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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers May 2020

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney Jan 2020

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský Dec 2019

Revision Of The Genus Reddyanus From Southeast Asia, With Description Of Five New Species From Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Five new species are described: Reddyanus furai sp. n. from Vietnam, R. hofereki sp. n. and R. majkusi sp. n. from Malaysia, R. rolciki sp. n. from Vietnam and Cambodia, and R. schwotti sp. n. from Thailand and Cambodia, fully complemented with color photographs of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitats. New species are compared with all other species from this region. In addition to the analysis of external morphology, we also describe the karyotypes of R. furai sp. n. (2n=14), R. majkusi sp. n. (2n=16), R. rolciki sp. n. (2n=14), and R ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxii. Two New Species Of Neobuthus From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík Dec 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxii. Two New Species Of Neobuthus From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

New information about taxonomy and distribution of the genus Neobuthus Hirst, 1911 is presented, based on material recently collected in Somaliland. N. awashensis Kovařík & Lowe, 2012 is reported from Somaliland for the first time. Two new species are described, N. haeckeli sp. n. and N. solegladi sp. n. An updated distribution map of the genus Neobuthus is provided.


Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo Dec 2019

Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo

Animal Science Publications

Maximizing the number of offspring born per female is a key functionality trait in commercial- and/or subsistence-oriented livestock enterprises. Although the number of offspring born is closely associated with female fertility and reproductive success, the genetic control of these traits remains poorly understood in sub-Saharan Africa livestock. Using selection signature analysis performed on Ovine HD BeadChip data from the prolific Bonga sheep in Ethiopia, 41 candidate regions under selection were identified. The analysis revealed one strong selection signature on a candidate region on chromosome X spanning BMP15, suggesting this to be the primary candidate prolificacy gene in the breed ...


Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry Dec 2019

Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Sauger Sander canadensis, Walleye Sander vitreus, and Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, are important sportfish in the four main stem Missouri River reservoirs in South Dakota: Lakes Oahe, Sharpe, Francis Case, and Lewis and Clark. However, native Sauger populations, once assumed to be stable, may be in decline. To identify temporal trends and potential interspecific mechanisms affecting Sauger populations, we examined their long-term abundance trends in standard gillnet surveys and angler catch and harvest trends in long-term creel surveys. We also used a robust design occupancy model to examine changes in within-lake distribution of this species. There are concerns regarding the ...


Drivers Of Ant Composition, Richness, And Trophic Guilds In Neotropical Iron Ore Cavities, Rodrigo A. Castro-Souza, Thais G. Pellegrini, Marconi Souza-Silva, Rodrigo L. Ferreira Nov 2019

Drivers Of Ant Composition, Richness, And Trophic Guilds In Neotropical Iron Ore Cavities, Rodrigo A. Castro-Souza, Thais G. Pellegrini, Marconi Souza-Silva, Rodrigo L. Ferreira

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean habitats may be considered limiting for animal colonization, especially for ants, due to permanent darkness and mainly because of oligotrophic conditions. While not as deep as limestone caves, iron ore caves and other subterranean habitats may be more available for colonization because of their shallower depth. We use the richness and composition of ants to assess how differences in habitat structure affect the biodiversity and ecosystem function between cavities and surrounding epigean landscapes. We predicted that the distribution of ants would be different because of the variation in habitat structure and cavity conditions may act as a filter for ...


Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker Nov 2019

Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Animals communicate with potential mates using species-specific signals, and pheromones are powerful sexual signals that modify conspecific behavior to facilitate mate location. Among the vertebrates, snakes are especially adept in mate searching via chemical trailing, which is particularly relevant given that many snake species are invasive outside their native ranges. Chemical signals used in mate choice are, thus, potentially valuable tools for management of invasive snake species. The Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is an invasive snake in the Florida Everglades where it is negatively impacting native fauna. In this study, we sought to: (i) determine if males can follow conspecific ...


Identity Of The Central American Scorpion Centruroides Mahnerti Lourenço, 1983 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Luis F. De Armas Nov 2019

Identity Of The Central American Scorpion Centruroides Mahnerti Lourenço, 1983 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Luis F. De Armas

Euscorpius

The Central American scorpion Centruroides mahnerti Lourenço, 1983, was described on the basis of three female specimens (holotype and paratypes) from Momotombo Volcano, Nicaragua. Almost two decades later, it was synonymized under Centruroides koesteri Kraepelin, 1911 by Armas and Maes, without examination of the type specimen; but Teruel and Stockwell posteriorly argued that description and figures given for C. mahnerti are also similarly referable to juveniles of C. edwardsii (Gervais, 1843). Now, an evaluation of the holotype of C. mahnerti has definitively shown that it is a subadult female of C. koesteri. For the first time, photographs of the holotype ...


Pilot-Scale Assessment Of A Novel Farrowing Creep Area Supplementary Heat Source, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Laura L. Greiner Nov 2019

Pilot-Scale Assessment Of A Novel Farrowing Creep Area Supplementary Heat Source, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Laura L. Greiner

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Pre-weaning morality (PWM) is attributed to a poor creep area microclimate and causes major economic and productivity losses for the US swine industry. Piglets need supplementary heat to overcome a high surface area to body weight ratio and minimal thermoregulation. A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate a semi-enclosed heated microclimate (SEHM) as a supplementary heat source for farrowing creep areas over six farrowing cycles (from January to July 2019) in two rooms with 24 farrowing stalls in each room. Six SEHMs (each SEHM covers two stalls) were randomly distributed to each room and compared to heat lamps (HLs) for ...


The Role Of Endangered Oak (Quercus Spp.) Savanna Characteristics In Supporting Red-Headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes Erythrocephauls L.) Populations, Kimberly J. Zralka Nov 2019

The Role Of Endangered Oak (Quercus Spp.) Savanna Characteristics In Supporting Red-Headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes Erythrocephauls L.) Populations, Kimberly J. Zralka

ELAIA

Declines in animal populations worldwide are of critical conservation concern. However, without an understanding of optimal habitat preference, it is often difficult to determine what factors are driving these losses. Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus L.) populations have declined by over 70% in the last fifty years, yet in some areas the birds seem to maintain stable populations. The aim of this study was to empirically test the effects of various habitat factors on red-headed woodpecker presence and abundance in both the summer and winter seasons. As oak acorns are a critical food source for this bird, we were particularly interested ...


The Effects Of Native And Domestic Grazers On The Health Of Bumble Bee (Bombus Spp.) Populations In A Historical Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem, Mckenna L. Conforti Nov 2019

The Effects Of Native And Domestic Grazers On The Health Of Bumble Bee (Bombus Spp.) Populations In A Historical Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem, Mckenna L. Conforti

ELAIA

Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) play an important role in the pollination of ecologically and economically significant plants worldwide. In recent years, bumble bee populations have suffered decline throughout North America, particularly in the Midwest. Many factors likely contribute to this decline, including the use of pesticides, disease, and habitat loss. Although cattle grazing space is a common use for Midwestern grassland, a comparison had not been made between the capacity of cattle pasture to support bumble bee communities with the capacity of tallgrass prairie, a habitat thought to be optimal for requisite floral resources. Additionally, the reintroduction of bison is ...


Identification Of Resource Extraction Technologies When The Resource Stock Is Unobservable, Quinn Weninger, Larry Perruso, Helle Bunzel Nov 2019

Identification Of Resource Extraction Technologies When The Resource Stock Is Unobservable, Quinn Weninger, Larry Perruso, Helle Bunzel

Economics Working Papers

This paper consistently estimates the structural properties of a fishery resource extraction technology. We overcome two ubiquitous features of fisheries data generating processes that invalidate classical estimators: unobservability by the researcher (but partial observability by fishermen) of the fish stock, and endogenous production decisions that vary with private information about stock abundance and economic variables. We adopt methods used in fisheries stock assessment to control for unobserved stock effects on productivity. A nonlinear instrumental variables estimator controls for endogenous choices of the output mix. The approach is applied to the US Gulf of Mexico commercial reef fish fishery. Comparison with ...


Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs Nov 2019

Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

As the oyster aquaculture industry grows and becomes incorporated into management practices, it is important to understand its effects on local environments. This study investigated how water quality and hydrodynamics varied among farms as well as inside versus outside the extent of caged grow-out areas located in southern Chesapeake Bay. Current speed and water quality variables (chlorophyll-a fluorescence, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen) were measured along multiple transects within and adjacent to four oyster farms during two seasons. At the scale of individual aquaculture sites, we were able to detect statistically significant differences in current speed and water quality variables between ...


High Salinity Tolerance Of Invasive Blue Catfish Suggests Potential For Further Range Expansion In The Chesapeake Bay Region, Vaskar Nepal, Mary Fabrizio Nov 2019

High Salinity Tolerance Of Invasive Blue Catfish Suggests Potential For Further Range Expansion In The Chesapeake Bay Region, Vaskar Nepal, Mary Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

In estuaries, salinity is believed to limit the colonization of brackish water habitats by freshwater species. Blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, recognized as a freshwater species, is an invasive species in tidal rivers of the Chesapeake Bay. Salinity tolerance of this species, though likely to determine its potential range expansion and dispersal in estuarine habitats, is not well-known. To address this issue, we subjected blue catfish to a short-term salinity tolerance experiment and found that this species tolerates salinities higher than most freshwater fishes and that larger blue catfish tolerate elevated salinities for longer periods compared with smaller individuals. Our results ...


Socioeconomic Impacts Of Illegal Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing On Sierra Leone, Michael Tamba Fillie Nov 2019

Socioeconomic Impacts Of Illegal Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing On Sierra Leone, Michael Tamba Fillie

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Towards Ratification And Implementation Of Ilo Work In Fishing Convention, 2007 In The Maldives, Hussain Zameel Nov 2019

Towards Ratification And Implementation Of Ilo Work In Fishing Convention, 2007 In The Maldives, Hussain Zameel

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Work In Fishing Convention, 2007: Thailand As A Case Study, Decha Chotepanitses Nov 2019

Work In Fishing Convention, 2007: Thailand As A Case Study, Decha Chotepanitses

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Impact Assessment Of Illegal Unreported Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Central Africa As A Step Towards Sustainability In Africa’S Fishing Industry: Case Study : Cameroon, Noella Njeuyap Mbotiji Nov 2019

An Impact Assessment Of Illegal Unreported Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Central Africa As A Step Towards Sustainability In Africa’S Fishing Industry: Case Study : Cameroon, Noella Njeuyap Mbotiji

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia Mcmanus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson Nov 2019

#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia Mcmanus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Understanding morphological variation across space in large mammal species can provide insights into their overall ecology and evolutionary history. However, these analyses are frequently limited by the availability of high-resolution morphological data from individuals over a wide spatial scale. In this study, we compiled a large (N=2,092) sample of morphological characteristics from male whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginiana) harvested on Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Management Areas (N=40; DNR WMA) during the 2017 hunting season. We use these data to investigate spatial heterogeneity in the morphological characteristics (e.g., body weight, total antler spread, antler diameter) of ...


#36 - The Effect Of Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Substrates On The Immunosuppressive Capacity Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bianca Patel Nov 2019

#36 - The Effect Of Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Substrates On The Immunosuppressive Capacity Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bianca Patel

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that possess promising therapeutic potential for immunomodulation, tumor targeting, and regenerative medicine. The therapeutic potential of MSCs is largely regulated through paracrine signaling mechanisms including binding interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Since sulfated glycosaminoglycans are an important ECM constituent in the bone marrow stem cell niche with binding affinities reliant on sulfation patterns, we hypothesized that collagen bound chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) possessing different sulfation patterns, will induce changes in MSC immunosuppressive potency and morphology. Collagen provides distinct binding sites for CS-GAGs, hence we employed a layer-by-layer strategy to immobilize CS-GAGs ...


Forage News [2019-11], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Nov 2019

The Loon, Randall Snyder Nov 2019

The Loon, Randall Snyder

Randall Snyder Compositions

For Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano, & Piano

Duration: 4:00

"Elegiac"

Poem by Marjorie Saiser

Loon populations have been declining significantly throughout their core range— mostly Canada and the northern tier of the United States—over the past 20 years, due in large part to mercury poisoning, acid rain, lead, and the rise of botulism in the Great Lakes region. Common loons are endangered in Vermont, threatened in New Hampshire and Michigan, and a species of special concern in New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.


A New Species Of Kochius From Avra Valley, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Lawrence L. C. Jones, Brandon Myers Oct 2019

A New Species Of Kochius From Avra Valley, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Lawrence L. C. Jones, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

A new scorpion species, Kochius colluvius sp. n. is described (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae). This small brown species is found in the Avra Valley near Tucson, Arizona, USA. It appears to be most similar to Kochius sonorae (Williams, 1971) and K. hirsuticauda (Banks, 1910). On all fingers examined, the fixed finger has 6 ID denticles and the movable finger has 7. There is no scalloping of the chela fingers. This species differs from all other vaejovids in Arizona by having a coarsely granulated exoskeleton.


The Integration Of Blockchain Technology To The Beef Industry – A Comparative Analysis, Cole N. Hancock Oct 2019

The Integration Of Blockchain Technology To The Beef Industry – A Comparative Analysis, Cole N. Hancock

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This paper seeks to explore the different plausible and implemented applications of blockchain technology in the beef industry in two representative markets: The United States and Kenya. Previous papers discuss implementation of blockchain to the beef industry, without a focus on the variations between beef industries and supply chains in various countries, a gap this paper aims to address. The main method of research has been primary, traveling to these countries and engaging in conversations with various stakeholders about their industry’s supply chain and the problems and opportunities therein. Overall this paper finds that the integration of blockchain to ...


Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hj Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Ks Reece, Jd Shields Oct 2019

Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hj Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Ks Reece, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus supports a large and valuable fishery in the Caribbean Sea. In 2007-2008, a rare microsporidian parasite with spore characteristics typical of the Ameson genus was detected in 2 spiny lobsters from southeast Florida (FL). However, the parasite species was not confirmed by molecular analyses. To address this deficiency, reported here are structural and molecular data on single lobsters displaying comparable ‘cotton-like’ abdominal muscle containing ovoid microsporidian spores found at different locations in FL in 2014 and 2018 and in Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands in 2017. In the lobster from 2014, multiple life stages ...


Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-Dipasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. Mcdowell Oct 2019

Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-Dipasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. Mcdowell

Steven J. Hall

At a “clean air” trade winds site in northeastern Puerto Rico, we found an apparent paradox: atmospheric total mercury (THg) deposition was highest of any site in the USA Mercury Deposition Network, but assimilation into the local food web was quite low. Avian blood THg concentrations (n = 31, from eight species in five foraging guilds) ranged widely from 0.2 to 32 ng g−1 (median of 4.3 ng g−1). Within this population, THg was significantly greater at a low-elevation site near a wetland compared to an upland montane site, even when the comparison was limited to a ...


Characterizing Louisiana's Freshwater Commercial Fisheries, Lauren Bonatakis Oct 2019

Characterizing Louisiana's Freshwater Commercial Fisheries, Lauren Bonatakis

LSU Master's Theses

As an important contributor to Louisiana’s economy, the commercial freshwater fisheries have been the subject of growing attention in recent years by resource managers. Compared to the marine sector, little is known about these fisheries. Anecdotally, the fisheries appear to be on the brink of collapse. Fewer young fishermen are entering the field, fish buyers and processors are closing, and market prices remain stagnant. Because of this, the fisheries lack the resources needed to perpetuate the success and sustainability for future generations. To better understand this industry, I conducted a two-part study to characterize the commercial freshwater fisheries in ...


Morphological Identification Of Bighead Carp, Silver Carp, And Grass Carp Eggs Using Random Forests Machine Learning Classification, Carlos A. Camacho, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce Oct 2019

Morphological Identification Of Bighead Carp, Silver Carp, And Grass Carp Eggs Using Random Forests Machine Learning Classification, Carlos A. Camacho, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce

Michael J Weber

Visual identification of fish eggs is difficult and unreliable due to a lack of information on morphological egg characteristics of many species. We used random forests machine learning to predict the identity of genetically identified Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and Silver Carp (H. molitrix) eggs based on egg morphometric and environmental characteristics. Family, genus, and species taxonomic level random forests were explored to assess variable performance and accuracy. Bighead Carp, Grass Carp, and Silver Carp egg characteristics were similar and difficult to distinguish from one another. When combined into a single invasive carp class, random forests ...