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Zoology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Kimberly Subacz, Jason Christian Jul 2019

General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Kimberly Subacz, Jason Christian

Biological Sciences Open Textbooks

This lab manual for General Zoology was created under a Round Twelve ALG Textbook Transformation Grant. The manual contains six individual labs to be completed within a laboratory, along with a collection project to be completed outdoors with an instructor.

Topics include:

  • Classification and Evolution
  • The Planaria Project
  • Introduction to Invertebrates
  • Introduction to Chordates
  • Vertebrates Continued
  • Mammalogy


Laboratory Mice Burrowing Responses To Predator Calls, Katie Vonderembse, Brianna Graber, Molly Seeberger Apr 2019

Laboratory Mice Burrowing Responses To Predator Calls, Katie Vonderembse, Brianna Graber, Molly Seeberger

Student Symposium

The avoidance of predation is an essential trait in mice and depends on the ability of the mouse to recognize its predators. It is predicted that the calls of predators act as stimuli which signal the presence of potential danger. Laboratory mice have been shown to respond with defensive behaviors, such as burrowing, when exposed to the the calls of predators. To test how mice respond to different predator calls, we will play the sounds of three owls, Eastern Screech Owl,Tawny Owl, and American Barn Owl, and look at burrowing behaviors. Human voices reading a book will be used ...


Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Ydl218w: A Role In Cell Wall Biosynthesis And Maintenance?, Kaden Hubly Apr 2019

Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Ydl218w: A Role In Cell Wall Biosynthesis And Maintenance?, Kaden Hubly

Student Symposium

The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a common model organism used to study eukaryotic cell biology. S. cerevisiae is a fungus with a cell wall which makes it an excellent model for the study of antifungal agents. There are close to 1,000 genes of unknown function (GUFs) in S. cerevisiae. One of these is the gene YDL218W on which our research is focused. While little is known about this gene, evidence suggests that it may be involved in cell wall synthesis or maintenance. For example, YDL218W is induced by a transcription factor known to regulate genes involved in maintaining ...


Betta Fish Reactions To Color: A Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis, Jessica Barrios, Jackie Arnott Apr 2019

Betta Fish Reactions To Color: A Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis, Jessica Barrios, Jackie Arnott

Student Symposium

We will be studying the connections between mating, aggression, and the coloration of male betta fish and how they react to the coloration of other betta fish. We chose this topic because coloration is genetically linked to aggression in male betta fish, and because aggressive behaviors are very similar to mating behaviors.


Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis Apr 2019

Advancing Natural History Research Using The Collections Of The Owu Brant Museum Of Zoology, Josh Pletcher, Kyle Davis

Student Symposium

Natural history collections are important repositories of biological and geological material. Biological collections provide raw data to interpret the ecology, anatomy, and evolution of living and fossil organisms. OWU’s zoological collections play an important role in undergraduate research and educating future preparators. Two projects are currently in progress: Kyle Davis’ work on size variation in house sparrows and Josh Pletcher’s work digitizing OWU’s collection of Ward’s fossil casts. We travelled to museums in New York and Connecticut to further pursue our research. Kyle Davis’ research focuses on Bergmann’s Rule, which states that as temperature decreases ...


Studying The Social Behavior And Preferences Of Polar Bears At The Columbus Zoo And Aquarium, Molly Seeberger Apr 2019

Studying The Social Behavior And Preferences Of Polar Bears At The Columbus Zoo And Aquarium, Molly Seeberger

Student Symposium

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are relatively solitary animals unless it is breeding season. At the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, the polar bears participate in the Species Survival Plan where breeding for conservation efforts is encouraged. Lee, an 19-year-old male, came to the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in the Fall of 2018 in hopes of breeding with 12-year-old twin females Aurora and Anana. Because Lee’s previous experience was only living with one female, I wanted to observe whether he would prefer a particular female because he now had two females to choose from. Not only did I look for preference ...


Investigating Crayfish (Orconectes Rusticus) Aggression And How It Varies With Resource Availability, Allie Smith, Rebecca Lipster Apr 2019

Investigating Crayfish (Orconectes Rusticus) Aggression And How It Varies With Resource Availability, Allie Smith, Rebecca Lipster

Student Symposium

Animals that express agonistic behavior toward one another are prone to recognizing hierarchical status among individuals. Recognizing status has proven to be evolutionarily advantageous for crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) because it allows dominant individuals to maximize resources and permits subordinate individuals to steer clear of potentially costly battles. More specifically, two crayfish experiencing aggression can generally determine who the dominant and subordinate individuals are in a fight. A higher social status within a social hierarchy can allow for increased access to differing resources, such as food, mates, and shelter. In this experiment, we want to see if limiting resources will affect ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Taylor Readyhough Jan 2018

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Taylor Readyhough

All Regis University Theses

Life in a zoo brings a score of stressors into the lives of captive animals, including artificial light, crowds of visitors, and increased noise levels. Stress especially impacts captive birds, and continued exposure to these stressors can negatively affect birds’ reproductive success and overall well-being. Staff at the Denver Zoo noticed increased aggression between a male and female pair of great Indian hornbills during the winter of 2016. This behavioral shift coincided with Zoo Lights, a holiday event that results in the hornbills’ exhibit remaining open to the public for approximately four extra hours through the entire month of December ...


Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda Sep 2017

Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda

Publications and Research

Ravignani et al. (2013) habituated squirrel monkeys to sound sequences conforming to an ABnA grammar (nD1;2;3), then tested them for their reactions to novel gram- matical and non-grammatical sequences. Although they conclude that the monkeys ``consistently recognized and generalized the sequence ABnA,'' I remark that this conclusion is not robust. The statistical significance of results depends on specific choices of data analysis, namely dichotomization of the response variable and omission of specific data points. Additionally, there is little evidence of generalization to novel patterns (n D 4;5), which is important to conclude that the monkeys recognized the ...


Walking Behavior Of Zoo Elephants: Associations Between Gps-Measured Daily Walking Distances And Environmental Factors, Social Factors, And Welfare Indicators, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson Jul 2016

Walking Behavior Of Zoo Elephants: Associations Between Gps-Measured Daily Walking Distances And Environmental Factors, Social Factors, And Welfare Indicators, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor ...


Recumbence Behavior In Zoo Elephants: Determination Of Patterns And Frequency Of Recumbent Rest And Associated Environmental And Social Factors, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Jeff Rushen, Anne-Marie De Passillé, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson Jul 2016

Recumbence Behavior In Zoo Elephants: Determination Of Patterns And Frequency Of Recumbent Rest And Associated Environmental And Social Factors, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Jeff Rushen, Anne-Marie De Passillé, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44) and Asian (n = 28)elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day ...


Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh May 2016

Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The doubly labeled water method is an isotopic technique for measuring field metabolic rate and water flux rates of free-living animals. We present a validation of the use doubly labeled water for measuring metabolic rate and water loss in Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus). For this study seven animals of varying body size were used with masses ranging from 148 to 650 grams. Prior to dosing, blood samples were taken to establish background isotope levels for each animal. Snakes were injected with water enriched with isotopes of oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H, deuterium). The injected isotopes were then allowed to equilibrate ...


Elevational Variation In Body-Temperature Response To Immune Challenge In A Lizard, Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Senda Reguera, Gregorio Moreno-Rueda Apr 2016

Elevational Variation In Body-Temperature Response To Immune Challenge In A Lizard, Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Senda Reguera, Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1) hypothermia would ...


Diet And Foraging Behaviors Of Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus Horridus, In Eastern Virginia, Scott M. Goetz, Christopher E. Petersen, Robert K. Rose, John D. Kleopfer, Alan H. Savitzky Jan 2016

Diet And Foraging Behaviors Of Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus Horridus, In Eastern Virginia, Scott M. Goetz, Christopher E. Petersen, Robert K. Rose, John D. Kleopfer, Alan H. Savitzky

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

During a 17-yr telemetry study, we examined the diet and ambush behavior of a population of Crotalus horridus in southeastern Virginia. Forty dietary items were identified from 37 fecal samples. We documented 722 instances of snakes in an ambush posture, 61 of which were in a vertical-tree posture, as if hunting arboreal prey at the base of a tree. The most common prey items were Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), which accounted for 45 of all dietary items and represented an estimated 78 of total biomass consumed by C. horridus. Prey was not consumed in proportion to availability, based on ...


Female And Male Life Tables For Seven Wild Primate Species, Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier, William F. Morris Jan 2016

Female And Male Life Tables For Seven Wild Primate Species, Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier, William F. Morris

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated ...


The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts Dec 2014

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and ...


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is picture album of the University of Maine Marine Biological Laboratory at Lamoine, Maine during the summer session in 1939.


Syllabus: Wildlife Habitat Management, Paige Warren Jan 2014

Syllabus: Wildlife Habitat Management, Paige Warren

Sustainability Education Resources

This course provides an in-depth exploration of wildlife-habitat relationships, illustrated through basic field zoology and natural history, evolutionary biology, and ecological theory. We introduce you to quantitative tools used to explain ecological processes and their influence on wildlife and their environment. We will examine the dynamics and management of various habitats in New England, North America, and elsewhere through field visits and use of primary literature. We will place particular emphasis on managing wildlife habitat in an urbanizing world. By one estimate, roughly 9% of the land area of the United States is in a zone of wildland-urban interface, but ...


The Debate On Marine Mammals In Captivity, Lorna C. Scribner Dec 2012

The Debate On Marine Mammals In Captivity, Lorna C. Scribner

Honors Theses

Are marine mammal species better off today because of captivity? Is captivity ethical and should it be continued? As this debate grows stronger, both of these sides of the argument offer substantial evidence in their favor. In this paper, I discuss data for both sides and evaluate the justifications of marine mammal captivity. Ideally, no matter the outcome, this research will educate the public on influential factors of wild and captive populations.


Ear Length As A Diagnostic Character For Identifying Species Of Kangaroo Rats, Daniel W. Ziebron Mar 2012

Ear Length As A Diagnostic Character For Identifying Species Of Kangaroo Rats, Daniel W. Ziebron

Biological Sciences

The following study examines the use of ear length as a diagnostic field character for differentiating between species of Kangaroo rats in San Luis Obispo County. Data was taken from a study of Kangaroo rats in the Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, as well as various collections under the supervision of Francis X. Villablanca, Ph. D. and California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. An ANOVA was used to compare subspecies within Dipodomys heermanni and t-tests were used to compare ear lengths between Dipodomys heermanni and Dipodomys venustus. The analysis shows a statistically significant difference and supports the hypothesis that ...


Laboratory Studies In Animal Diversity, Lee Kats, Cleveland Hickman, Susan Keen Dec 2011

Laboratory Studies In Animal Diversity, Lee Kats, Cleveland Hickman, Susan Keen

Lee Kats

Laboratory Studies in Animal Diversity offers students hands-on experience in learning about the diversity of life. It provides students the opportunity to become acquainted with the principal groups of animals and to recognize the unique anatomical features that characterize each group as well as the patterns that link animal groups to each other.


Preserving Field Notes On Songbird Biology At Indiana University, Eric Snajdr, Ellen D. Ketterson Jun 2011

Preserving Field Notes On Songbird Biology At Indiana University, Eric Snajdr, Ellen D. Ketterson

Val Nolan Jr. (1976 Acting; 1980 Acting)

No abstract provided.


Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert Dec 2010

Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

No abstract provided.


Laboratory Studies In Integrated Principles Of Zoology, Lee Kats, Cleveland Hickman, Susan Keen Oct 2010

Laboratory Studies In Integrated Principles Of Zoology, Lee Kats, Cleveland Hickman, Susan Keen

Lee Kats

The 15th Edition of Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of Zoology uses a comprehensive, phylogenetic approach in emphasizing basic biological principles, animal form and function, and evolutionary concepts. This introductory lab manual is ideal for a one- or two-semester course. The new edition expertly combines up-to-date coverage with the clear writing style and dissection guides that have distinguished this manual from edition to edition.


The Use Of Animals In Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, & Recommendations, Jonathan Balcombe Jan 2000

The Use Of Animals In Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, & Recommendations, Jonathan Balcombe

eBooks

Despite recent advances in technology and increasing societal concern for animals, animals continue to be exploited and killed in large numbers so that students can learn about their structure and function. Dissection may not be without its merits from an educational standpoint, if well implemented, but it appears from student surveys that it usually is not. When one considers the associated costs—animal suffering and death in the supply trade, disruption of wild animal populations, messages that tend to undermine rather than reinforce respect for life and concern for others, rising costs of animal carcasses (as compared with alternatives with ...


Water Exchange In Reptile Eggs: Mechanism For Transportation, Driving Forces Behind Movement, And The Effects On Hatchling Size , Todd Alan Rimkus Jan 1996

Water Exchange In Reptile Eggs: Mechanism For Transportation, Driving Forces Behind Movement, And The Effects On Hatchling Size , Todd Alan Rimkus

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The mechanism for water transport in reptile eggs is examined with particular interest in the phase water is in while being exchanged. Eggs were examined at various times during the incubation. A non-volatile dye was used as an indicator of liquid water movement. Presence of the dye after 48 hours of exposure may be indicative of liquid water movement. If the egg changes mass and no dye is present the water was considered to be exchanged in the vapor phase. Eggs exposed to the dye early during incubation took up the dye, while eggs exposed after day ten have dye ...


The Acoustic Behavior Of The Katydid Amblycorypha Parvipennis And The Function Of Acoustic Interaction In Sexual Selection , Patrick Leroy Galliart Jan 1993

The Acoustic Behavior Of The Katydid Amblycorypha Parvipennis And The Function Of Acoustic Interaction In Sexual Selection , Patrick Leroy Galliart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The sounds of Amblycorypha parvipennis Stal katydid males consist of sequences of 4-5 s phrases consisting of an average of 24 phonatomes (20-25°C). Phonatomes consisting of 3-4 pulse trains generated during a single wingstroke, were produced at average rates of 4.5-5.5/s. Adjacent singing males alternate and overlap phrases and, where phrases overlap, phonatomes are synchronized. A. parvipennis females produce ticks which fall between male phonatomes. Trials in which paired chorusing males were recorded at intermale distances of 3.3 m and 40 cm with and without a ticking female present revealed that female presence elicited an ...


Characterization Of Cis-Acting Replication Control Elements In Ribosomal Rna Genes Of Tetrahymena Thermophila , Wen-Ling Shaiu Jan 1993

Characterization Of Cis-Acting Replication Control Elements In Ribosomal Rna Genes Of Tetrahymena Thermophila , Wen-Ling Shaiu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the identification and characterization of specific cis-acting replication control elements in the replication origin of Tetrahymena rDNA. Earlier studies of a mutant rDNA allele, C3-rmm1, identified a cis-acting sequence (the Type I repeat) within the 5[superscript]' non-transcribed spacer of rDNA that affects rDNA replication (Larson et al. 1986). Characterization of two additional, independently-isolated mutants (C3-rmm3 and C3-rmm4) and a revertant of C3-rmm4 strongly argue that the Type I repeat is indeed a cis-acting replication control element. Mutations causing rDNA replication defects were identified in copies of the Type I repeat that are separated by >600 bp ...


The Hydric And Physical Properties Of Natural And Renourished Beaches Along The Atlantic Coast Of Florida, Todd Alan Rimkus Jan 1992

The Hydric And Physical Properties Of Natural And Renourished Beaches Along The Atlantic Coast Of Florida, Todd Alan Rimkus

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Glutathione In Cadmium Cytotoxic Response In Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells , Yu-Jian Kang Jan 1989

The Role Of Glutathione In Cadmium Cytotoxic Response In Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells , Yu-Jian Kang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The role of glutathione (GSH) in cadmium cytotoxic response was investigated in human lung carcinoma A549 cells with coordinately high GSH levels and cadmium resistance. Depletion of cellular GSH in A549-T27 sensitized the cells to cadmium, indicating that GSH is involved in the cadmium cytoprotective response. Temporal studies showed that GSH is importantly involved in the early phase of the cadmium cytotoxic response. A high correlation between cadmium cytotoxicity and GSH levels which change as a function of cell growth stages provided strong evidence to support the above conclusions. Further study revealed that there are differential effects of cellular GSH ...