Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Zoology

Habitat

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead Dec 2018

Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead

Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown that bird communities are affected by the species composition and physical structure of plant communities. Within avian communities, the bird species that are the most localized in distribution tend to be the most affected by habitat changes. My research analyzed plant and bird communities found with the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris Linnaeus), a locally common but declining species throughout much of its range. First, I describe vegetation characteristics associated with singing male Painted Buntings in northwest Arkansas. I categorized field sites with singing male Painted Buntings as either managed for wildlife or unmanaged, based on land-use ...


Bats Of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Hugh H. Genoways, Peter A. Larsen, Roxanne J. Larsen, Justin D. Hoffman, Fitzroy Springer, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker Oct 2018

Bats Of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Hugh H. Genoways, Peter A. Larsen, Roxanne J. Larsen, Justin D. Hoffman, Fitzroy Springer, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

The chiropteran fauna of the island of Saint Vincent, represented by 12 species, is among the most complex in the Lesser Antilles, being represented by four families including Noctilionidae (1 species), Mormoopidae (1), Phyllostomidae (8), and Molossidae (2). This fauna includes four trophic guilds as represented by Noctilio leporinus (piscivore/insectivore); Glossophaga longirostris and Monophyllus plethodon (nectarivore/pollenivore); Artibeus lituratus, A. schwartzi, Brachyphylla cavernarum, Ardops nichollsi, and Sturnira paulsoni (frugivore); and Pteronotus fuscus, Micronycteris buriri, Molossus molossus, and Tadarida brasiliensis (insectivore). One species—Micronycteris buriri—and two subspecies—Sturnira paulsoni paulsoni and Ardops nichollsi vincentensis—are endemic to the island ...


The Spatial Ecology And Microhabitat Selection Of The Pygmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus Miliarius) In Southwestern Missouri, Dylan Wallace Maag Dec 2017

The Spatial Ecology And Microhabitat Selection Of The Pygmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus Miliarius) In Southwestern Missouri, Dylan Wallace Maag

MSU Graduate Theses

Despite a wide distribution throughout the southeastern United States, pygmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) have received less research attention than many other rattlesnake species. I captured a total of 33 S. miliarius at the Drury-Mincy Conservation Area (DMCA) and retained 14 large individuals (mostly gravid females) for a radio telemetry study. Snakes were primarily captured during evening road driving surveys and were encountered rarely with any other sampling technique. Sistrurus miliarius are widespread at DMCA where they were encountered in forest, savanna, and glade habitats. Snakes selected microhabitats with more vegetative cover and tree canopy closure than random sites while avoiding ...


Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Introduced Nile Monitor (Varanus Niloticus) In Florida: Forecasting Presence And Population Expansion Using Computational Geographic Information Systems, Noah G. Cohen Nov 2017

Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Introduced Nile Monitor (Varanus Niloticus) In Florida: Forecasting Presence And Population Expansion Using Computational Geographic Information Systems, Noah G. Cohen

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) is a large, carnivorous lizard that has become a notorious invasive species in Florida, USA. Initially released in the 1980s from the pet trade, the species has since established at least three breeding populations and spread throughout much of southern Florida. While current control efforts have failed to eradicate V. niloticus, it is important to attain a better understanding of its invasive dynamics to guide and inform better control strategies. In this study, available georeferenced records of V. niloticus in Florida were compiled and linked to a habitat classification map to evaluate ecotype preferences. Factored ...


Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill Mar 2017

Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fish distribution patterns and seasonal habitat use play a key role in the food web dynamics of aquatic ecosystems, including the Florida Everglades. In this study I examined the fine scale habitat shifts and movements of spotted sunfish, Lepomis punctatus across varying seasons and hydrologic conditions using in-situ field enclosures and Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) systems. Data on fish use of three dominant Everglades marsh habitats and activity level were recorded continuously from January to August, 2015. Fish were more active and had the highest use of higher elevation habitats when water levels rose during an experimental reversal in mid-April ...


Habitat Useage Of Tri-Colored Bats (Perimyotis Subflavus) In Western Kentucky And Tennessee Post-White Nose Syndrome, Katherine Schaefer Jan 2017

Habitat Useage Of Tri-Colored Bats (Perimyotis Subflavus) In Western Kentucky And Tennessee Post-White Nose Syndrome, Katherine Schaefer

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

The tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) has declined severely across its range since 2006 due to white nose syndrome, a fungal disease causing massive bat mortality in North America. My objective was to determine distinguishing characteristics of roost trees and habitat used by tri-colored bats so that the species’ needs can be considered in management plans. I mist-netted for tri-colored bats in western Kentucky and Tennessee during the summers of 2015 and 2016, and attached a radio transmitter to each captured adult bat. I tracked 15 bats to their day roosts and collected habitat data at 38 roost areas and at ...


An Assessment Of South China Tiger Reintroduction Potential In Hupingshan And Houhe National Nature Reserves, China, Yiyuan Qin, Philip J. Nyhus, Courtney L. Larson, Charles J.W. Carroll, Jeff Muntifering, Thomas D. Dahmer, Lu Jun, Ronald L. Tilson Dec 2014

An Assessment Of South China Tiger Reintroduction Potential In Hupingshan And Houhe National Nature Reserves, China, Yiyuan Qin, Philip J. Nyhus, Courtney L. Larson, Charles J.W. Carroll, Jeff Muntifering, Thomas D. Dahmer, Lu Jun, Ronald L. Tilson

Philip J. Nyhus

Human-caused biodiversity loss is a global problem, large carnivores are particularly threatened, and the tiger (Panthera tigris) is among the world’s most endangered large carnivores. The South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) is the most critically endangered tiger subspecies and is considered functionally extinct in the wild. The government of China has expressed its intent to reintroduce a small population of South China tigers into a portion of their historic range as part of a larger goal to recover wild tiger populations in China. This would be the world’s first major tiger reintroduction program. A free-ranging population of ...


Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth Nov 2014

Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Key Largo woodrats are an endangered subspecies with an extremely limited habitat. This study sought to understand woodrat habitat preferences in order to guide management. Woodrats build stick nests from natural and artificial materials, so nest distribution and nest occupancy were used as indicators of preference. Distribution was determined by nest surveys, and remote cameras were used to assess occupancy. Forest structure, human disturbance, nest, and animal presence metrics were also collected. More nests were found along abandoned roads than along forest transects and more artificial nests were occupied than natural nests. These findings indicate that woodrats prefer areas with ...


Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks Mar 2014

Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

One tool used for wildlife management is the deployment of radiocollars to gain knowledge of animal populations. Understanding the influence of individual factors (e.g., species, collar characteristics) and landscape characteristics (e.g., forested cover, shrubs, and fencing) on retention of expandable radiocollars for ungulates is important for obtaining empirical data on factors influencing ecology of young-of-the-year ungulates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 198 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, 142 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns, and 73 mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in South Dakota, Minnesota, and California, USA. We documented 72 (36.4%), 8 (5.6%), and 7 ...


Syllabus: Wildlife Habitat Management, Paige Warren Jan 2014

Syllabus: Wildlife Habitat Management, Paige Warren

Sustainability Education Resources

This course provides an in-depth exploration of wildlife-habitat relationships, illustrated through basic field zoology and natural history, evolutionary biology, and ecological theory. We introduce you to quantitative tools used to explain ecological processes and their influence on wildlife and their environment. We will examine the dynamics and management of various habitats in New England, North America, and elsewhere through field visits and use of primary literature. We will place particular emphasis on managing wildlife habitat in an urbanizing world. By one estimate, roughly 9% of the land area of the United States is in a zone of wildland-urban interface, but ...


Studies On The Ecology Of The Endangered Camaenid Land Snail Thersites Mitchellae (Cox, 1864), Jonathan Leslie Parkyn Jan 2014

Studies On The Ecology Of The Endangered Camaenid Land Snail Thersites Mitchellae (Cox, 1864), Jonathan Leslie Parkyn

Theses

Many Australian land snail species are assumed to have declined in distribution and abundance, but there are few quantitative data available to assess their conservation status. Thersites mitchellae (Cox, 1864) (Camaenidae) is listed as endangered (category ENC2a) on the IUCN 1997 Red List of Threatened Species. Population parameters such as abundance, probability of survival, and probability of site occupancy were estimated. The methods take detection probability into account and allow for the inclusion of sampling, habitat, and individual animal covariates. These models and techniques offer considerable scope for application to land snail conservation particularly for species at risk of extinction.


Predicting Nesting Habitat Of Northern Goshawks In Mixed Aspen-Lodgepole Pine Forests In A High-Elevation Shrub-Steppe Dominated Landscape., Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Marc J. Bechard, Dena Santini Apr 2013

Predicting Nesting Habitat Of Northern Goshawks In Mixed Aspen-Lodgepole Pine Forests In A High-Elevation Shrub-Steppe Dominated Landscape., Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Marc J. Bechard, Dena Santini

Robert Miller

We developed a habitat suitability model for predicting nest locations of breeding Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in the high-elevation mixed forest and shrub-steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, USA. We used elevation, slope, aspect, ruggedness, distance-to-water, canopy cover, and individual bands of Landsat imagery as predictors for known nest locations with logistic regression. We found goshawks prefer to nest in gently-sloping, east-facing, non-rugged areas of dense aspen and lodgepole pine forests with low reflectance in green (0.53 - 0.61 μm) wavelengths during the breeding season. We used the model results to classify our 43,169 hectare study area into nesting ...


Telomere Length, Non-Breeding Habitat And Return Rate In Male American Redstarts, Frederic Angelier, Carol M. Vleck, Rebecca L. Holberton, Peter P. Marra Jan 2013

Telomere Length, Non-Breeding Habitat And Return Rate In Male American Redstarts, Frederic Angelier, Carol M. Vleck, Rebecca L. Holberton, Peter P. Marra

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Telomeres are long repetitive noncoding sequences of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Recently, the study of telomere dynamics has been increasingly used to investigate ecological questions. However, little is currently known about the relationships that link environmental conditions, telomere dynamics and fitness in wild vertebrates.
  2. Using a small migratory bird (American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla), we investigated how telomere dynamics can be affected by non-breeding habitat quality and to what extent telomere length can predict the return rate of males.
  3. We show that telomeres shorten in most individuals over a 1-year period and, importantly, that telomeres of individuals wintering ...


The Population Dynamics Of Two Rodents In Two Coastal Marshes In Virginia, Robert K. Rose, John A. March Jan 2013

The Population Dynamics Of Two Rodents In Two Coastal Marshes In Virginia, Robert K. Rose, John A. March

Virginia Journal of Science

The communities of small mammals were evaluated for 13 months with capture-mark-recapture methods in two Spartina-Juncus marshes of the Atlantic coast in Northampton County, Virginia. Small mammals were trapped for three days each month using live traps placed on floats on two study grids. Two rodents were numerically dominant (~90% of small mammals) there: marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris, and meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus. Monthly estimates of population density were greater for rice rats (peak: 45/ha) than for those of meadow voles (peak: 30/ha). Survival rates were generally low, especially for rice rats, indicating highly vagile populations. Both ...


First Record Of Pond Sliders (Trachemys Scripta Scripta And T. S. Elegans) At Fredericksburg, Virginia With Observations On Population Size, Age And Growth, Werner Wieland, Yoshinori Takeda Jan 2013

First Record Of Pond Sliders (Trachemys Scripta Scripta And T. S. Elegans) At Fredericksburg, Virginia With Observations On Population Size, Age And Growth, Werner Wieland, Yoshinori Takeda

Virginia Journal of Science

We conducted a turtle mark-recapture program within a 160 m stretch of the Fredericksburg Canal with standard, baited hoop nets from May to July 2012 to determine if a population of the introduced Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) and Yellow-bellied Slider (Trachemys s. scripta) are established in this area. We captured and marked nine Red-eared Sliders (1 male, 8 females) and estimated a population size of 23 individuals. Most were reproductively mature. The established population in the canal may be a source of introduction into the Rappahannock River.


The Small Mammals Of Two Dune Communities In Southeastern Virginia, Robert K. Rose, Justin L. Sweitzer Jan 2013

The Small Mammals Of Two Dune Communities In Southeastern Virginia, Robert K. Rose, Justin L. Sweitzer

Virginia Journal of Science

Small mammals were surveyed using live and pitfall traps between the primary and secondary dunes at two locations on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay near the Atlantic Ocean: Little Creek Amphibious Base in Norfolk and Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Captures were dominated by house mice (Mus musculus) in interdunal habitats with sparse grass, whereas white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were found primarily in shrubby live-oak thickets on the tops of dunes. Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were present only at Fort Story, and then only in patches of dense herbaceous vegetation just above the wrack ...


Emerging Near-Real Time Forage Monitoring Technology With Application To Large Herbivore Management In Mongolia, Dennis P. Sheehy, Jerry W. Stuth, Douglas E. Johnson, Jay Angerer, Douglas Tolleson Jan 2007

Emerging Near-Real Time Forage Monitoring Technology With Application To Large Herbivore Management In Mongolia, Dennis P. Sheehy, Jerry W. Stuth, Douglas E. Johnson, Jay Angerer, Douglas Tolleson

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Large herbivore livestock and wildlife in Mongolia depend almost entirely for substance on forage standing crop produced each year on natural pastureland. Consequently, both livestock and wildlife are continuously subject to environmental risk, especially drought and severe winter storms, while livestock are also subject to financial risk. As consumption-based livestock production changes to commercialized livestock production, steps taken by the livestock herder to avert both environmental and financial risk to livestock can increase environmental risk to large wild herbivores. A realistic and workable pastureland and risk management system will be critical for conservation of large herbivore habitat. New technologies are ...


The Adaptive Value Of Aggregation Among Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster: An Evaluation Using Individual-Based Modeling, Thomas W. Dolan Iii, Mark J. Butler Iv Jan 2006

The Adaptive Value Of Aggregation Among Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster: An Evaluation Using Individual-Based Modeling, Thomas W. Dolan Iii, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ontogenetic changes in gregariousness by pre-reproductive animals, like that observed in juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus), may be adaptive and reflect size-specific changes in the effectiveness of aggregation in promoting survival. Alternatively, aggregation may simply result from changes in the distribution or availability of suitable habitat structure, or from other behaviors that enhance survival. There are currently two hypotheses explaining the potential benefits of gregarious behavior in juvenile spiny lobsters, both of which focus on increasing survivorship by reducing predation pressure: the group benefit hypothesis and the guide hypothesis. The group benefit hypothesis argues that aggregations of juvenile lobsters ...


Movement Patterns And Habitat Usage Of Shark Bay Dugongs, David K. Holley Jan 2006

Movement Patterns And Habitat Usage Of Shark Bay Dugongs, David K. Holley

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

In order to define small and large scale spatial and temporal individual movement patterns of dugongs (Dugong dugon) within the Shark Bay World Heritage Property (SBWHP) a total of 19 dugongs were fitted with remote location recording and transmitting devices. Combined locations from all units totalled over 10,000 locations. This spatial and temporal data was used to define movement patterns of dugongs within Shark Bay as well as areas of high use deemed to be indicative of foraging activity. Platform Transmitting Terminals (PTT?s) using the ARGOS location collection system tracked animals over large temporal scales with 4 animals ...


Association Of Wetland Area With Breeding Activity For Multiple Amphibian Species, Brooks Laselle Apr 2000

Association Of Wetland Area With Breeding Activity For Multiple Amphibian Species, Brooks Laselle

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The populations of many amphibian species appear to be in decline. The loss of amphibians contributes to the overall loss of biodiversity that is occurring on a global scale. Amphibians are well-known bioindicators and can perhaps aid in # pinpointing factors responsible for the loss of biodiversity. Habitat patch size is a crucial variable to species persistence. I examined the relationship between wetland area and population occupancy for three amphibian species of the Western Montana Rockies: Ambystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander), Bufo boreas (Western toad), and Rana luteiventris (spotted frog). A logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between increasing wetland area and ...


Ecology Of The Early Life History Of The Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Panulirus Argus: Recruitment, Predation, And Habitat Requirements, Charles A. Acosta Apr 1997

Ecology Of The Early Life History Of The Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Panulirus Argus: Recruitment, Predation, And Habitat Requirements, Charles A. Acosta

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Recruitment variability of the early life history stages of marine benthic organisms can have profound consequences on population dynamics. I studied factors affecting recruitment success of postlarvae and early juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster. I examined patterns in postlarval supply, investigated wind forcing as a potential transport mechanism for recruiting postlarvae, and quantified predation on postlarvae in south Florida, USA. In an eight-year time series, spiny lobster postlarval supply occurred year-round between the new and first quarter lunar phases. The major annual peak occurred around March corresponding to spawning activity ten months earlier, and a smaller non-seasonal peak occurred ...


Distribution And Habitats Of Forked Aster (Aster Furcatus), A Threatened Wisconsin Plant, Lawrence A. Leitner, James A. Reinartz, Donald H. Les Oct 1991

Distribution And Habitats Of Forked Aster (Aster Furcatus), A Threatened Wisconsin Plant, Lawrence A. Leitner, James A. Reinartz, Donald H. Les

Field Station Bulletins

We describe the locations and habitat characteristics of 10 of the 14 known populations of Aster furcatus in Wisconsin. We were unable to identify any particularly unusual features of A. furcatus habitats which could be related to its rarity. The rarity of forked aster is probably not related to specialized habitats, but is most likely the result of requirements for moderate disturbance, inability to withstand competition, poor reproduction from seed, and low genetic variance.