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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Behavioral Effects Of Feeding Enrichment On A Zoo-Housed Herd Of African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Caroline Marie Driscoll Aug 2017

The Behavioral Effects Of Feeding Enrichment On A Zoo-Housed Herd Of African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Caroline Marie Driscoll

Graduate Theses

A comprehensive study on the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment was conducted on six African elephants housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC. The herd is comprised of are two adult males, three adult females, and one subadult female. The study was conducted over a 10-month period and consisted of focal sample observations across three conditions. Observations were recorded during the baseline condition (June to September) and continued through the introduction of feeding enrichment. Behavioral data were also collected when enrichment items were present but food presentation followed the historical husbandry routine, known as the experimental control ...


Influence Of Sex And Ambient Temperature On Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Dusting Behavior, Kelly Summers Apr 2017

Influence Of Sex And Ambient Temperature On Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Dusting Behavior, Kelly Summers

Student Symposium

Previous studies indicate that elephant dusting behavior can be promoted by several factors including environmental temperature and social interaction. We hypothesized that (1) if dusting serves as a voluntary thermoregulatory function, then increased ambient temperature would result in increased dusting performance, and (2) if dusting is influenced by social interactions, then male and female elephants will exhibit dusting at similar rates in a group setting. Preliminary data indicated no significant relationship between temperature and the rate of dustings performed. Contrary to our predictions, females exhibited a greater rate of dusting than males in a social environment. The current study reexamines ...


Effects Of Animal Management Changes On The Activity Budgets And Walking Rates Of Zoo Elephants, Angela Dawn Mackey Aug 2014

Effects Of Animal Management Changes On The Activity Budgets And Walking Rates Of Zoo Elephants, Angela Dawn Mackey

Dissertations

The current study aimed to assess the effects of two management strategies, weekly rototilling of the enclosure and the provision of unpredictable foraging opportunities, on the daily behavior of six elephants housed at the San Diego Zoo. Observations took place from January to June 2013 and were conducted throughout a 24- hour period. The study was divided into three phases, each two months in duration. During the first phase (baseline) no changes were made to the current management routine of the elephants. In Phase 2, rototilling of the elephant enclosures was increased from once monthly to once per week, while ...


African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble Jun 2014

African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble

Robert H. I. Dale

Abstract from the International Elephant and Rhino Conservation and Research Symposium, Rotterdam, NL, October 10-14, 2011.


The Elephants Of Africa, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

The Elephants Of Africa, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Video review for the following title: The Elephants of Africa: Nature. Produced by Scorer Associates, 1997. 55 minutes. $19.95 + $4.95 S/H.


Two Matriarchs Speak, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Two Matriarchs Speak, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Book review for the following titles: Elephants. By Joyce Poole, Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1997, 72 pages. $14.95 softcover Silent Thunder: In the Presence of Elephants. By Katharine Payne, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 286 pages. $25.00 hardcover


Elephant Days And Nights: Ten Years With The Indian Elephant, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Elephant Days And Nights: Ten Years With The Indian Elephant, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Book review for the following title: Elephant Days and Nights. By Raman Sukumar (George B. Schaller, foreword), Oxford University Press, 1996, 200 pages.


Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

For many years, field researchers studying both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants have indicated that they have observed relatively few births in situ, suggesting that most elephant dams give birth at night. For example, according to Cynthia Moss, "Possibly the majority of births occur at night and perhaps those that do take place in the daytime happen in secluded places" (1988, p. 151). Others, for example, Clive Spinage, have referred to "the old beliefs that the cows retreated to 'calving grounds' or that birth took place at night." (Spinage, 1994, p. 90). Although observers in several areas ...


History: The Birth Of "America" In 1882, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

History: The Birth Of "America" In 1882, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

This article concerns a New York Times story about the birth of the female Asian elephant calf, named America, at the winter headquarters of the "Greatest Show on Earth" in Bridgeport, Connecticut on February 2, 1882. Phineas T. Barnum, one of the owners of the show, and one prone to self-aggrandizing bluster, claimed that America was the second elephant ever born in captivity. America was born only to months before the arrival in New York of the most famous circus elephant of all time, Jumbo, on Easter Sunday, 1882, and only two years before the origin of a small wagon ...


Some Children's Books About Elephants (1987-1997), Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Some Children's Books About Elephants (1987-1997), Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Literature review of children's books about elephants from the Indianapolis Public Library.


Studying Elephants: Awf Technical Handbook Series #7, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Studying Elephants: Awf Technical Handbook Series #7, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Book review for the following title: Studying Elephants: AWF Technical Handbook Series #7. Edited by Kadzo Kangwana, Nairobi, Kenya: African Wildlife Foundation, 1996, 186 pages. $15 S&H.


Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback May 2012

Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback

Dissertations

The following study assessed personality in twelve African elephants using both observational behavior coding and standardized trait rating methods, thus demonstrating consistent individual differences across time and contexts. During the summer of 2010 and 2011, over 640 hours of behavioral data were collected onsite at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA. Four coding-based personality traits were determined after analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TOLERANT, and, AGGRESSIVE. This data was then compared to survey ratings completed by the animal keeper staff during both summers. Four rating-based personality traits resulted from this analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TIMID, and, AGGRESSIVE. All eight composite ...


African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble Oct 2011

African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Abstract from the International Elephant and Rhino Conservation and Research Symposium, Rotterdam, NL, October 10-14, 2011.


Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 2008

Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For many years, field researchers studying both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants have indicated that they have observed relatively few births in situ, suggesting that most elephant dams give birth at night. For example, according to Cynthia Moss, "Possibly the majority of births occur at night and perhaps those that do take place in the daytime happen in secluded places" (1988, p. 151). Others, for example, Clive Spinage, have referred to "the old beliefs that the cows retreated to 'calving grounds' or that birth took place at night." (Spinage, 1994, p. 90). Although observers in several areas ...


History: The Birth Of "America" In 1882, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 2008

History: The Birth Of "America" In 1882, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

This article concerns a New York Times story about the birth of the female Asian elephant calf, named America, at the winter headquarters of the "Greatest Show on Earth" in Bridgeport, Connecticut on February 2, 1882. Phineas T. Barnum, one of the owners of the show, and one prone to self-aggrandizing bluster, claimed that America was the second elephant ever born in captivity. America was born only to months before the arrival in New York of the most famous circus elephant of all time, Jumbo, on Easter Sunday, 1882, and only two years before the origin of a small wagon ...


Agroforestry, Elephants, And Tigers: Balancing Conservation Theory And Practice In Human-Dominated Landscapes Of Southeast Asia, Philip J. Nyhus, R L. Tilson Jan 2004

Agroforestry, Elephants, And Tigers: Balancing Conservation Theory And Practice In Human-Dominated Landscapes Of Southeast Asia, Philip J. Nyhus, R L. Tilson

Faculty Scholarship

Large mammal populations theoretically are best conserved in landscapes where large protected areas are surrounded by buffer zones, connected by corridors, and integrated into a greater ecosystem. Multi-use buffer zones, including those containing complex agroforestry systems, are promoted as one strategy to provide both economic benefits to people and conservation benefits to wildlife. We use the island of Sumatra, Indonesia to explore the benefits and limitations of this strategy. We conclude that conservation benefits are accrued by expanding the habitat available for large mammals but more attention needs to be focused on how to reduce and respond to human–wildlife ...


Agroforestry, Elephants, And Tigers: Balancing Conservation Theory And Practice In Human-Dominated Landscapes Of Southeast Asia, Philip J. Nyhus, R L. Tilson Dec 2003

Agroforestry, Elephants, And Tigers: Balancing Conservation Theory And Practice In Human-Dominated Landscapes Of Southeast Asia, Philip J. Nyhus, R L. Tilson

Philip J. Nyhus

Large mammal populations theoretically are best conserved in landscapes where large protected areas are surrounded by buffer zones, connected by corridors, and integrated into a greater ecosystem. Multi-use buffer zones, including those containing complex agroforestry systems, are promoted as one strategy to provide both economic benefits to people and conservation benefits to wildlife. We use the island of Sumatra, Indonesia to explore the benefits and limitations of this strategy. We conclude that conservation benefits are accrued by expanding the habitat available for large mammals but more attention needs to be focused on how to reduce and respond to human–wildlife ...


Two Matriarchs Speak, Robert H.I. Dale Sep 1998

Two Matriarchs Speak, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Book review for the following titles:

Elephants. By Joyce Poole, Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1997, 72 pages. $14.95 softcover

Silent Thunder: In the Presence of Elephants. By Katharine Payne, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 286 pages. $25.00 hardcover


The Elephants Of Africa, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 1998

The Elephants Of Africa, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Video review for the following title:

The Elephants of Africa: Nature. Produced by Scorer Associates, 1997. 55 minutes. $19.95 + $4.95 S/H.


Elephant Days And Nights: Ten Years With The Indian Elephant, Robert H.I. Dale Jul 1997

Elephant Days And Nights: Ten Years With The Indian Elephant, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Book review for the following title:

Elephant Days and Nights. By Raman Sukumar (George B. Schaller, foreword), Oxford University Press, 1996, 200 pages.


The Asian Elephant: Ecology And Management, Robert H.I. Dale Apr 1997

The Asian Elephant: Ecology And Management, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Book review for the following title:

The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. By Raman Sukumar, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 282 pages. $34.95 hardcover


Some Children's Books About Elephants (1987-1997), Robert H.I. Dale Jan 1997

Some Children's Books About Elephants (1987-1997), Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Literature review of children's books about elephants from the Indianapolis Public Library.


Studying Elephants: Awf Technical Handbook Series #7, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 1996

Studying Elephants: Awf Technical Handbook Series #7, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Book review for the following title:

Studying Elephants: AWF Technical Handbook Series #7. Edited by Kadzo Kangwana, Nairobi, Kenya: African Wildlife Foundation, 1996, 186 pages. $15 S&H.


Elephants, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 1995

Elephants, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Book review for the following title:

Elephants. By Clive Spinage, Kent, UK: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1994, 319 pages. £27.45.