Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Zoology

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 31 - 60 of 8060

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

What Is In An Octopus's Mind?, Jennifer Mather Aug 2019

What Is In An Octopus's Mind?, Jennifer Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

It is difficult to imagine what an animal as different from us as the octopus ‘thinks’, but we can make some progress. In the Umwelt or perceptual world of an octopus, what the lateralized monocular eyes perceive is not color but the plane of polarization of light. Information is processed by a bilateral brain but manipulation is done by a radially symmetrical set of eight arms. Octopuses do not self-monitor by vision. Their skin pattern system, used for excellent camouflage, is open loop. The output of the motor system of the eight arms is organized at several levels — brain, intrabrachial ...


Malanda Gold: The Tale Of A Unique Rainbowfish From The Atherton Table-Lands, Now On The Verge Of Extinction., Peter J. Unmack, Keith Martin, Michael P. Hammer, Brendan Ebner, Karl Moy, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Malanda Gold: The Tale Of A Unique Rainbowfish From The Atherton Table-Lands, Now On The Verge Of Extinction., Peter J. Unmack, Keith Martin, Michael P. Hammer, Brendan Ebner, Karl Moy, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

No abstract provided.


A Risk Assessment And Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown Aug 2019

A Risk Assessment And Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

The precautionary principal is often invoked when talking about the evidence of sentience in animals, largely because we can never be certain what any animal is thinking or feeling. Birch (2017) offers a preliminary framework for the use of the precautionary principal for animal sentience combining an epistemic rule with a decision rule. I extend this framework by adding an evolutionary phylogentic approach which spreads the burden of proof across broad taxonomic groups and a risk assessment component which magnifies the likely impact by the number of animals involved.


Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

The majority of commentaries are supportive of our position on the scepticism that muddies the waters surrounding fish pain and sentience. There is substantial empirical evidence for pain in fish. Animals’ experience of pain cannot be compared to artificial intelligence (AI) because AI can only mimic responses to nociceptive input on the basis of human observations and programming. Accepting that fish are sentient would not be detrimental to the industries reliant on fish. A more proactive discussion between scientists and stakeholders is needed to improve fish welfare for the benefit of all.


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Recent empirical studies have reported evidence that many aquatic species, including fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, have the capacity for nociception and pain, and that their welfare should be taken into consideration. Some sceptics, rejecting the precautionary principle, have denied that any study demonstrates pain or other aspects of sentience in fish. This target article discusses some of the scientific shortcomings of these critiques through a detailed analysis of a study exploring nociception and analgesia in larval zebrafish.


Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. Vannatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol Aug 2019

Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. Vannatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Field immobilization of native or invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is challenging. Drug combinations commonly used often result in unsatisfactory immobilization, poor recovery, and adverse side effects, leading to unsafe handling conditions for both animals and humans. We compared four chemical immobilization combinations, medetomidine–midazolam–butorphanol (MMB), butorphanol–azaperone–medetomidine (BAM™), nalbuphine–medetomidine–azaperone (NalMed-A), and tiletamine– zolazepam–xylazine (TZX), to determine which drug combinations might provide better chemical immobilization of wild pigs. We achieved adequate immobilization with no post-recovery morbidity withMMB. Adequate immobilization was achieved with BAM™; however, we observed post-recovery morbidity. Both MMB and BAM™ produced more optimal ...


Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Scott J. Werner Aug 2019

Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Scott J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian vision is fundamentally different from human vision; however, even within birds there are substantial between species differences in visual perception in terms of visual acuity, visual coverage, and color vision. However, there are not many species that have all these visual traits described, which can constrain our ability to study the evolution of visual systems in birds. To start addressing this gap, we characterized multiple traits of the visual system (visual coverage, visual acuity, centers of acute vision, and color vision) of the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), one of the most abundant and studied birds in North America. We ...


A New Species Of Catalinia Soleglad Et Al., 2017 (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) From Southern California, Usa, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers Aug 2019

A New Species Of Catalinia Soleglad Et Al., 2017 (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) From Southern California, Usa, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

Herein we describe a new species of the vaejovid scorpion genus Catalinia Soleglad, Ayrey, Graham & Fet, 2017. It was collected in a single locality of the northwestern foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. It is most closely related to both Catalinia andreas (Gertsch & Soleglad, 1972) and C. minima (Kraepelin, 1911), but is clearly distinguished by tegumentary sculpture, morphometric ratios and pectinal tooth counts. The new species is described and illustrated in detail, with some ecological data included; moreover, a minor correction is introduced to the diagnosis of the genus.


A New “Vorhiesi” Group Species Of Vaejovis From The Galiuro Mountains, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Brandon Myers Aug 2019

A New “Vorhiesi” Group Species Of Vaejovis From The Galiuro Mountains, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

A new scorpion species, Vaejovis stetsoni sp. n. is described from Galiuro Mountains, Graham County, Arizona. This is the smallest species of the “vorhiesi” group discovered so far, most similar to V. brysoni Ayrey & Webber. The pedipalp fixed finger has five ID denticles and the movable finger has six, like in most other southern Arizona Vaejovis. The most unique characteristics of this species are its small size (18.35 mm) and a large subaculear tubercle.


Scorpions Of Sri Lanka (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Iii. Heterometrus Yaleensis Sp. N. (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Kithsiri B. Ranawana, V. A. Sanjeewa Jayarathne, David Hoferek, František Šťáhlavský Aug 2019

Scorpions Of Sri Lanka (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Iii. Heterometrus Yaleensis Sp. N. (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Kithsiri B. Ranawana, V. A. Sanjeewa Jayarathne, David Hoferek, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Heterometrus yaleensis sp. n. from Sri Lanka, Southern Province, Yale National Park is described and compared with other species of the genus. The presence of a unique dorsointernal carina on the pedipalp chela distinguishes H. yaleensis sp. n. from all other Heterometrus species. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Heterometrus in Sri Lanka, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. In addition to external morphology and hemispermatophore, we also describe the karyotype of H. yaleensis sp. n. (2n=99).


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson Aug 2019

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Effects Of Protective Nesting Site Properties On Gyrfalcon Breeding Success And Parental Investment In Western Alaska, Michael Thomas Henderson Aug 2019

Effects Of Protective Nesting Site Properties On Gyrfalcon Breeding Success And Parental Investment In Western Alaska, Michael Thomas Henderson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Habitat suitability for wildlife is defined at scales ranging from the landscape to an individual breeding site. Areas that fulfill habitat requirements for birds disproportionally maintain populations, and the identification of variables that distinguish optimal breeding sites helps to prioritize conservation. Nesting site characteristics that protect breeding raptors from harsh weather can promote a more favorable microclimate and increase breeding success, although previous attempts to understand this effect in breeding Gyrfalcons have yielded ambiguous results. Additionally, breeding adults incur substantial costs from the physical shielding of eggs and nestlings, particularly in the Arctic, and it is possible that protective properties ...


The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma Aug 2019

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

A Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca baudinii, a nonindigenous species, was interdicted for the first time from an imported shipment of peppers. The value of agriculture inspection stations used to make these interdictions is discussed. This is a single cargo interception (Stage 1: Colautti and MacIsaac 2004) and the first record for S. baudinii intercepted in Florida. Currently no evidence suggests that S. baudinii has been successfully introduced into and established in Florida, although this species could survive climatic conditions in the southern part of the state and at the scheduled destination of this shipment.

Cargo transport of alien species is a ...


Validation Of A Death Assay For Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Larvae (L3) Using Propidium Iodide In A Rat Model (Rattus Norvegicus), Susan I. Jarvi, John Jacob, Robert T. Sugihara, Israel L. Leinbach, Ina H. Klasner, Lisa M. Kaluna, Kirsten A. Snook, M. Kathleen Howe, Steven H. Jacquier, Ingo Lange, Abigail L. Atkinson, Ashley R. Deane, Chris N. Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers Jul 2019

Validation Of A Death Assay For Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Larvae (L3) Using Propidium Iodide In A Rat Model (Rattus Norvegicus), Susan I. Jarvi, John Jacob, Robert T. Sugihara, Israel L. Leinbach, Ina H. Klasner, Lisa M. Kaluna, Kirsten A. Snook, M. Kathleen Howe, Steven H. Jacquier, Ingo Lange, Abigail L. Atkinson, Ashley R. Deane, Chris N. Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of ...


Behavioural Risks In Male Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones May Complicate Population-Control Benefits Of Desexing, Paul Mcgreevy, Bethany Wilson, Melissa Starling, James A. Serpell Jul 2019

Behavioural Risks In Male Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones May Complicate Population-Control Benefits Of Desexing, Paul Mcgreevy, Bethany Wilson, Melissa Starling, James A. Serpell

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Castration of dogs is a widespread practise with clear justification in population control and knock-on benefits for animal welfare. Deleterious behavioural consequences of castration are believed to be negligible. Gonadectomy is widely recommended as part of a multi-factorial approach to prevent problems including aggression in dogs. However, the consequences of early castration on health are still being debated. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 6,235 male dogs castrated before 520 weeks of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at ...


Contact Rates With Nesting Birds Before And After Invasive Snake Removal: Estimating The Effects Of Trap-Based Control, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Melia G. Nafus, Page E. Klug, Björn Lardner, M.J. Mazurek, Julie A. Savidge, Robert N. Reed Jul 2019

Contact Rates With Nesting Birds Before And After Invasive Snake Removal: Estimating The Effects Of Trap-Based Control, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Melia G. Nafus, Page E. Klug, Björn Lardner, M.J. Mazurek, Julie A. Savidge, Robert N. Reed

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive predators are responsible for almost 60% of all vertebrate extinctions worldwide with the most vulnerable faunas occurring on islands. The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) is a notorious invasive predator that caused the extirpation or extinction of most native forest birds on Guam. The success of avian reintroduction efforts on Guam will depend on whether snake-control techniques sufficiently reduce contact rates between brown treesnakes and reintroduced birds. Mouse-lure traps can successfully reduce brown treesnake populations at local scales. Over a 22-week period both with and without active snake removal, we evaluated snake-trap contact rates for mouse- and bird-lure traps. Bird-lure ...


An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers Jul 2019

An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The eradication or control of invasive small Indian mongooses from islands likely requires toxic baiting when removal by trapping proves insufficient. The one toxic bait currently registered for mongooses in the United States has relatively low palatability and efficacy for mongooses. Developing and registering a new pesticide can be very expensive, while funding for developing toxicants for mongooses is limited. Once registered, use of a toxic bait may be hindered by other factors, such as public opposition to an inhumane toxicant, poorer efficacy than expected, or if the toxic bait is difficult for applicators to apply or store. Therefore, we ...


Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, Jonathan Balcombe Jul 2019

Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

I respond to five commentaries on my 2016 book What a Fish Knows. The commentaries express more harmony than dissent about my interpretation of fishes as cognitive, aware individuals deserving better treatment by humankind.


Chicken Of The Sea, Jonathan Balcombe Jul 2019

Chicken Of The Sea, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Marino summarizes research showing that chickens perform cognitively and emotionally at a higher level than previously assumed. Here, I describe capacities of teleost fishes that parallel those of chickens, including the ability to recognize human faces, perspective-taking, and referential communication. Research on chickens and on fishes reveals an emerging trend in cognitive ethology: abilities once thought limited to a scant few highly intelligent non-humans may actually occur broadly across taxa.


Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul Mcgreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt Jul 2019

Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul Mcgreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Canine dystocia is a relatively common veterinary presentation. First opinion emergency care clinical data from 50 Vets Now clinics across the UK were used to explore dystocia management and outcomes in bitches. Caesarean section (CS) was performed on 341/701 (48.6 per cent (95 per cent CI 44.9 to 52.4)) of dystocia cases. The bulldog (OR 7.60, 95 per cent CI 1.51 to 38.26, P=0.014), Border terrier (OR 4.89, 95 per cent CI 0.92 to 25.97, P=0.063) and golden retriever (OR 4.07, 95 per cent CI ...


What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy Jul 2019

What Sets Us Apart Could Be Our Salvation, Anne Fawcett, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

We agree with Chapman & Huffman that human capacities are often assumed to be unique — or attempts are made to demonstrate uniqueness scientifically — in order to justify the exploitation of animals and ecosystems. To extend the argument that human exceptionalism is against our interests, we recommend adopting the One Welfare framework, according to which animal welfare, environmental sustainability and human wellbeing are inseparably linked. Let us distinguish ourselves from other animals by resisting our short- and mid-term Darwinian inclinations, consuming less, reproducing less, and striving for a much longer-term biological fitness for us all.


Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth Jul 2019

Farm Animals Are Not Humans In Sheep Clothing, Lorenz Gygax, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Research on the mental lives of farm animals is crucial to assess not only their physical but also their psychological wellbeing. Their current housing and handling practices are highly unlikely to meet their cognitive needs and demands, but our knowledge of their mental capacities is still limited. Although folk wisdom often refers to farm animals as dull and inflexible, recent studies show they have a rich interpretation of their environment and can solve complex problems. Yet an uncritical and anthropomorphic assessment of farm animal cognition and behaviour may lead to the attribution of an exaggerated amount of cognitive flexibility. Contrary ...


The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu Jul 2019

The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu

International Journal of Speleology

First-order sinking cave streams experience considerable hydrological variability, including spates and periods of base-flow during dry seasons. Early-summer flooding on a first-order stream sinking in Ciur-Ponor Cave (Romania) represented a suitable opportunity to test the response of the macroinvertebrate community and of basal food resources quantity and diversity to such a disturbance event. The invertebrate community and basal resources (i.e., woody debris, leaves, fine particulate organic matter and epilithon) were collected from three sampling sites, before and after the flood. The sampling strategy followed an up-downstream gradient of both species diversity and quantity of allochtonous organic matter decrease as ...


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini Jul 2019

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Kimberly Subacz, Jason Christian Jul 2019

General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Kimberly Subacz, Jason Christian

Biological Sciences Open Textbooks

This lab manual for General Zoology was created under a Round Twelve ALG Textbook Transformation Grant. The manual contains six individual labs to be completed within a laboratory, along with a collection project to be completed outdoors with an instructor.

Topics include:

  • Classification and Evolution
  • The Planaria Project
  • Introduction to Invertebrates
  • Introduction to Chordates
  • Vertebrates Continued
  • Mammalogy


Transmission Dynamics Of Toxoplasma Gondii In Arctic Foxes (Vulpes Lagopus): A Long-Term Mark-Recapture Serologic Study At Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada, Emilie Bouchard, Stacey A. Elmore, Ray T. Alisauskas, Gustaf Samelius, Alvin A. Gajadhar, Keaton Schmidt, Sasha Ross, Emily J. Jenkins Jul 2019

Transmission Dynamics Of Toxoplasma Gondii In Arctic Foxes (Vulpes Lagopus): A Long-Term Mark-Recapture Serologic Study At Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada, Emilie Bouchard, Stacey A. Elmore, Ray T. Alisauskas, Gustaf Samelius, Alvin A. Gajadhar, Keaton Schmidt, Sasha Ross, Emily J. Jenkins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Transmission dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite of importance for wildlife and human health, are enigmatic in the Arctic tundra, where free-ranging wild and domestic felid definitive hosts are absent and rarely observed, respectively. Through a multiyear mark-recapture study (2011– 17), serosurveillance was conducted to investigate transmission of T. gondii in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the Karrak Lake region, Nunavut, Canada. Sera from adult foxes and fox pups were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by using serologic methods, including the indirect fluorescent antibody test, direct agglutination test, and modified agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 39% in adults ...


Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney Jul 2019

Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As charismatic megafauna and a flagship species, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are vital to the African tourist economy. Conversely, high levels of wildlife tourism can induce behavioral shifts that push desired animals into less frequented areas and disrupt natural behaviors. In order to examine this trade-off, tourism levels and African elephant behaviors were studied in Zambezi National Park (ZNP) near Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Over the course of 14 weeks, in-person observations and camera traps in ZNP were used to collect geographic, demographic, and behavioral data from elephant sightings. As a proxy for human presence, geo-locational data were collected for each ...


Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin Jul 2019

Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Marine mammals are in a precarious conservation position because of anthropogenic impacts and historic perceptions that they are a consumable commodity. In light of changing abiotic conditions, further evaluation is needed on the habitat use, behavior, and interactions among marine mammals. Conservation legislation has helped protect species, but the greatest ground swelling may be the advent of the commercial whale watching industry. The feeding grounds in Alaskan waters have made this area a prime tourism location, and these nutrient-rich waters have resulted in a confluence of marine mammal species, including the appealing and abundant humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that may ...


Survival, Fidelity, And Dispersal Of Double-Crested Cormorants On Two Lake Michigan Islands, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Ken Stromborg, Todd W. Arnold, Jacob S. Ivan, Brian S. Dorr Jun 2019

Survival, Fidelity, And Dispersal Of Double-Crested Cormorants On Two Lake Michigan Islands, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Ken Stromborg, Todd W. Arnold, Jacob S. Ivan, Brian S. Dorr

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Colony fidelity and dispersal can have important consequences on the population dynamics of colonial-nesting birds. We studied survival and inter-colony movements of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus; cormorants) nesting at Spider and Pilot islands, located 9 km apart in western Lake Michigan, during 2008–2014. We used live resighting and dead recovery data from both colonies, plus dead recoveries from throughout North America, in a multistate live and dead encounter model to estimate annual survival, inter-colony movements, plus temporary and permanent emigration to unmonitored sites. Annual survival averaged 0.37 (annual process variation, ˆ = 0.07) for hatch-year, 0.78 (ˆ ...


Use Of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Uas) And Multispectral Imagery For Quantifying Agricultural Areas Damaged By Wild Pigs, Justin W. Fischer, Kelsey Greiner, Mark W. Lutman, Bryson L. Webber, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jun 2019

Use Of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Uas) And Multispectral Imagery For Quantifying Agricultural Areas Damaged By Wild Pigs, Justin W. Fischer, Kelsey Greiner, Mark W. Lutman, Bryson L. Webber, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, resulting in lost production and income. A major challenge associated with assessing damage to crops is locating and quantifying damaged areas within agricultural fields. We evaluated a novel method using multispectral high-resolution aerial imagery, collected from sensors mounted on unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and feature extraction techniques to detect and map areas of corn fields damaged by wild pigs in southern Missouri, USA. Damaged areas were extracted from orthomosaics using visible and near-infrared band combinations, an object-based classification approach, and hierarchical learning cycles. To validate estimates we also collected ground ...