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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen Jun 2019

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Birds And Vegetation Structure Of Isolated Juniper And Oak Communities In The Trans-Pecos Chihuahuan Desert., Kayla Garza Jan 2018

Birds And Vegetation Structure Of Isolated Juniper And Oak Communities In The Trans-Pecos Chihuahuan Desert., Kayla Garza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Birds of the Trans-Pecos region are historically understudied, with most literature covering birds of desert grasslands and scrub in New Mexico and Northern Mexico. A multitude of vegetation communities within the Chihuahuan Desert have also been neglected due to this gap in the research, for reasons including lack of access to public or preserve land in West Texas, and rough terrain. Indio Mountains Research Station (IMRS), is located 42-km southwest of Van Horn, Texas and encompasses many different vegetation communities, including juniper-oak habitats of arroyo and canyon systems. The purpose of this study was to document the bird species utilizing ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard Oct 2017

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill Mar 2017

Examining Movement And Habitat Selection Of Everglades Fishes In Response To Seasonal Water Levels, Gregory J. Hill

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fish distribution patterns and seasonal habitat use play a key role in the food web dynamics of aquatic ecosystems, including the Florida Everglades. In this study I examined the fine scale habitat shifts and movements of spotted sunfish, Lepomis punctatus across varying seasons and hydrologic conditions using in-situ field enclosures and Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) systems. Data on fish use of three dominant Everglades marsh habitats and activity level were recorded continuously from January to August, 2015. Fish were more active and had the highest use of higher elevation habitats when water levels rose during an experimental reversal in mid-April ...


The Long Shadow Of Senescence: Age Impacts Survival And Territory Defense In Loons, Walter H. Piper, Kristin M. Brunk, Joel A. Flory, Michael W. Meyer Mar 2017

The Long Shadow Of Senescence: Age Impacts Survival And Territory Defense In Loons, Walter H. Piper, Kristin M. Brunk, Joel A. Flory, Michael W. Meyer

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Senescence, increased mortality that occurs among animals of advanced age, impacts behavior and ecology in many avian species. We investigated actuarial, reproductive, and behavioral senescence using capture, marking, and resighting data from a 26-year study of common loons (Gavia immer). Territorial residents of both sexes exhibited high annual survival (0.94) until their mid 20s, at which point survival fell to 0.76 and 0.77 in males and females, respectively. Sexual symmetry in actuarial senescence is somewhat surprising in this species, because males make a substantially greater investment in territory defense and chick-rearing and because males engage in lethal ...


Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes Oct 2016

Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background: The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems. Results: We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were ...


Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes Oct 2015

Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

Background: The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems.

Results: We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were ...


At Home And At Large In The Great Plains: Essays And Memories, Paul A. Johnsgard Jul 2015

At Home And At Large In The Great Plains: Essays And Memories, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This volume presents fourteen essays (some updated) that originally appeared in Prairie Fire, a monthly free newspaper that for seven years (as of 2015) has carried important messages of social, environmental, and economic issues in a mature and nonpartisan manner to tens of thousands of residents of Nebraska, western Iowa, eastern Colorado, and southern South Dakota, and by mail to subscribers in the rest of the world. These essays discuss the North American east-west ecological boundaries, spring migration events, birds at the bird feeder, feathered survivors of a glacial past, the threatened sharp-tailed grouse of Nebraska and South Dakota, and ...


A Nebraska Bird-Finding Guide, Paul A. Johnsgard Jul 2012

A Nebraska Bird-Finding Guide, Paul A. Johnsgard

Paul Johnsgard

Nebraska lies in the transition zone between North American eastern and western avifaunas and is home to more than 200 breeding and 150 migrant species. This definitive guide to Nebraska birdwatching by the state’s preeminent ornithologist includes a county-by-county rundown of the best sites, a calendar of migrations, an annotated checklist of regularly occurring Nebraska birds, and recommendations for optical equipment, publications and reference materials, and contact information for conservation and ornithological groups. It features 48 maps as well as photographs and drawings by the author. Paul Johnsgard, Foundation Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Nebraska ...


Impacts Of Urbanisation On The Native Avifauna Of Perth, Western Australia, Robert Davis, C Gole, Jd Roberts Jan 2012

Impacts Of Urbanisation On The Native Avifauna Of Perth, Western Australia, Robert Davis, C Gole, Jd Roberts

ECU Publications 2012

Urban development either eliminates, or severely fragments, native vegetation, and therefore alters the distribution and abundance of species that depend on it for habitat. We assessed the impact of urban development on bird communities at 121 sites in and around Perth, Western Australia. Based on data from community surveys, at least 83 % of 65 landbirds were found to be dependent, in some way, on the presence of native vegetation. For three groups of species defined by specific patterns of habitat use (bushland birds), there were sufficient data to show that species occurrences declined as the landscape changed from variegated to ...


Impacts Of Urbanisation On The Native Avifauna Of Perth, Western Australia, Robert A. Davis, Cheryl Gole, J Dale Roberts Jan 2012

Impacts Of Urbanisation On The Native Avifauna Of Perth, Western Australia, Robert A. Davis, Cheryl Gole, J Dale Roberts

ECU Publications 2013

Urban development either eliminates, or severely fragments, native vegetation, and therefore alters the distribution and abundance of species that depend on it for habitat. We assessed the impact of urban development on bird communities at 121 sites in and around Perth, Western Australia. Based on data from community surveys, at least 83 % of 65 landbirds were found to be dependent, in some way, on the presence of native vegetation. For three groups of species defined by specific patterns of habitat use (bushland birds), there were sufficient data to show that species occurrences declined as the landscape changed from variegated to ...


Movement Ecology Of An Intercontinental Migratory Bird During Spring Stopover, Emily Beth Cohen Dec 2011

Movement Ecology Of An Intercontinental Migratory Bird During Spring Stopover, Emily Beth Cohen

Dissertations

Movement ecology is a component of nearly all aspects of animal behavior and an animal’s decision to move is likely influenced by a complex combination of exogenous and endogenous factors. Therefore, an examination of the causes and consequences of organismal movement provides a conceptual framework for understanding complex behavioral strategies. My dissertation research is focused on the movement ecology of an intercontinental migratory songbird during spring migration. I adopted experimental approaches to study the factors influencing how a songbird migrant, red-eyed vireos (Vireo olivaceus), makes decisions in unfamiliar landscapes from the initiation of spring stopover.

I simulated the arrival ...


A Nebraska Bird-Finding Guide, Paul A. Johnsgard Apr 2011

A Nebraska Bird-Finding Guide, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Nebraska lies in the transition zone between North American eastern and western avifaunas and is home to more than 200 breeding and 150 migrant species. This definitive guide to Nebraska birdwatching by the state’s preeminent ornithologist includes a county-by-county rundown of the best sites, a calendar of migrations, an annotated checklist of regularly occurring Nebraska birds, and recommendations for optical equipment, publications and reference materials, and contact information for conservation and ornithological groups. It features 48 maps as well as photographs and drawings by the author.

Paul Johnsgard, Foundation Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Nebraska ...


Development Of Temperature Regulation In Nestling Tree Swallows, Richard Marsh Dec 2010

Development Of Temperature Regulation In Nestling Tree Swallows, Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh

No abstract provided.


Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long Distance Migration: Energy Stores And Substrate Concentrations In Plasma, Richard Marsh Dec 2010

Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long Distance Migration: Energy Stores And Substrate Concentrations In Plasma, Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh

The major body components (water, lean dry, and fat) were measured in the carcasses of Gray Catbirds from which the flight muscles had been removed. Birds were collected from May through October near Ann Arbor, Michigan and during September and October near Gainesville, Florida. Additionally, the glycogen content of muscle and liver and the concentrations of glucose and triglycerides in plasma were determined in catbirds sampled during fall migration in Florida. Catbirds attained maximum body masses of ∼50 g in Florida, largely due to the addition of fat. Relatively lean birds (∼3-4% body fat) in spring through fall weighed approximately ...


Development Of Endothermy In Nestling Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia), Richard L. Marsh Dec 2010

Development Of Endothermy In Nestling Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia), Richard L. Marsh

Richard Marsh

Body temperature (Tb) measurements after exposure to air temperatures (Tₐ) of 20 C or 27 C for 2 h in conjunction with metabolism measurements were used to describe the timing of and basis for developing temperature regulation in nestling swallows. As growth proceeds from hatching to 10 g there is a gradual increase in the Tb after exposure to low Tₐ. As growth continues beyond this point, the ability of nestlings to maintain Tb above Tₐ improves rapidly, such that nestlings weighing over 14 g are completely homeothermic when exposed to 20 C. Conductance (C, in cal [g⋅h⋅°C ...


Effects On Nestling Age And Burrow Depth On Co₂ And O₂ Concentrations In The Burrows Of Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia), Steven J. Wickler, Richard L. Marsh Dec 2010

Effects On Nestling Age And Burrow Depth On Co₂ And O₂ Concentrations In The Burrows Of Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia), Steven J. Wickler, Richard L. Marsh

Richard Marsh

Gas samples were taken from the nest chambers of bank swallows (Riparia riparia) and analyzed for CO₂ and O₂ content. The mean CO₂ content was 2.62% with a maximum value of 5.58%, and the mean O₂ content was 17.83% with a minimum value of 14.61%. There was a positive and significant correlation of increasing CO₂ content with both increasing nestling age and increasing total metabolizing mass (adults plus young). With increasing metabolizing mass there is a linear increase in CO₂ content, which suggests no active regulation of gas concentrations. Burrow depth also affected CO₂, particularly in ...


Seasonal And Geographic Variation Of Cold Resistance In House Finches Carpodacus Mexicanus, William Dawson, Richard Marsh, William Buttemer, Cynthia Carey Dec 2010

Seasonal And Geographic Variation Of Cold Resistance In House Finches Carpodacus Mexicanus, William Dawson, Richard Marsh, William Buttemer, Cynthia Carey

Richard Marsh

The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) is resident in tropical and subtropical regions as well as in localities having relatively severe winters. The extent of its winter acclimatization was assessed in freshly captured individuals of this species from southern California and Colorado. In severe cold stress tests involving exposure to Tₐ < −60 C, the former did not remain homeothermic any longer in winter than in late spring, whereas the Colorado birds did (8.8 vs. 97.5 min; P < .001). The capacity for winter acclimatization evident in these Colorado individuals was correlated with modest winter fattening, a response lacking in those ...


Winter Fattening In The American Goldfinch And The Possible Role Of Temperature In Its Regulation, William R. Dawson, Richard L. Marsh Dec 2010

Winter Fattening In The American Goldfinch And The Possible Role Of Temperature In Its Regulation, William R. Dawson, Richard L. Marsh

Richard Marsh

We investigated whether environmental temperature has any causal role in the winter fattening in certain finches of the subfamily Carduelinae. Correlational analyses between fat content of American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and various short- and long-term measures of temperature provide no evidence for a proximate role of this environmental variable in determining the degree of fattening of these birds in southeastern Michigan. Their fat content shows the best correlations (r = −.61 to −.63) with the long-term average minimum temperature or record low temperature for the date of capture. Furthermore, inclusion of long-term thermal measures in multivariate analyses excludes from significance temperature ...


Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long-Distance Migration: Flight Muscle Hypertrophy Associated With Elevated Body Mass, Richard L. Marsh Dec 2010

Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long-Distance Migration: Flight Muscle Hypertrophy Associated With Elevated Body Mass, Richard L. Marsh

Richard Marsh

The size and composition (lean-dry, water, and fat contents) of the flight muscles of the catbird were investigated as a function of the large seasonal changes in body mass which occur in this species. The mass of the pectoralis muscle is highly positively correlated with body mass, leading to an elevation in muscle mass of ∼35% during fall premigratory fattening. The changes in muscle mass are brought about by coordinated variations in all major components of the muscles which were measured. High-oxidative, fast-twitch fibers represent 88% of the total fibers in the pectoralis muscle. The cross-sectional area of the muscle ...


Measurement Of Maximum Oxygen Consumption In Guinea Fowl Numida Meleagris Indicates That Birds And Mammals Display A Similar Diversity Of Aerobic Scopes During Running, David J. Ellerby, Maryellen Cleary, Richard L. Marsh, Cindy I. Buchanan Dec 2010

Measurement Of Maximum Oxygen Consumption In Guinea Fowl Numida Meleagris Indicates That Birds And Mammals Display A Similar Diversity Of Aerobic Scopes During Running, David J. Ellerby, Maryellen Cleary, Richard L. Marsh, Cindy I. Buchanan

Richard Marsh

Judgement of exercise performance in birds has been hampered by a paucity of data on maximal aerobic capacity. We measured the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V̇o₂,max) in running guinea fowl Numida meleagris, a bird that has been used in several previous studies of avian running. Mean V̇o₂,max during level treadmill running was 97.5±3.7 mL O&8322; kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ (mean ± SEM, N=5). V̇o₂,max was on average 6% higher when the birds ran uphill compared with the value during level running (paired t-test, P=0.041, N=5). The mean ...


Nestling Tree Swallow (Tachycineta Bicolor) Diets In An Upland Old Field In Western Michigan, Matthew Johnson, Michael Lombardo Jul 2010

Nestling Tree Swallow (Tachycineta Bicolor) Diets In An Upland Old Field In Western Michigan, Matthew Johnson, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

We collected and identified 1852 prey items from 89 boluses delivered to 62 nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at 14 nests in an upland old field in western Michigan. We found that 90.8% of nestling diets was insects from the Orders Diptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. We also found clam and snail shells in boluses. Over the most common brood sizes of 4-6 nestlings, brood size was inversely proportional to the number of items per bolus delivered to nestlings although mean dry and mean organic weight of boluses did not differ. Bolus composition was not influenced by weather conditions ...


Effect Of Feathers As Nest Insulation On Incubation Behavior And Reproductive Performance Of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta Bicolor), Michael Lombardo, Ruth Bosman, Christine Faro, Stephen Houtteman, Timothy Kluisza Jul 2010

Effect Of Feathers As Nest Insulation On Incubation Behavior And Reproductive Performance Of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta Bicolor), Michael Lombardo, Ruth Bosman, Christine Faro, Stephen Houtteman, Timothy Kluisza

Michael P Lombardo

Many species of birds line their nests with feathers, presumably because of the insulative qualities of feathers and because feathers may act as a barrier between nest parasites and nestlings. In 1993, we experimentally examined the role of feathers as nest insulation on the incubation behavior, nestling growth, and reproductive performance of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in boxes in western Michigan. There were no significant differences between the incubation rhythms of females with experimental nests (i.e. no feathers) and females with control nests (i.e. with feathers). Nestlings that were reared in control nests had significantly longer right ...


Repeated Sampling Affects Tree Swallow Semen Characteristics, Michael Lombardo, M.L. Green, P.A. Thorpe, M.R. Czarnowski, H.W. Power Jul 2010

Repeated Sampling Affects Tree Swallow Semen Characteristics, Michael Lombardo, M.L. Green, P.A. Thorpe, M.R. Czarnowski, H.W. Power

Michael P Lombardo

Male Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) face intense sperm competition because mated pairs copulate frequently, extra-pair copulations are common, and females store sperm. We examined the effects of repeated sampling on the characteristics of Tree Swallow semen by manually expressing semen from 15 males immediately after capture (T0) and then hourly for 4 h (T1-T4). The semen characteristics of individual males varied in response to repeated sampling. The total number of sperm cells we obtained from each male over the 4-h sampling period varied from 104-107. Semen samples lacking sperm increased from 6.7 ...


Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller Jul 2010

Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller

Michael P Lombardo

Our aim in this study was to survey the communities of bacteria found in the cloacae of adult and nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), determine if there were familial patterns of prevalence, and determine if there were relationships between bacteria loads and nestling size when 12 days old and fledging success.


Left-Sided Directional Bias Of Cloacal Contacts During House Sparrow Copulations, Karen Nyland, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe Jul 2010

Left-Sided Directional Bias Of Cloacal Contacts During House Sparrow Copulations, Karen Nyland, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe

Michael P Lombardo

Most female birds have only a left ovary and associated oviduct. The entry to the oviduct is on the left side of the urodeum of the cloaca. This arrangement may favor males that mount females from the left during copulation if it results in sperm being placed closer to the opening of the oviduct. Therefore, we predicted a left-sided directional bias of cloacal contacts during House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) copulations. Cloacal contacts from the left outnumbered those from the right 74 to 25 (3:1) during 25 bouts of copulation at 11 House Sparrow nests. While this pattern suggests that ...


Homosexual Copulations By Male Tree Swallows, Michael P. Lombardo, Ruth M. Bosman, Christine A. Faro, Stephen G. Houtteman, Timothy S. Kluisza Jul 2010

Homosexual Copulations By Male Tree Swallows, Michael P. Lombardo, Ruth M. Bosman, Christine A. Faro, Stephen G. Houtteman, Timothy S. Kluisza

Michael P Lombardo

Homosexual courtship behavior in non-human animals is well known (Ford and Beach 1980) and occurs in a wide variety of taxa. However, homosexual copulations, especially between males, are less well known. In birds, males mounting other males have been observed in the colonially breeding Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) (Fujioka and Yamagishi 1981) and Common Murre (Uria aalge) (Birkhead et al. 1985, Hatchwell 1988). Neither Fujioka and Yamagishi (1981) nor Birkhead et al. (1985) and Hatchwell (1988) reported whether cloacal contact occurred during their observations of male-male mountings. Here we describe homosexual copulations by male Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) during which ...


Individual, Temporal, And Seasonal Variation In Sperm Concentration In Tree Swallows, Michael Lombardo, Armetris Forman, Matthew Czarnowski, Patrick Thorpe Jul 2010

Individual, Temporal, And Seasonal Variation In Sperm Concentration In Tree Swallows, Michael Lombardo, Armetris Forman, Matthew Czarnowski, Patrick Thorpe

Michael P Lombardo

We determined sperm concentrations in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) by manually expressing semen samples from males during prelaying, egg-laying, incubation, and nestling periods. Sperm concentrations varied by orders of magnitude (0-109 sperm mL-1) among males. Sperm concentrations were highest during the incubation period and lowest during the prelaying period. None of the samples collected during the prelaying, egg-laying, and incubation periods were devoid of sperm. In contrast, 45% of samples collected during the nestling period lacked sperm. Sperm concentrations (1) did not vary over the course of the morning during prelaying, egg-laying, and incubation periods but significantly increased during the ...


Microbial Colonization Of The Cloacae Of Nestling Tree Swallows, Tamara Mills, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe Jul 2010

Microbial Colonization Of The Cloacae Of Nestling Tree Swallows, Tamara Mills, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe

Michael P Lombardo

Microbes have the potential to be important selective forces in many aspects of avian biology. Microbes can affect fitness as a result of either their pathogenic or beneficial effects on host health. Little is known about the chronology of microbial colonization of nestlings or the effects of microbes on fledgling condition. We set out to (1) characterize the time course of microbial colonization of the cloacae of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), (2) examine the relationship between cloacal microbes and fledgling condition, and (3) determine if nest mates had similar assemblages of cloacal microbes. We repeatedly measured nestlings and sampled ...


Within-Pair Copulations: Are Female Tree Swallows Feathering Their Own Nests?, Michael Lombardo Jul 2010

Within-Pair Copulations: Are Female Tree Swallows Feathering Their Own Nests?, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

A variety of hypotheses has been proposed to explain why socially monogamous birds copulate repeatedly with their mates when only a single copulation is necessary to fertilize an entire clutch (Birkhead and Møller 1992, Petrie 1992, Hunter et al. 1993). Petrie (1992) hypothesized that a female should copulate frequently with her mate so as to reduce her mate’s involvement in extrapair copulations. By reducing her mate’s involvement in extrapair copulations, a female may: (1) avoid the transmission of parasites and sexually transmitted diseases (Hamilton 1990); (2) may avoid sperm depletion by her mate; and (3) may monopolize her ...