Iowa is one of the oldest in Iowa dating to 1946. It also has a unique location in the loess hills of western Iowa. The research farm was set up to study the deep loess soils, particularly crop production and soil conservation methods. Although the work at the research farm has transitioned away from traditional plot work, yields of major crops grown at the farm, and climate data are collected each year. Crop yields are a reflection of current technologies and weather. In western Iowa, rainfall is especially critical and is often the limiting ...


Whole Genome Analysis Of Pinkeye Scores In Angus Cattle, Kadir Kizilkaya, Richard G. Tait Jr., Dorian J. Garrick, Rohan L. Fernando, James M. Reecy Jan 2012

Whole Genome Analysis Of Pinkeye Scores In Angus Cattle, Kadir Kizilkaya, Richard G. Tait Jr., Dorian J. Garrick, Rohan L. Fernando, James M. Reecy

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), known as pinkeye, is a common infectious disease affecting the eyes of cattle. It is characterized by excessive tearing, inflammation of the conjunctiva, and ulceration of the cornea. Although pinkeye is non-fatal, it has a marked economic impact on the cattle industry, due to the decreased performance of infected individuals. Genetic effects on the susceptibility of IBK have been studied and Hereford, Jersey, and Holstein breeds were found to be more susceptible to IBK than Bos Indicus breeds. The objectives of our study were: 1) to estimate genetic parameters of IBK scored in different categories by ...


Longitudinal Study Of Tree Swallows, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck, Allison R. Jaycox Jan 2012

Longitudinal Study Of Tree Swallows, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck, Allison R. Jaycox

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are the most widely distributed of the Tachycineta species, extending from northern Alaska and Canada to the southern United States. They are semi-colonial, secondary cavity nesters, primarily aerial insectivores, and migratory throughout most of their range. Tree swallows are a widely used model organism for avian ecologists and environmental physiologists because their life history lends itself to longterm study. They can be readily and repeatedly trapped at nests, and losses to nest predators are low. Adults return to previous breeding sites with high fidelity, so individuals marked during or after their first reproductive season can be ...


Converting Land From Poplar Tree Bioenergy Planting To Cropland: An Example, Kent R. Berns, Mark S. Honeyman, Richard B. Hall Jan 2012

Converting Land From Poplar Tree Bioenergy Planting To Cropland: An Example, Kent R. Berns, Mark S. Honeyman, Richard B. Hall

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Many landowners ask about the process and costs for returning land to crop production after trees are cut for biomass. A field on the Squaw Creek bottom, Story County, Iowa was planted to hybrid poplar trees in spring 2000. The trees were planted in rows with a 10-ft spacing. The trees were cut in spring 2010. The resulting field was four acres, and this is the account of the first corn crop in 2011 on the area.


Effects Of Bedding On Pig Performance, Mark S. Honeyman, John F. Patience Jan 2012

Effects Of Bedding On Pig Performance, Mark S. Honeyman, John F. Patience

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

More pigs are being produced in bedded systems such as hoop barns due to the increase in demand for niche pork. Most of the current swine nutrition information has been generated in confinement settings without bedding. As omnivores, pigs ingest some bedding. There are questions about the effects of the ingested bedding on growth and feed utilization by the modern market pig. More knowledge in this area will allow for more accurate feed formulation in bedded systems.


Developing Berkshire Market Pig Growth Curves, Peter J. Lammers, John W. Mabry, Mark S. Honeyman, P. Matthew Swantek, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2012

Developing Berkshire Market Pig Growth Curves, Peter J. Lammers, John W. Mabry, Mark S. Honeyman, P. Matthew Swantek, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Several factors have stimulated interest in an old, rather minor swine breed, Berkshire pigs. Berkshires produce pork that is darker, with more intramuscular fat than most swine breeds and lines currently. As the majority of modern pigs were genetically selected to be leaner, the Berkshire breed has continued to produce more flavorful pork. Asian consumers, especially Japanese, prefer and will pay a premium for Berkshire pork. American chefs and discriminating consumers request Berkshire pork, a strong market demand that has caused a flourish in the pork niche market largely centered around pork from Berkshirebred pigs. Some Iowa pork producers are ...


Characterizing Overall Response To Two-Shot Vaccination For Bvdv Type 2 In Angus Weanling Calves, Richard G. Tait Jr., Erika Diane Downey, Mary Sue Mayes, Julia Ridpath, Dorian J. Garrick, James M. Reecy Jan 2012

Characterizing Overall Response To Two-Shot Vaccination For Bvdv Type 2 In Angus Weanling Calves, Richard G. Tait Jr., Erika Diane Downey, Mary Sue Mayes, Julia Ridpath, Dorian J. Garrick, James M. Reecy

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Vaccination is a management strategy utilized to help reduce prevalence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlots. However, not all animals respond similarly to vaccinations. It is believed that an animal’s genetics control part of the ability to respond to a vaccination protocol. In order to evaluate the genetic control of a new trait such as response to vaccination, it is important to understand the non-genetic factors that affect an animal’s response to vaccination. The objective of this study was to characterize the non-genetic factors affecting overall response to a two-shot vaccination for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 ...


The University Compost Facility After Three Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2012

The University Compost Facility After Three Years, Steve J. Jonas, Timothy R. Goode, Kapil Arora, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The University Compost Facility, 52274 260th St., Ames, Iowa has completed three full years of operation. The facility is managed by the ISU Research Farms and has a separate revolving account that receives fees and sales, and pays expenses. The facility is designed to be self-supporting, i.e. not receive allocations for its operations. The facility consists of seven, 80 × 140 ft hoop barns and a new 55 × 120 ft hoop barn, all with paved floors. The facility also has a Mettler-Toledo electronic scale with a 10 ft × 70 ft platform to weigh all materials. Key machinery is 1 ...


Iowa Hoop Structures Used For Confined Beef Cattle Feeding: A Survey, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon Jan 2011

Iowa Hoop Structures Used For Confined Beef Cattle Feeding: A Survey, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Beginning in the mid-1990s, hoop structures became available to Iowa farmers as an alternative housing system for livestock, primarily swine. Iowa State University was very active in research and demonstrations of hoop barns for swine. ISU also built hoop barns for calving at the ISU Rhodes Research Farm, Rhodes, IA in about 2000. From this work, in 2004/05 ISU built one of the first hoop barns for cattle feeding at the ISU Armstrong Research Farm, Lewis, IA. Frequently, questions are asked about the acceptance of hoop barns for beef cattle and how many beef cattle hoop barns are in ...


Correlations Between Carcass Traits And Mineral Concentrations In Angus Beef Raised In Iowa, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Qi Liu, Mary Sue Mayes, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Jan 2011

Correlations Between Carcass Traits And Mineral Concentrations In Angus Beef Raised In Iowa, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Qi Liu, Mary Sue Mayes, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Beef is a nutritious food that is known to have high bioavailability for several minerals such as iron and zinc. Although beef is typically high in these nutrients, there is much animalto-animal variation in mineral contents. The objective of this study is to report the relationship between traditional carcass traits and mineral concentrations within the longissimus dorsi.


Effects Of Calf Age And Dam Age On Circulating Bvdv Ii Antibody Levels Prior To Vaccination In Angus Weanling Calves, Erika Diane Downey, Richard G. Tait Jr., Mary Sue Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, Julia Ridpath, James M. Reecy Jan 2011

Effects Of Calf Age And Dam Age On Circulating Bvdv Ii Antibody Levels Prior To Vaccination In Angus Weanling Calves, Erika Diane Downey, Richard G. Tait Jr., Mary Sue Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, Julia Ridpath, James M. Reecy

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Newborn calves passively acquire antibodies from their dams via consumption of colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum quality and quantity may differ by dam age affecting the amount of circulating maternally derived antibodies. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there are differences in calf titers of maternal antibodies based on age of dam and age of calf. This knowledge is important for determining vaccination strategies because passively acquired antibodies for bovine viral diarrhea virus I and II (BVDV) have been shown to block the ability of calves to develop their own specific immune response to BVDV.


Cattle Temporal And Spatial Distribution In Midwestern Pastures Using Global Positioning (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas A. Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical Jan 2010

Cattle Temporal And Spatial Distribution In Midwestern Pastures Using Global Positioning (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas A. Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Previous research has shown that grazing cattle tend to congregate in streamside zones of pastures to obtain water and shade for thermoregulation. However, problems associated with thermoregulation may be increased because of the presence of endophyte-infected tall fescue in pastures. Defining relationships between cattle distribution, such pasture characteristics as size, shape, shade distribution, botanical composition, and climatic factors related to heat stress, will provide the basis for the development and implementation of management practices that minimize nonpoint source pollution possibly associated with grazing cattle.


Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar Jan 2010

Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Grazing management practices that allow cattle to congregate near pasture streams may result in the loss of vegetative cover and promote accumulation of manure near the streams, increasing the risk of nonpoint source pollution of the stream


Supplemental Feeding Of Mixed Co-Products To Grazing Heifers, Daniel D. Loy, Ashley Thompson, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Joe Sellers, Kevin Maher, Dennis R. Maxwell, Sam Ruble Jan 2010

Supplemental Feeding Of Mixed Co-Products To Grazing Heifers, Daniel D. Loy, Ashley Thompson, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Joe Sellers, Kevin Maher, Dennis R. Maxwell, Sam Ruble

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The growth of the ethanol industry in the Midwest has greatly increased in the last 5 years. This increase has affected the cattle industry in many ways. The increased demand for corn by this industry has driven prices to new highs over the last 3 years. This has affected feed costs for the cattle industry. On the other hand, the growth of the ethanol industry has increased the amount of byproducts that are produced.


Cattle Temporal And Spatial Distribution In Midwestern Pastures Using Global Positioning (A Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell Jan 2009

Cattle Temporal And Spatial Distribution In Midwestern Pastures Using Global Positioning (A Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Previous research has shown that grazing cattle tend to congregate in riparian zones of pastures to obtain water and shade for thermoregulation. However, problems associated with thermoregulation may be increased because of the presence of endophyte-infected tall fescue in pastures. Defining relationships between cattle distribution, such pasture characteristics as size, shape, shade distribution, botanical composition, and climatic factors related to heat stress, will provide the basis for development and implementation of management practices that minimize nonpoint source pollution possibly associated with grazing cattle.


Pasture Supplementation Of Dakota Brantm Pelleted Distillers Product To Growing Heifers In Southern Iowa, Chris Moore, Daniel D. Loy, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Joe Sellers, Kevin Maher, Dennis R. Maxwell Jan 2009

Pasture Supplementation Of Dakota Brantm Pelleted Distillers Product To Growing Heifers In Southern Iowa, Chris Moore, Daniel D. Loy, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Joe Sellers, Kevin Maher, Dennis R. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

The sustained growth of the ethanol industry in the upper Midwest is well documented. There are many ways this affects the cattle industry. Increased demand for corn by the industry has driven prices to record highs in 2008. The increased cost and demand for corn have forced cattle producers to evaluate the many ways to use the by-products produced by the ethanol industry. Increased ethanol production has led to larger supplies of the byproduct dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Companies have started to market pelleted versions of this product that may be economical for cattle producers to use to ...


Modifying An Outdoor Farrowing Hut For Alternative Indoor Farrowing During Summer And Winter, Mark S. Honeyman, Lyle T. Rossiter Jan 2009

Modifying An Outdoor Farrowing Hut For Alternative Indoor Farrowing During Summer And Winter, Mark S. Honeyman, Lyle T. Rossiter

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Niche pork markets have expanded rapidly. In the Midwest, frequently there are shortages of pigs born in the winter and summer and surpluses of pigs born in spring and fall. Most producers can meet the niche market requirements by farrowing outdoors in spring and fall. But farrowing outdoors in Midwest winters is difficult. Winter-farrowed sows will also farrow in the hot summer months, another challenging time due to heat and humidity. Therefore, the objective of this project was to modify an outdoor farrowing hut for winter and summer farrowing indoors to meet niche pork market requirements.


Performance And Carcass Traits Of Market Beef Cattle Supplemented Self-Fed Byproducts On Pasture: A Progress Report, Daniel Kiesling, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Mark S. Honeyman, Darrell Busby, Joe Sellers, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2009

Performance And Carcass Traits Of Market Beef Cattle Supplemented Self-Fed Byproducts On Pasture: A Progress Report, Daniel Kiesling, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Mark S. Honeyman, Darrell Busby, Joe Sellers, Dallas L. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Due to rising costs of conventional feedstuffs, more focus has been put on feeding byproducts from ethanol production or further processing of grains. The effects of using these feedstuffs on live animal performance, carcass traits, and the economic benefits are still under investigation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding combinations of self-fed byproducts and corn grain to yearling cattle on grazing pasture on their growth and carcass traits.


Progress Report: Pasture Finishing Of Beef Steers Using Contemporary Feedlot Protocols, Garland R. Dahlke, M. Peter Hoffman, Adam J. Conover, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2009

Progress Report: Pasture Finishing Of Beef Steers Using Contemporary Feedlot Protocols, Garland R. Dahlke, M. Peter Hoffman, Adam J. Conover, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Environmental regulations in Iowa can place animal population restrictions on a given site. This study explores the possibility of finishing cattle in a remote pasture location to handle an overflow of animals and yet remain in compliance with environmental mandates.


Progress Report: Effects Of Condensed Corn Distillers Solubles On Steer Performance And Carcass Composition, Adam J. Conover, Tsengeg Purevjav, Megan E. Jedlicka, M. Peter Hoffman, Garland R. Dahlke, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2009

Progress Report: Effects Of Condensed Corn Distillers Solubles On Steer Performance And Carcass Composition, Adam J. Conover, Tsengeg Purevjav, Megan E. Jedlicka, M. Peter Hoffman, Garland R. Dahlke, Wayne B. Roush

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

This study looked at the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) as a feed source for steers backgrounded on pasture as well as steers being fed in the feedlot. In addition, a treatment group was finished on pasture with CCDS as a part of their ration. The two feedlot rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The pasture finishing steers were fed a ration based on the feedlot ration containing CCDS but were not fed any hay. The goal of this study was to establish the benefits, as well as the limitations, of feeding CCDS to feedlot and backgrounded steers.