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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Beyond The Urban Stream Syndrome: Organic Matter Budgets For Diagnostics And Restoration Of An Impaired Urban River, Dave M. Epstein, Julia E. Kelso, Michelle A. Baker Apr 2016

Beyond The Urban Stream Syndrome: Organic Matter Budgets For Diagnostics And Restoration Of An Impaired Urban River, Dave M. Epstein, Julia E. Kelso, Michelle A. Baker

Biology Faculty Publications

In response to water quality standard violations linked to excessive organic matter (OM) and a lack of sampling data informing the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), an organic matter budget was created to quantify and identify sources of OM in the lower Jordan River (Salt Lake City, UT). By sampling dissolved, fine, and coarse particulate OM, as well as measuring ecosystem metabolism at seven different sites, the researchers aimed to identify the origin of excess OM, and understand pathways by which different size classes of the OM pool are generated. The dissolved fraction (DOM; 94 %) was found to be the ...


Contrasting Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Across A Montane Meadow And Urban Lawn In A Semi-Arid Watershed, Steven J. Hall, Michelle A. Baker, Scott B. Jones, John M. Stark, David R. Bowling Feb 2016

Contrasting Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Across A Montane Meadow And Urban Lawn In A Semi-Arid Watershed, Steven J. Hall, Michelle A. Baker, Scott B. Jones, John M. Stark, David R. Bowling

Biology Faculty Publications

Urbanization substantially increases nitrogen (N) inputs and hydrologic losses relative to wildland ecosystems, although the fate of N additions to lawns and remnant grasslands remains contested. In montane semi-arid ecosystems, N cycling is often closely coupled to snowmelt (the dominant period of infiltration) and snow cover, which impact soil temperature and moisture. Here, we compared soil N dynamics between a fertilized and irrigated urban lawn and nearby riparian meadow in Salt Lake City, Utah during a snow manipulation experiment. Snow removal increased freeze/thaw events but did not affect N pools, microbial biomass, denitrification potential, or soil oxygen (O2). Mineral ...


Stream Water Nitrogen Inputs Reflects Groundwater Across A Snowmelt-Dominated Montane-To-Urban Watershed, Steven J. Hall, Samantha R. Weintraub, David Eiriksson, Paul D. Brooks, Michelle A. Baker, Gabriel J. Bowen, David R. Bowling Jan 2016

Stream Water Nitrogen Inputs Reflects Groundwater Across A Snowmelt-Dominated Montane-To-Urban Watershed, Steven J. Hall, Samantha R. Weintraub, David Eiriksson, Paul D. Brooks, Michelle A. Baker, Gabriel J. Bowen, David R. Bowling

Biology Faculty Publications

Snowmelt dominates the hydrograph of many temperate montane streams, yet little work has characterized how streamwater sources and nitrogen (N) dynamics vary across wildland to urban land use gradients in these watersheds. Across a third-order catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, we asked where and when groundwater vs shallow surface water inputs controlled stream discharge and N dynamics. Stream water isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) reflected a consistent snowmelt water source during baseflow. Near-chemostatic relationships between conservative ions and discharge implied that groundwater dominated discharge year-round across the montane and urban sites, challenging the conceptual emphasis on direct stormwater inputs to ...


Managing The Spread Of Alfalfa Stem Nematodes (Ditylenchus Dipsaci): The Relationship Between Crop Rotation Periods And Pest Re-Emergence, S. Jordan, C. Nischwitz, R. A. Ramirez, L. Gordillo Jan 2016

Managing The Spread Of Alfalfa Stem Nematodes (Ditylenchus Dipsaci): The Relationship Between Crop Rotation Periods And Pest Re-Emergence, S. Jordan, C. Nischwitz, R. A. Ramirez, L. Gordillo

Biology Faculty Publications

Alfalfa is a critical cash/rotation crop in the western region of the United States, where it is common to find crops affected by the alfalfa stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci). Understanding the spread dynamics associated with this pest would allow end-users to design better management programs and farming practices. This is of particular importance given that there are no nematicides available against alfalfa stem nematode and control strategies largely rely on crop rotation to non-host crops or by planting resistant varieties. I present a basic host-parasite model that describes the spread of the alfalfa stem nematode on alfalfa crops. With ...


First Report Of Invasive Crane Fly, Tipula Oleracea, In Utah, A Van Dyke, R A. Ramirez, B A. Mcgraw Dec 2015

First Report Of Invasive Crane Fly, Tipula Oleracea, In Utah, A Van Dyke, R A. Ramirez, B A. Mcgraw

Biology Faculty Publications

The known range of the common crane fly (Tipula oleracea L.) is expanding in the western US, as adults were captured (by me) in Utah while emerging and flying over golf course rough. Adults were collected at The Ridge Golf Course in West Valley City on 15 September, 2014, and identified by Dr. Benjamin McGraw at the Pennsylvania State University Turfgrass Entomology Lab in University Park, PA. Crane fly larvae (known as leather jackets for their tough skin) were previously found (again, by me) with the help of golf course superintendent Brian Roth on 4 August, 2012 damaging putting greens ...


Filtering With A Drill Pump: An Efficient And Cost Effective Method To Collect Suspended Sediment And Filtrate, Julia E. Kelso, Michelle A. Baker Nov 2015

Filtering With A Drill Pump: An Efficient And Cost Effective Method To Collect Suspended Sediment And Filtrate, Julia E. Kelso, Michelle A. Baker

Biology Faculty Publications

Water quality monitoring programs across multiple disciplines use total suspended solids (TSS), and volatile suspended solids (VSS), to assess potential impairments of surface water and groundwater. While previous methods for instream filtering have been developed, the need for rapid, cost-effective, high volume sampling has increased with the need to verify and supplement data produced by sondes and instantaneous data loggers. We present an efficient method to filter water instream with a portable drill pump that results in reduced sample processing time, and potentially reduced error associated with sample transportation, preservation, contamination, and homogenization. This technical note outlines the advantages of ...


Metabolism, Gas Exchange, And Carbon Spiraling In Rivers, Robert O. Hall Jr, Jennifer L. Tank, Michelle A. Baker, Emma J. Rosi-Marshall, Erin R. Hotchkiss Sep 2015

Metabolism, Gas Exchange, And Carbon Spiraling In Rivers, Robert O. Hall Jr, Jennifer L. Tank, Michelle A. Baker, Emma J. Rosi-Marshall, Erin R. Hotchkiss

Biology Faculty Publications

Ecosystem metabolism, that is, gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), controls organic carbon (OC) cycling in stream and river networks and is expected to vary predictably with network position. However, estimates of metabolism in small streams outnumber those from rivers such that there are limited empirical data comparing metabolism across a range of stream and river sizes. We measured metabolism in 14 rivers (discharge range 14–84 m3 s−1) in the Western and Midwestern United States (US). We estimated GPP, ER, and gas exchange rates using a Lagrangian, 2-station oxygen model solved in a Bayesian framework. GPP ...


Translational Training For Tomorrow’S Environmental Scientists, Mark W. Brunson, Michelle A. Baker Sep 2015

Translational Training For Tomorrow’S Environmental Scientists, Mark W. Brunson, Michelle A. Baker

Biology Faculty Publications

Environmental science exists to seek solutions to problems related to human-nature interactions. Unfortunately, in many cases, environmental research findings are not effectively used because scientists are not able to convey their knowledge effectively to policy makers and the public, and/or because the questions they address are not directly linked to the answers stakeholders need. To address this issue, Schlesinger (2010) called for development of a “translational ecology” that would be understandable and usable by decision-makers, interest groups, and citizens. A barrier to usable science is that researchers are not usually trained to be translational. We convened a multi-disciplinary group ...


The Varying Role Of Water Column Nutrient Removal Along River Continua In Contrasting Landscapes, Alexander J. Reisinger, Jennifer L. Tank, Emma J. Rosi-Marshall, Robert O. Hall Jr, Michelle A. Baker Jun 2015

The Varying Role Of Water Column Nutrient Removal Along River Continua In Contrasting Landscapes, Alexander J. Reisinger, Jennifer L. Tank, Emma J. Rosi-Marshall, Robert O. Hall Jr, Michelle A. Baker

Biology Faculty Publications

Nutrient transformation processes such as assimilation, dissimilatory transformation, and sorption to sediments are prevalent in benthic zones of headwater streams, but may also occur in the water column. The river continuum concept (RCC) predicts that water column processes become increasingly important with increasing stream size. We predicted that water column nutrient uptake increases with stream size, mirroring carbon/energy dynamics predicted by the RCC. We measured water column uptake of ammonium ( NH+4NH4+ ), nitrate ( NO−3NO3− ), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in 1st through 5th order stream and river reaches (discharge: 50–68,000 L s−1) in three watersheds ...


Learning To Love Leftovers: Using By-Catch To Expand Our Knowledge In Entomology, L Spears, R A. Ramirez Jan 2015

Learning To Love Leftovers: Using By-Catch To Expand Our Knowledge In Entomology, L Spears, R A. Ramirez

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee Sep 2014

Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Scared Sick? Predator-Pathogen Facilitation Enhances The Exploitation Of A Shared Resource, R A. Ramirez, W E. Snyder Oct 2009

Scared Sick? Predator-Pathogen Facilitation Enhances The Exploitation Of A Shared Resource, R A. Ramirez, W E. Snyder

Biology Faculty Publications

Resource use generally increases with greater consumer diversity, an effect often attributed to resource partitioning. Pathogens and predators are two classes of consumer that exhibit differences in ecologically important traits (e.g., size, resource acquisition strategy, foraging location) that could lead to complementary effects on shared prey/hosts. To examine this possibility, we manipulated diversity among a community of predators and pathogens that together attack an herbivorous beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and measured resulting effects on herbivore suppression and resulting plant damage. We found that herbivore mortality increased, and plant damage decreased, when more natural enemy species were present. However, closer ...


The Influence Of Low Humidity, Pseudacteon Flies, And Competition By Solenopsis Xyloni On Solenopsis Invicta, R A. Ramirez, D C. Thompson, M D. Remmenga Aug 2006

The Influence Of Low Humidity, Pseudacteon Flies, And Competition By Solenopsis Xyloni On Solenopsis Invicta, R A. Ramirez, D C. Thompson, M D. Remmenga

Biology Faculty Publications

Red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious pest in the southeastern United States. It has caused economic losses in agricultural products, stings can cause anaphylactic shock, and it has reduced biodiversity. S. invicta has displaced native ant species throughout its range, presumably by competitive exclusion. In 1998, S. invicta populations were confirmed in southern New Mexico, resulting in a quarantine of Doña Ana County. Although large populations of the native southern fire ant, S. xyloniMcCook, are common in the Mesilla Valley, only two small populations of S. invicta have been found since the initial quarantine. It is ...


Queen Weights Of Polygyne Solenopsis Invicta And S. Xyloni Suggest Reduced Competitive Ability, R A. Ramirez, D C. Thompson Mar 2006

Queen Weights Of Polygyne Solenopsis Invicta And S. Xyloni Suggest Reduced Competitive Ability, R A. Ramirez, D C. Thompson

Biology Faculty Publications

Solenopsis invicta Buren populations were confirmed in southern New Mexico, resulting in a quarantine of Doña Ana County in 1998; however, Solenopsis xyloni McCook remains the dominant fire ant. This study compared the queen weights and egg production of polygyne colonies of both species. There was no difference in live weights of the major worker caste; however, queens were very different in weight. In this study, S. invicta queens weighed almost twice as much as S. xyloni (S. invicta = 11.32 ± 0.25mg vs. S. xyloni = 6.40 ± 0.30mg) and produced over 50% as many eggs as S. xyloni ...


Planting Date Effects On The Germinability And Seedling Vigor Of Abutilon Theophrasti Seeds, R E. Nurse, A Ditommaso, R A. Ramirez Dec 2004

Planting Date Effects On The Germinability And Seedling Vigor Of Abutilon Theophrasti Seeds, R E. Nurse, A Ditommaso, R A. Ramirez

Biology Faculty Publications

Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae) is a troublesome annual weed in many maize and soybean cropping systems of Canada and the United States. Seeds of A. theophrasti exhibit physical dormancy. Differences in the growing environment of parent plants may influence the germinability of seeds and vigour of seedlings produced by this species because of variation in resource allocation to seed development. Thus, the germinability of seeds and subsequent seedling vigour were examined for A. theophrasti plants grown in monoculture at a density of 4.2 plants m -2 under varying natural photoperiods in central New York State. Treatments were established by transplanting ...