Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Zoology

Behavior

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon May 2019

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave Jan 2019

Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Establishing baseline activity budgets for zoo-housed captive animals can be important in tracking behavior changes that may indicate medical or other concerns, as well as assessing overall welfare and the need for implementation of interventions such as increased amounts of enrichment. This study sought to calculate activity budgets for the current spider monkeys residing at the Central Florida Zoo, a father-daughter pair of Ateles geoffroyi. Having a baseline activity budget is also valuable because major changes in behavior may accompany the upcoming introduction of new individuals to this particular group of spider monkeys. BORIS behavior coding software was used to ...


An Evaluation Of Deterrent Methods Utilized To Prevent Crop Raiding By African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana) In The Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya, Rebecca Lynn Von Hagen Jul 2018

An Evaluation Of Deterrent Methods Utilized To Prevent Crop Raiding By African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana) In The Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya, Rebecca Lynn Von Hagen

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Escalating human elephant conflict (HEC) continues to be a contributing factor

towards elephant decline, and crop raiding is the most common form of negative

human-elephant interactions. For communities that cannot reverse or prevent crop

raiding, it is necessary to contain HEC events through deterrent measures. Few

deterrent measures exist that combine practicality and affordability while also

preventing habituation by elephants. This project focused on comparing the efficacy of

deterrent methods to assess which was the most successful at preventing elephants

from entering crops in the farming community of Sasenyi, Kenya. In this paired-control

study, four deterrent methods were evaluated: acacia ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere Feb 2018

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts, Amber J. De Vere May 2017

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts, Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Getting To The Other Side, Debra Merskin Jan 2017

Getting To The Other Side, Debra Merskin

Animal Sentience

Marino’s comprehensive, detailed, and timely review provides clear evidence of the sentience of chickens and strong support for those wishing to challenge their exclusion from even the limited protections currently accorded to animals grown for food.



A Case Study: Observations Of Behaviors & Vocalizations In A Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) During Quarantine, Alexandra L. Dilley May 2016

A Case Study: Observations Of Behaviors & Vocalizations In A Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) During Quarantine, Alexandra L. Dilley

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bozie, an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), was relocated from the Baton Rouge Zoo to Smithsonian’s National Zoo. During a requisite 29-day quarantine period, I recorded Bozie’s stress-related behaviors and the vocalizations she produced when she was alone and with her keepers in free and protected contact.


Should Fish Feel Pain? A Plant Perspective, František Baluška Jan 2016

Should Fish Feel Pain? A Plant Perspective, František Baluška

Animal Sentience

Key (2016) claims fish that fish do not feel pain because they lack the necessary neuronal architecture: their responses to noxious stimuli, according to Key, are executed automatically without any feelings. However, as pointed out by many of his commentators, this conclusion is not convincing. Plants might provide some clues. Plants are not usually thought to be very active behaviorally, but the evidence suggests otherwise. Moreover, in stressful situations, plants produce numerous chemicals that have painkilling and anesthetic properties. Finally, plants, when treated with anesthetics, cannot execute active behaviors such as touch-induced leaf movements or rapid trap closures after localizing ...


Responses Of Four Arthropod Prey Species To Mechanosensory, Chemosensory And Visual Cues From An Arachnid Predator: A Comparative Approach, Scott Kight Dec 2015

Responses Of Four Arthropod Prey Species To Mechanosensory, Chemosensory And Visual Cues From An Arachnid Predator: A Comparative Approach, Scott Kight

Scott Kight

Comparisons of multiple invertebrate prey species to direct predator sensory cues are relatively uncommon. We compared prey responses to arachnid predators (Araneae: Lycosidae) of four species: Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae), Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllinae), Armadillidium vulgare (Oniscidea: Armadillidae), and Porcellio laevis (Oniscidea: Porcellionidae). Prey experienced combinations of direct mechanosensory, chemosensory or visual cues. All species responded to all cues, but response structure differed among species. Mechanosensory and chemosensory predator cues elicited frequent shifts between behaviors, whereas visual stimuli tended to diminish responses. Mechanosensory stimuli produced the most extreme responses, particularly in crickets and cockroaches, but responses to mechanosensory stimuli diminished ...


Prey Capture Behavior In The East African Scorpions Parabuthus Leiosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) And P. Pallidus Pocock, 1895 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Jan O. Rein Dec 2015

Prey Capture Behavior In The East African Scorpions Parabuthus Leiosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) And P. Pallidus Pocock, 1895 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Jan O. Rein

Euscorpius

Prey capture behavior in Parabuthus leiosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) and P. pallidus Pocock, 1895 was studied in the laboratory. The behavioral components involved in prey capture were identified and an ethogram is presented. The occurrence of the different prey capture components are analyzed and discussed.


Systematics Of The Neotropical Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leptodactylidae): Phylogeny, The Relevance Of Non-Molecular Evidence, And Species Accounts, Rafael O. De Sá, Taran Grant, Arley Camargo, W. R. Heyer, María Laura Ponssa, Edward Stanley Sep 2014

Systematics Of The Neotropical Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leptodactylidae): Phylogeny, The Relevance Of Non-Molecular Evidence, And Species Accounts, Rafael O. De Sá, Taran Grant, Arley Camargo, W. R. Heyer, María Laura Ponssa, Edward Stanley

Biology Faculty Publications

A phylogeny of the species-rich clade of the Neotropical frog genus Leptodactylus sensu stricto is presented on the basis of a total evidence analysis of molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) and non-molecular (adult and larval morphological and behavioral characters) sampled from > 80% of the 75 currently recognized species. Our results support the monophyly of Leptodactylus sensu stricto, with Hydrolaetare placed as its sister group. The reciprocal monophyly of Hydrolaetare and Leptodactylus sensu stricto does not require that we consider Hydrolaetare as either a subgenus or synonym of Leptodactylus sensu lato. We recognize Leptodactylus sensu stricto, Hydrolaetare, Adenomera, and Lithodytes as ...


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur Jun 2014

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Robert H. I. Dale

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants ...


Effects Of Audible Human Disturbance On Koala (Phascolarctos Cinereus) Behavior In Queensland, Australia And Implications For Management, Galina Eugenia Kinsella Jan 2014

Effects Of Audible Human Disturbance On Koala (Phascolarctos Cinereus) Behavior In Queensland, Australia And Implications For Management, Galina Eugenia Kinsella

Honors Theses and Capstones

As the growing human population continues to encroach on wildlife habitat, species are forced to adapt in order to survive. In addition to causing habitat loss, human presence can create more subtle disturbances, such as noise pollution, that disrupt wildlife behavior. Adapting to human presence is particularly difficult for species with specialized resource needs or low mobility. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), a national icon of Australia, meets both these criteria. Koalas were once abundant throughout Australia, but are now classified as “threatened.” Habitat loss is at least partly responsible for this decline, but anthropogenic noise may also be a factor ...


Performance And Signaling In The Green Anole Lizard, Justin P. Henningsen Sep 2013

Performance And Signaling In The Green Anole Lizard, Justin P. Henningsen

Open Access Dissertations

Green anoles are small lizards of the Southeastern United States. They possess an extensible throat-fan called a dewlap. Males have larger dewlaps and display them more often than females. Displays occur during courtship, during agonistic interaction, and during encounters with potential predators. The size of the dewlap of male green anoles is positively correlated with maximum bite force capacity. Bite force capacity, in turn, is predictive of the winner during agonistic interactions. The correlation between these traits suggests that dewlap size may be used as a reliable signal of maximum bite force capacity. In this dissertation, I address three components ...


Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras Aug 2013

Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp. are six-rayed sea stars found along the rocky intertidal of the northeast Pacific Alaska to Santa Catalina Island, southern California. In central California, three clades of Leptasterias are found in separate or mixed populations, in diverse habitats that range from shallow pools of seagrass and algae to bare rock exposed to crashing waves. Initial field observations of two clades from different locations suggested that behavioral variation may relate to habitat differences among clades. To measure differences in activity, the righting response was timed at both field sites. As a result of behavioral variation observed in the field, more ...


Foraging Behavior Of Eastern Gray Squirrels On The University Of Maine Campus, Aimee Young May 2013

Foraging Behavior Of Eastern Gray Squirrels On The University Of Maine Campus, Aimee Young

Honors College

The goal of this study was to observe the foraging behavior of Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) on the University of Maine campus. The study tested whether squirrels in a more urban setting followed the optimal foraging theory, or if rarity of a food type played a greater factor in food selection. The study also examined whether urban squirrel behavior mimicked that of wild squirrels when presented with a food type uncommon on campus, but common in other parts of Maine, specifically the acorns of the white oak tree (Quercus alba). In three different areas on the campus, squirrels were ...


Striped Plateau Lizards (Sceloporus Virgatus) Do Not Exhibit Behavioral Syndromes In Exploratory And Anti-Predator Contexts, Alisa Wallace Jan 2013

Striped Plateau Lizards (Sceloporus Virgatus) Do Not Exhibit Behavioral Syndromes In Exploratory And Anti-Predator Contexts, Alisa Wallace

Summer Research

Some animals exhibit certain behavior types consistently between contexts and/or across time. This phenomenon is known as a behavioral syndrome, or personality. Behavioral syndromes have important evolutionary implications because there are times when consistently behaving in a particular way results in fitness constraints, and we are still trying to understand why some animals have them but others don’t. For my work, I sought to determine whether the striped plateau lizard (Sceloporus virgatus), a small lizard native to the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona, demonstrated behavioral syndromes. I collected 14 male lizards and observed their responses to three behavioral assays ...


Observations Of Oviposition Behavior Among North American Tiger Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) Species And Notes On Mass Rearing, Mathew L. Brust, C. Barry Knisley, Stephen M. Spomer, Kentaro Miwa Jan 2012

Observations Of Oviposition Behavior Among North American Tiger Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) Species And Notes On Mass Rearing, Mathew L. Brust, C. Barry Knisley, Stephen M. Spomer, Kentaro Miwa

Papers in Entomology

Although the larvae of a large number of North American tiger beetle species have been described, little information exists on the oviposition behavior of female tiger beetles at the species level. In this study, we found that the oviposition behavior varied widely among species, with some species utilizing more than one method. We found that, contrary to many references, several tiger beetle species did not oviposit from above the soil surface by inserting the ovipositor into the soil. Instead, several species oviposited by tunneling over 20 mm below the soil surface. In addition, we outline recently used successful protocols for ...


Differences In Behavior Between Captive And Wild Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur Catta) Populations: Implications For Reintroduction And Captive Management, Taylor Shire Jan 2012

Differences In Behavior Between Captive And Wild Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur Catta) Populations: Implications For Reintroduction And Captive Management, Taylor Shire

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Part of the conservation strategy of zoos is participation in ex situ conservation efforts in the form of captive breeding programs. Standardizing methods to describe and quantify behavior of animals housed at different institutions is an essential tool for understanding intra-species behaviors [Carlstead 2000; Carlstead 2002]. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a significant difference exists between the behavior of captive and wild populations of Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemurs) and to explore the implications of the results for captive management and reintroduction programs. Captive lemurs were found to be more inactive than wild lemurs and the ...


The Complexities Of Wolf Spider Communication: Exploring Courtship Signal Function In Rabidosa Rabida, Dustin J. Wilgers Jul 2011

The Complexities Of Wolf Spider Communication: Exploring Courtship Signal Function In Rabidosa Rabida, Dustin J. Wilgers

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Evidence of signal complexity is seemingly pervasive across animal communication systems. Exploring signal function may provide insight into how these displays evolved and are maintained. This dissertation examines the courtship signal function in a grassland wolf spider. Rabidosa rabida lives in an extremely complex environment, and males use complex displays incorporating both visual and seismic modalities. Using several approaches I provide insight into the content and efficacy of the various signal components, as well as how variation in these displays influence female mating decisions in isolation and combined.

First, I manipulated male and female body condition using diet quantity manipulations ...


A Comparison Of Prairie Vole Audible And Ultrasonic Pup Calls And Attraction To Them By Adults Of Each Sex, Thomas A. Terleph Jan 2011

A Comparison Of Prairie Vole Audible And Ultrasonic Pup Calls And Attraction To Them By Adults Of Each Sex, Thomas A. Terleph

Biology Faculty Publications

Rodent pups of many species emit both ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and calls spanning into a lower frequency range, audible to humans (AUDs), yet there has been little systematic comparison of these different call types, or analyses of how they might differ in signal function. Here the spectral and temporal characteristics of USV and AUD pup calls are described for the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a model used in studies of monogamous mating and biparental care, and a species with an unusually large functional and anatomical representation of auditory cortex. Findings provide a detailed description of each call type, including changes ...


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur Mar 2010

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants ...


About Fish, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

About Fish, The Humane Society Of The United States

AQUACULTURE

Although a number of fish species have been studied in their freshwater life stages, further research on the behavior and habitat requirements of ocean-going fish is required. While fishes have historically been regarded as more “primitive” than other vertebrate groups, Rodriguez et al concluded that several memory and learning systems of bony fishes are noticeably similar to those of reptiles, birds, and mammals. When animals as small and under appreciated as fish display complex mating systems, parental care, and demonstrate the ability to traverse significant distances using olfactory and celestial cues, it is clear that previously established definitions of intelligence ...


The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier Jan 2010

The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting up to 1% of the world population. Epilepsy remains poorly understood and there are currently no medications to cure it. Patients with epilepsy have both seizures as well as another type of abnormal activity between seizures, known as interictal spikes. Interictal spikes have thus far been poorly researched, yet growing evidence supports an important role for them in epilepsy. In this project, we first show the high variability between reviewers in marking interictal spikes on intracranial EEG, and then develop and test an automated detection method to solve this problem ...


The Use Of High Frequency Gps Data To Classify Main Behavioural Categories In A Przewalski’S Horse In The Mongolian Gobi, Petra Kaczensky, Klaus Huber Jan 2010

The Use Of High Frequency Gps Data To Classify Main Behavioural Categories In A Przewalski’S Horse In The Mongolian Gobi, Petra Kaczensky, Klaus Huber

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Behavioral observations of free ranging animals can provide important insight into many aspects of their biology but are not without problems. The recent development of GPS technology allows to remotely collect high precision location data at fixed intervals. We tested whether it is possible to classify the behavior of a Przewalski’s horse in the Mongolian Gobi into Resting, Grazing and Moving based on GPS locations collected at 15 minute intervals by comparing GPS data with direct observations. Although behavioral categories lasting for 15 minutes could by fairly reliably separated based on the distances covered between successive fixes, almost half ...


Territorial Behaviour Of Kiang (Equus Kiang Moorcroft, 1841) In Ladakh (India), Natalia V. Paklina, Chris Van Orden Jan 2007

Territorial Behaviour Of Kiang (Equus Kiang Moorcroft, 1841) In Ladakh (India), Natalia V. Paklina, Chris Van Orden

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The observations of kiang behavior were made in Navokar Valley northeast of Tso Kar Lake (Ladakh, India) between July 30 and November 22, 2001. In the breeding season (end of July until the end of August) adult kiang males kept not overlapping, protected territories (about 10 km2), and marked by single defecation and urination marks. There were adult females with and without offspring on the territories (up to 12 animals, including the male). The distance between male and females on the territories was usually hundred times bigger, then a distance between stallion and his harem in horses. Females with ...


Remarks On The Social System Of The Mongolian Wild Ass (Equus Hemionus Hemionus), Gertrud Neumann-Denzau, Helmut Denzau Jan 2007

Remarks On The Social System Of The Mongolian Wild Ass (Equus Hemionus Hemionus), Gertrud Neumann-Denzau, Helmut Denzau

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

So far the social system of Mongolian wild asses is non-uniformly interpreted. The authors describe their own observations from different parts of Mongolia and review data from available publications. The arguments support a territorial social system, which agrees with the social system of all other wild asses in Asia and Africa.


Semi-Wild Population Of Kulans In The Bukhara Breeding Centre And Their Co-Habitation With Przewalski’S Horses, Karim Bahloul, Olga B. Pereladova, Natalia V. Soldatova, Ekaterina V. Sidorenko, Antoine J. Sempere Jan 2007

Semi-Wild Population Of Kulans In The Bukhara Breeding Centre And Their Co-Habitation With Przewalski’S Horses, Karim Bahloul, Olga B. Pereladova, Natalia V. Soldatova, Ekaterina V. Sidorenko, Antoine J. Sempere

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Asiatic wild asses and Przewalski's horses initially inhabited steppe, semi-desert and desert areas, but Przewalski's horses became extinct in the wild, and kulans are under threat of disappearance. The Bukhara Breeding Centre (Uzbekistan) was created in 1976 for conservation and reintroduction of wild ungulate species. In 1977-1978, five kulans (two males and three females) from Barsa-Kelmes Island on the Aral lake were introduced to the reserve. The group increased to 25-30 animals in 1995-1998, when five Przewalski's horses from Moscow and St. Petersburg zoos were introduced to the same territory. We analyzed the home ranges, preferred habitats ...


Up-Date On The Behaviour And Status Of The Critically Endangered Onager, Equus Hemionus Onager, From Iran, Laurent Tatin, Bijan F. Darreh-Shoori, Christophe Tourenq, David Tatin, Bijan Azmayesh Jan 2007

Up-Date On The Behaviour And Status Of The Critically Endangered Onager, Equus Hemionus Onager, From Iran, Laurent Tatin, Bijan F. Darreh-Shoori, Christophe Tourenq, David Tatin, Bijan Azmayesh

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

The onager, Equus hemionus onager, an Asiatic wild ass endemic to Iran, is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Its biology and conservation requirements are poorly documented. We report some observations made in 1997 and 2000 on the behavior and ecology of the two remaining populations, located in the Touran Protected Area and the Bahram-e-Goor Reserve. Recent population counts by the Department of Environment of Iran (471 in the Protected Area, and 96 in the Reserve) are markedly lower than the count of 600-770 made in the 1970s in the Touran Protected Area. We observed social interactions ...


Predation And Cathemerality. Comparing The Impact Of Predators On The Activity Patterns Of Lemurids And Ceboids., Ian C. Colquhoun Jan 2006

Predation And Cathemerality. Comparing The Impact Of Predators On The Activity Patterns Of Lemurids And Ceboids., Ian C. Colquhoun

Anthropology Publications

The removal, or absence, of predatory species could be a contributing proximate factor to the rise of primate cathemerality. But predators themselves can also be cathemeral, so cathemerality could well be an evolutionary stable strategy. From a comparative perspective, it appears that the effect of predatory species cannot provide a unitary explanation for cathemerality. Varying distributions and population densities of predators, especially raptors, may be key factors in owl monkey (Aotus) cathemerality, but temperature and lunar cycle variation have also been implicated. In Madagascar, while raptors are potential predators of lemur species, the cathemerality of Eulemur species coincides with that ...