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South Dakota Custom Feeding Program, J.J. Wagner Jan 1986

South Dakota Custom Feeding Program, J.J. Wagner

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Seventy-five preconditioned steer calves representing 14 different owners and a variety of breeds were placed on feed at Longacre Farms. Wentworth. South Dakota. in late November and early December. Average days on feed for the 15 groups of five head was 191 (range 181-2071. Average daily gain was 2.6 lb head per day (range 2.26-2.83). Feed efficiency was 8.2 lb dry matter per pound of gain. Feed cost averaged $35.53 per cwt. gain and nonfeed cost averaged $11.84 per cwt. gain. Average cost of gain excluding interest was $47.37 per cwt. (range 43 ...


Respiratory Viruses And Antibodies In Preconditioned South Dakota Feeder Calves, M.L. Vickers, R.H. Pritchard Jan 1986

Respiratory Viruses And Antibodies In Preconditioned South Dakota Feeder Calves, M.L. Vickers, R.H. Pritchard

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Nasal swabs and blood samples were taken from a t o t a l of 400 calves on a preconditioning evaluation program during 2 years. Fifty calves from each of four South Dakota ranches were divided into preconditioned (PC) and control (CO) groups and sampled both on the ranch and in the feedlot. The preconditioning program followed the recommendations of the South Dakota Beef Cattle Improvement Association and the Extension Service and included vaccination with live virus vaccines for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3). In both years, viruses were isolated from calves on ...


Mechanical Treatment And Burning For High Quality Range Forage, F.R. Gartner, E.M. White, R.I. Butterfield Jan 1986

Mechanical Treatment And Burning For High Quality Range Forage, F.R. Gartner, E.M. White, R.I. Butterfield

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Annual yields of western wheatgrass and total vegetation were increased on a clayey range site following mechanical treatment. More important to the range manager, year t o year variability in forage production was reduced, since soil moisture is stabilized. Yields of Japanese brome, an annual grass, increased from the second through the fourth growing seasons after treatment. Three consecutive years of abundant fall precipitation beginning in 1980 probably triggered seed germination of this invader plant. Prescribed burning of the mechanical range treatments drastically reduced production of Japanese brome and increased forage quality. Both quantity and quality of western wheatgrass increased ...


Pricklypear Cactus Control In Western South Dakota, J.R. Johnson, W.L. Tucker, C.E. Stymiest, E.J. Bowker Jan 1986

Pricklypear Cactus Control In Western South Dakota, J.R. Johnson, W.L. Tucker, C.E. Stymiest, E.J. Bowker

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

In a range improvement study, both liquid and pelleted forms of Picloram were effective in controlling pricklypear cactus. Higher rates of chemical hastened control and gave more complete control. At lower rates, cactus was recovering in 1985, the fourth year of study, suggesting that higher rates may be most cost effective. In 1983 noncactus vegetation response was minor. In 1984, "all perennial grass" production increased by more than 50% (312 lb/A) at higher rates of Picloram. Shifts in "cool season" and “warm season" grass components were nonsignificant. In 1985, "cool season grass" was not generally affected by treatments, but ...


Effects Of Body Condition On Reproductive Performance Of Beef Cows, P.A. Momont, R.J. Pruitt Jan 1986

Effects Of Body Condition On Reproductive Performance Of Beef Cows, P.A. Momont, R.J. Pruitt

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Cows were fed differing nutritional levels before and after calving to create a wide range of cow body condition or fleshiness prior t o calving and at the beginning of the breeding season. Cows that were fleshier prior t o calving and when turned on pasture in early May (30 days prior t o the beginning of the breeding season) had a higher cycling rate in early May, June and July. Cows maintaining or increasing slightly in body condition (precalving to early May) tended to have a higher cycling rate during the breeding season than cows which lost body condition ...


Effects Of Bull Exposure On Postpartum Intervals And Reproductive Performance In Beef Cows: A Progress Report, C.D. Naasz, H.L. Miller, B.A. Petijean, R.H. Haigh Jan 1986

Effects Of Bull Exposure On Postpartum Intervals And Reproductive Performance In Beef Cows: A Progress Report, C.D. Naasz, H.L. Miller, B.A. Petijean, R.H. Haigh

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

The effects of bull exposure on time from calving until estrus, conception rates and calving interval were studied for mature beef cows. In the spring of I985 and 1986, cows were randomly allotted to one of two treatment groups. Cows were exposed to vasectomized bulls after calving until breeding or no bull exposure. Cows were heat detected twice daily and blood samples were collected weekly to determine progesterone levels. Heat detection data and progesterone levels indicated onset of estrous cycles occurred earlier in bull exposed cows than non-exposed cows. Conception rates to a timed insemination were not different between the ...


Flow Cytometry Evaluation Of Testis And Sperm Cells And Growth Performance Of Bulls Implanted With Zeranol, B.E. Ballachey, H.L. Miller Jan 1986

Flow Cytometry Evaluation Of Testis And Sperm Cells And Growth Performance Of Bulls Implanted With Zeranol, B.E. Ballachey, H.L. Miller

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Effects of preweaning zeranol implants on reproductive function and growth performance were studied in 45 Simmental-Angus bulls. At slaughter, flow cytometry measurements were made on testicular and sperm cells to determine the effects of zeranol on spermatogenesis. There were no differences in weaning or slaughter weights due to implants. Nonimplanted bulls had larger scrota1 circumferences and heavier testicular weights than bulls given one or two implants. The testes of implanted bulls had a lower proportion of developing germ cells relative to nonimplanted bulls. The DNA in sperm from implanted bulls was structurally less stable (i.e., more susceptible to denaturation ...


Evaluation Of Holstein Bull Sperm Quality By Flow Cytometry, B.E. Ballachey, L.K. Jost, D.P. Evenson Jan 1986

Evaluation Of Holstein Bull Sperm Quality By Flow Cytometry, B.E. Ballachey, L.K. Jost, D.P. Evenson

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Frozen semen samples from Holstein bulls were measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a new procedure utilizing flow cytometry for the valuation of sperm quality. Fertility ratings of the bulls were known based on their use in artificial insemination matings. Values obtained by the SCSA were highly correlated (r= -.58 P<.01 with bull fertility ratings. Results of this research indicate the SCSA may be a valuable technique for measurement of sperm cell quality and detection of suboptimal fertility in bulls.


Performance Of Flank Spayed Rumen Autografted Heifers, David L. Whittington Jan 1986

Performance Of Flank Spayed Rumen Autografted Heifers, David L. Whittington

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Flank spaying of intact yearling heifers has been a routine procedure for ranchers for several years. Most recently a new technique called rumen autografting has created a lot of interest with ranchers. The technique involves implanting or grafting a small piece of ovarian tissue into the outside lining of the rumen wall. A trial was initiated on May 14, 1986, to compare summer grazing performance of intact flank spayed and rumen autografted heifers with and without a growth implant. The 231 crossbred heifers were randomly allotted to the trial and grazed together for 99 days as one herd. The results ...


Effects Of Anabolic Implants On Reproductive Function, Carcass Characteristics And Performance In Postweaned Beef Bulls, S.J. Gordon, H.L. Miller, D.H. Gee, B.A. Petithean Jan 1986

Effects Of Anabolic Implants On Reproductive Function, Carcass Characteristics And Performance In Postweaned Beef Bulls, S.J. Gordon, H.L. Miller, D.H. Gee, B.A. Petithean

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Angus bulls averaging 620 lb were used to study the effects of implants on performance, carcass characteristics and reproductive parameters of intact males. Sixty-six bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments. These treatments were (1) nonimplanted, (2) implanted with 36 mg of Ralgro every 60 t o 70 days, (3) implanted with 220 mg of Synovex-S every 60 t o 70 days, (4) implanted with 24 mg of Compudose every 180 days. Body weights were taken a t the initiation of the trial and every 28 days. Blood samples were collected v i a jugular venipuncture weekly for 9 weeks ...


Comparison Of Ralgro, Compudose And Synovex-C Implants On The Growth Performance Of Yearling Steers, D.L. Whittington Jan 1986

Comparison Of Ralgro, Compudose And Synovex-C Implants On The Growth Performance Of Yearling Steers, D.L. Whittington

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Growth response to a single implant was measured in yearling steers grazing native range on two ranches in South Dakota. The steers (724 head) were randomly allotted on each ranch to either a Ralgro, Compudose, Synovex-S or no implant treatment. Implants were administered according to manufacturers recommendations. The yearlings were weighed at the time of implanting in the spring and again 116 t o 148 days later. The ears of the steers receiving Compudose were palpated at the end of the trial to determine retention. The weight advantage of implanted steers over controls ranged from 12.1 t o 30 ...


Comparison Of Ralgro, Compudose And Synovex-C Implants On The Growth Performance Of Suckling Calves, D.L. Whittington Jan 1986

Comparison Of Ralgro, Compudose And Synovex-C Implants On The Growth Performance Of Suckling Calves, D.L. Whittington

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Growth response to a single implant was measured in suckling steer and heifer calves grazing native range on three ranches in South Dakota, The steers (628 head) were randomly allotted on each ranch to either a Ralgro, Compudose, Synovex-C or no implant treatment. The heifers (714 head) were randomly allotted on each ranch to either a Ralgro, Synovex-C or no implant treatment. Implants were administered according to manufacturers' recommendations. The calves were weighed at the time of implanting and again 163 days later at weaning. The ears of steers receiving a Compudose implant were palpated at weaning to determine retention ...


Effectiveness Of Albendazole Against Parasites And Cow And Calf Performance, H.L. Miller, J. Berthelsen, B.A. Petitjean, R.H. Haigh Jan 1986

Effectiveness Of Albendazole Against Parasites And Cow And Calf Performance, H.L. Miller, J. Berthelsen, B.A. Petitjean, R.H. Haigh

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Albendazole was utilized in drench and feed additive form to determine its effectiveness against parasite control, cow weight and conception rate and calf weaning weights. Fecal oocyte number was decreased by administration of Albendazole. Calf weaning weights from treated cows were heavier the first two years (14.5 lb for heifers and 10.5 lb for bulls) but decreased the third year (13 lb and 6 lb for heifers and bulls, respectively). Conception rates were similar between the two groups, with the only difference occurring the third year when control cows had a higher conception rate from the second AI ...


Determination Of An Optimal Single Dose Of Famphur Administered Om Combination With Levamisole In A Paste Formulation For Grub Control In Beef Calves, H.L. Miller, R.L. Delay, R. Haigh Jan 1986

Determination Of An Optimal Single Dose Of Famphur Administered Om Combination With Levamisole In A Paste Formulation For Grub Control In Beef Calves, H.L. Miller, R.L. Delay, R. Haigh

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Eighty-nine bull and heifer crossbred beef calves were utilized in five treatments t o determine the effect of famphur administered as a paste for grub control. The five treatments were (1) experimental paste-0% famphur or control (A), (2) experimental paste-14.4% famphur (B), (3) experimental paste-21.6X famphur (C), (4) experimental paste-28.8% famphur (Dl and (5) Warbex famphur pour-on plus tramisol levamisole gel (El. In all treatments in which famphur was administered (B, C, D and E) effective control of grubs was accomplished. Weight gains were 355, 360, 384, 355 and 356 lb for bulls in groups A, B ...


The Status Of Horn Fly Resistance In South Dakota, Emmert R. Easton Jan 1986

The Status Of Horn Fly Resistance In South Dakota, Emmert R. Easton

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Ear tags containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos have been effective in the control of resistant horn flies in three western South Dakota localities during 1986. Resistance levels of 50-fold to pyrethroid insecticide were detected in horn fly populations at Cottonwood, Colome and Sturgis.


The Release Of Insects Sterilized By Colbalt 60 To Control A Wild Population Of Stable Flies At The Sdsu Beef Cattle And Sheep Nutrition Unit In Brookings, Emmert R. Easton, Michael A. Catangui Jan 1986

The Release Of Insects Sterilized By Colbalt 60 To Control A Wild Population Of Stable Flies At The Sdsu Beef Cattle And Sheep Nutrition Unit In Brookings, Emmert R. Easton, Michael A. Catangui

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Sterile stable flies were released weekly a t the SDSU Beef Cattle and Sheep Nutrition Unit at Brookings from July 24 through September during the summer 1986 season t o eliminate wild populations of insects. Flies that were sterilized were marked with a dye so when recaptured by an insect net or a sticky trap they could be differentiated from wild, normal or fertile flies. A trend toward reduced f l y numbers was observed 3 weeks following the first release. A 1:5 ratio of sterile to wild flies was achieved in 6 weeks.


The Fly Buster. A Combination Mineral Feeder/Spray Device For The Control Of The Horn Fly And The Face Fly On Pastured Cattle, Emmert R. Easton Jan 1986

The Fly Buster. A Combination Mineral Feeder/Spray Device For The Control Of The Horn Fly And The Face Fly On Pastured Cattle, Emmert R. Easton

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

A combination mineral feeder/spray device was evaluated as a different approach for the suppression of horn and face flies under range conditions in east central South Dakota during the 1985 season. Ravap, Ectrin and Ciovap were applied at the rates of 1.25. .05 and 1.0%, respectively, to Black Angus cattle in three separate pastures with the spray device containing Morton's Farm and Ranch T-M and salt containing iodine and other trace minerals. Cattle in a fourth pasture that were not treated were used as the control. A canister containing Freon 12 acts as a propellant to ...


Effects Of Preconditioning On Pre- And Postshipment Performance And Health Of Feeder Steers, J.K. Swann, R.H. Pritchard, M.A. Robbins Jan 1986

Effects Of Preconditioning On Pre- And Postshipment Performance And Health Of Feeder Steers, J.K. Swann, R.H. Pritchard, M.A. Robbins

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Four hundred steer calves were used to determine the effect of preconditioning on performance and health of calves fed either a high or low energy diet. In each of 2 years, 200 steer calves were selected from four western South Dakota ranches to participate in the study. Preconditioned (PC) calves were treated according to the South Dakota Beef Cattle Improvement Association and Cooperative Extension Service's guidelines for the "Green Tag" program. Preconditioning and implanting with zeranol produced a heavier calf at market time. No difference in weight loss during transit was noted between the PC and control treatments (CO ...


National Beef Cattle Genetic Evaluation, D.M. Marshall Jan 1986

National Beef Cattle Genetic Evaluation, D.M. Marshall

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Use of artificial insemination permits some bulls to have offspring evaluated in more than one herd. Such bulls serve as benchmarks for comparison or links between herds. For some breeds, sufficient links exist between herds that current technology may provide valid genetic comparisons between cattle from different herds, as well as within-herd comparisons. The current industry standard expression for reporting relative genetic merit of beef cattle in national evaluations is expected progeny difference (EPD). The EPD for a sire represents the expected difference in performance of a sire’s offspring when compared t o the average offspring performance of all ...


Cow Efficiency Pre- And Postweaning, C.A. Dinkel, W.J. Cosello Jan 1986

Cow Efficiency Pre- And Postweaning, C.A. Dinkel, W.J. Cosello

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Total energy intake of the cow for a year is not indicative of her efficiency at weaning or her net return to the enterprise. What is important is how she uses the energy she consumes. Likewise, cow size is not indicative of efficiency or net return. Breed differences probably exist , but they are not as important as individual differences in cow efficiency. Breed differences in postweaning efficiency were found only when efficiency was calculated on a cow basis and the cow's annual intake was included. Remember this is a cow efficiency study and the effect of different sires or ...


Whey Ultrafiltration Permeate Products As Feeds For Steers, D.J. Schingoethe, D.G. Rollins, D.P. Casper, W.J. Costello Jan 1986

Whey Ultrafiltration Permeate Products As Feeds For Steers, D.J. Schingoethe, D.G. Rollins, D.P. Casper, W.J. Costello

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

A field trial experiment was conducted using 50 steers t o evaluate the feeding value of the ultrafiltrated permeate of whey (UFP) and products made from additional processing of UFP. All steers were fed nutritionally balanced grain mixes and hay. Experimental diets were control (C), in which the grain mix contained primarily corn, oats and soybean meal; UFP fed as the only liquid; partially fermented permeate (PFP), which contained 10% dried yeast added to the ultrafiltrated permeate, fed as the only source of liquid; fermented ammoniated condensed permeate (FACP), which replaced soybean meal in the grain mix; and ammolac (AMM ...


Effect Of Antibiotics In Adaptation Of Growing Beef Calves To The Feedlot, Richard M. Luther Jan 1986

Effect Of Antibiotics In Adaptation Of Growing Beef Calves To The Feedlot, Richard M. Luther

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Four medication schemes for adapting stressed feeder calves t o the feedlot were evaluated in a 110-day trial. A total of 160 Hereford, Angus and Hereford x Angus steers (544 lb.) were fed a high-corn silage diet supplemented with the following medications: (1) nonmedicated control, (2) chlortetracyclinesulfamethazine (350 mg/steer of each compound for 28 days, (3) oxytetracycline (2 g/steer) for 10 days, then 1 g/steer for 4 days) and (4) oxytetracycline (2 g/steer for 14 days). Average daily gain, dry matter consumption and feed conversion were similar (P>.05) for calves in all treatments. None of ...


Effects Of Sodium Diacetrate On Corn Silage Chemical Characteristics, Preservation And Feedlot Performance Of Growing Beef Steers, Richard M. Luther Jan 1986

Effects Of Sodium Diacetrate On Corn Silage Chemical Characteristics, Preservation And Feedlot Performance Of Growing Beef Steers, Richard M. Luther

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Whole-plant corn forage ensiled a t 65% moisture and stored in concrete stave silos for 200 days was fed in high-silage diets to growing beef steers. Approximately 84 tons of dry matter were stored in each of two silos. One silo contained forage which was untreated, while the other contained forage treated with sodium diacetate a t 1 lb. per ton of wet forage. Differences in feedlot performance of growing steers or in various chemical characteristics between untreated and sodium diacetate-treated corn silage were small and not significant (P>.05). Both silages had a desirable pH (3.8) and contained ...


Whole Shelled Corn With And Without Sodium Bicarbonate For Finishing Beef Steers, Richard M. Luther, M. Goetz Jan 1986

Whole Shelled Corn With And Without Sodium Bicarbonate For Finishing Beef Steers, Richard M. Luther, M. Goetz

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

A total of 160 steers were fed a whole corn-no roughage diet without a buffer or with sodium bicarbonate at a level of .87% of the dry diet . The finishing period of 112 days followed the feeding of a high corn silage diet. Overall feed intake. weight gains and feed conversion were similar (P>.05) for steers supplemented with sodium bicarbonate as for those that did not receive the buffer. Small period differences in performance that were observed between treatments were not significant (P>.05). Carcass characteristics were similar for the control and sodium bicarbonate treatments.


Prevention Of Silica Urinary Calculi In A Laboratory Animal Model, Royce J. Emerick, Carl J. Schreier, Donghao Lu Jan 1986

Prevention Of Silica Urinary Calculi In A Laboratory Animal Model, Royce J. Emerick, Carl J. Schreier, Donghao Lu

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

An animal model utilizing Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 2% of tetraethylorthosilicate (TES) has been used to study urinary conditions and dietary factors preventing silica urinary calculi . The basal TES diet produced approximately a 50% incidence of silica urinary calculi. Supplemental dietary phosphorus and the urinary acidifying agent ammonium chloride greatly reduced the urinary calculi incidence, while supplemental dietary calcium and urine alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate increased the incidence. The protection from silica urinary calculi provided by sodium or ammonium phosphate compounds was found to be independent of their urinary acidifying effects, and the effects of phosphates and ammonium ...


Effects Of Level Of Energy Supplement In Early Winter And Level Protein After Calving On Beef Cows Grazing Native Range, R.J. Pruitt Jan 1986

Effects Of Level Of Energy Supplement In Early Winter And Level Protein After Calving On Beef Cows Grazing Native Range, R.J. Pruitt

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Simmental-Angus crossbred cows grazing native range near Cottonwood, SD, were fed two precalving levels of energy supplement and two postcalving levels of protein supplement. Cow weight change and reproductive performance were similar for all treatments. Although calves from cows supplemented with higher levels of energy gained faster from birth to early May, gains to weaning were similar for all treatments.


Hydrolyzed Feather Meal As A Protein Supplement For Steer Calves Fed Corn Silage, Rh. Pritchard, R.M. Luther, M.A. Robbins Jan 1986

Hydrolyzed Feather Meal As A Protein Supplement For Steer Calves Fed Corn Silage, Rh. Pritchard, R.M. Luther, M.A. Robbins

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

Hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM) was evaluated for soybean meal replacement value in corn silage diets fed t o steer calves. One hundred ninety-two steers (692 lb) were fed corn silage diets formulated to contain 11.5% crude protein. Hydrolyzed feather meal was substituted for soybean meal at levels providing 0, 25, 50 or 75% of the supplemental protein. Overall performance for the 98-day feeding trial was as follows: 2.10 lb average daily gain; 17.91 lb/day dry matter (DM) intake and 8.58 DM/gain. Protein supplements had no effect on performance, indicating that cost per unit protein ...


Evaluation Of An Acid Hydrolyzed Wood By-Product As An Energy And Protein Source In Rumiant Diets, Rh. Pritchard, A. N' Daiye Jan 1986

Evaluation Of An Acid Hydrolyzed Wood By-Product As An Energy And Protein Source In Rumiant Diets, Rh. Pritchard, A. N' Daiye

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

An acid hydrolyzed wood pulp (AHWP) product that had been buffered with NH4OH was evaluated as a potential feedstuff for ruminant diets. The finely ground low dry matter (33%) material was evaluated for acceptability, digestibility and protein feeding value. In vitro fermentation indicated that fermentable dry matter was extremely low, 35.1%. Diets were not readily consumed by cattle if they contained > 60% AHWP. In vivo dry matter digestibility (DMD) coefficients where AHWP replaced corn as 0, 15, 30 or 45% of the diet were 76.5, 69.3, 65.6 and 78.5%, respectively. A similar response was noted ...


Development Of An In Vivo Model To Determine The Biological Value Of Microbial Protein, T. Fritz, R.H. Pritchard Jan 1986

Development Of An In Vivo Model To Determine The Biological Value Of Microbial Protein, T. Fritz, R.H. Pritchard

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

A semi-purified diet (SPD) was fed to 12 wether lambs and one fistulated wether and evaluated for acceptability and ability to support growth. Ruminal pH and NH3 were monitored throughout the diet adaptation period. Treatments included three levels of dry matter intake; low intake (LI) 750 g-hd-l. d-l, medium intake (MI) 1125 g-hd-l..d-l and high intake (HI) 1500 g-hd-l.d-l. Digestibility of dry matter (DM, 70.6%), acid detergent fiber (ADF, 62.8%), nitrogen (N, 72.8%) and percentage digestible nitrogen retained (33.2%) were not different across intake levels. Indigestible ADF of the semi-purified diet appears to be ...


Sdsu Purebred Beef Herds, R.J. Pruitt, R.N. Haigh Jan 1986

Sdsu Purebred Beef Herds, R.J. Pruitt, R.N. Haigh

South Dakota Beef Report, 1986

A herd of purebred Angus and Simmental cows is maintained near the SDSU campus that is used for teaching. research and extension activities. Cattle maintained at this unit are made available for Introductory Animal Science. meats, animal breeding. beef production. and livestock evaluation courses. Current research under the direction of Dr. Herley Miller is reported in another paper in this publication. Besides use in the classroom. cattle are used for the annual SDSU Little International. field days and numerous 4-H and FFA and other educational events. In addition to providing research information and an opportunity for education, we hope this ...