Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Zoology

2014

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 211 - 235 of 235

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recognition Of Two New Species Of Freshwater Crabs From The Seychelles Based On Molecular Evidence (Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)., Neil Cumberlidge, Savel Regan Daniels Phd Jan 2014

Recognition Of Two New Species Of Freshwater Crabs From The Seychelles Based On Molecular Evidence (Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)., Neil Cumberlidge, Savel Regan Daniels Phd

Journal Articles

The Afrotropical freshwater crab genus Seychellum is endemic to the granitic Seychelles in the Indian Ocean (Mahé, Silhouette, Praslin, La Digue and Frégate). Here we describe two new cryptic species of Seychellum that represent two evolutionarily separate lineages of a previously monotypic genus. This raises to three the number of species of freshwater crabs known from Seychelles. Each species is endemic to either one island (Silhouette) or to a pair of islands (Mahé and Frégate, or Praslin and La Digue). The three species can be clearly distinguished as separate lineages by DNA analysis, haplotyping and examination of gonopod characters. The ...


Animals' Capability To Bond And The Implications That Follow, Falyn Goldfarb Jan 2014

Animals' Capability To Bond And The Implications That Follow, Falyn Goldfarb

Honors College Theses

This paper explores the ways in which humans have historically viewed animals, with a focus on Descartes theory automata. Further concepts of the problem of different minds, inherent value, empathy, love, friendship, grief, isolation, anthropomorphism, and biochemistry (focusing on oxytocin, cortisol and the prefrontal cortex) are all explored. Numerous literature reviews are used as examples to fight against the argument that animals are merely machines and can therefore be used and abused. Animal social bonds, including parent-child, purely social, and animal-human, are analyzed for their evolutionary and biological purposes in attempt to highlight the relationships that are not obviously valuable ...


Aspects Of The Trophic Ecology Of An Invertivorous Snake Community, Meagan Amanda Thomas Jan 2014

Aspects Of The Trophic Ecology Of An Invertivorous Snake Community, Meagan Amanda Thomas

Masters Theses

Understanding the significance of trophic links has been of interest to ecologists for decades, likely because food web studies have the potential to reveal a considerable amount of information in the fields of ecosystem and community ecology. Despite the intrinsic benefits that come from elucidating food web structures, doing so is often problematic because of the complex and dynamic nature of ecological communities. The dietary ecology of small-bodied invertivorous snakes remains relatively understudied compared to other snake species. Many of these species are abundant throughout their range, making them ideal organisms for studying community-level questions. I employed a combination of ...


Exogenous Application Of Estradiol To Eggs Unexpectedly Induces Male Development In Two Turtle Species With Temperaturedependent Sex Determination, Daniel A. Warner, Elizabeth Addis, Wei-Guo Du, Thane Wibbels, Fredric J. Janzen Jan 2014

Exogenous Application Of Estradiol To Eggs Unexpectedly Induces Male Development In Two Turtle Species With Temperaturedependent Sex Determination, Daniel A. Warner, Elizabeth Addis, Wei-Guo Du, Thane Wibbels, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Steroid hormones affect sex determination in a variety of vertebrates. The feminizing effects of exposure to estradiol and the masculinizing effects of aromatase inhibition during development are well established in a broad range of vertebrate taxa, but paradoxical findings are occasionally reported. Four independent experiments were conducted on two turtle species with temperature-dependent sex determination (Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina) to quantify the effects of egg incubation temperature, estradiol, and an aromatase inhibitor on offspring sex ratios. As expected, the warmer incubation temperatures induced female development and the cooler temperatures produced primarily males. However, application of an aromatase inhibitor had ...


Immobile And Mobile Life-History Stages Have Different Thermal Physiologies In A Lizard, Rory S. Telemeco Jan 2014

Immobile And Mobile Life-History Stages Have Different Thermal Physiologies In A Lizard, Rory S. Telemeco

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Temperature affects multiple aspects of an organism’s biology and thus defines a major axis of the fundamental niche. For ectotherms, variation in the thermal environment is particularly important because most of these taxa have a limited capacity to thermoregulate via metabolic heat production. While temperature affects all life-history stages, stages can differ in their ability to respond to the thermal environment. For example, in oviparous organisms, free-living adults can behaviorally thermoregulate, whereas developing embryos are at the mercy of the nest environment. These differences in the realized thermal environment should select for life-history stages to have different thermal tolerances ...


Atlas Of Lobster Anatomy And Histology, Jeffrey D. Shields, Robert A. Boyd Jan 2014

Atlas Of Lobster Anatomy And Histology, Jeffrey D. Shields, Robert A. Boyd

Reports

This is a histological atlas of the most common organs and tissues found in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. The atlas contains photomicrographs from histological sections of healthy tissues. The atlas contains pictures of tissues that are readily observed in dissection and several that are commonly affected by diseases. It is not a complete atlas. Several organs are not covered, notably the brain, ventral nerve ganglion, sensory organs, and organs associated with molting.


Thermal Ecology Of Urosaurus Ornatus (Ornate Tree Lizard), In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert On Indio Mountains Research Station, Texas, Julia Sandoval Alva Jan 2014

Thermal Ecology Of Urosaurus Ornatus (Ornate Tree Lizard), In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert On Indio Mountains Research Station, Texas, Julia Sandoval Alva

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The main goal of this study was to determine the thermal ecology of the small tree lizard Urosaurus ornatus in a Chihuahuan Desert landscape. The study site was located at Indio Mountains Research Station (IMRS), Hudspeth County, Texas. We obtained body temperature (Tb) data on 385 lizards collected from April 2007 to June 2014 during the active period using a cloacal thermometer. Additionally, we recorded air temperature (Ta) and substrate temperature (Ts) of lizard microhabitats at the time of capture, and the operative temperature of lizard models left in the sun and shade from May to September 2014. My results ...


Small Tidal Channels Improve Foraging Opportunities For Calidris Shorebirds, Aileen K. Miller, Catherine E. De Rivera Jan 2014

Small Tidal Channels Improve Foraging Opportunities For Calidris Shorebirds, Aileen K. Miller, Catherine E. De Rivera

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Estuarine intertidal habitats are heterogeneous, therefore migratory shorebirds are expected to forage in microhabitats where they can maximize their energy intake. Identifying proximate factors that migratory shorebirds use to accept or reject a particular habitat patch will help land managers make conservation and restoration decisions that provide the greatest benefits to shorebird populations during migration, a period of intense energy usage. We examined whether small semipermanent tidal channels were preferentially used by foraging Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and Dunlins (C. alpina) during a spring migratory stopover in Bandon Marsh, an Oregon, USA, estuary. Further, we tested alternative hypotheses about how ...


Studies On The Ecology Of The Endangered Camaenid Land Snail Thersites Mitchellae (Cox, 1864), Jonathan Leslie Parkyn Jan 2014

Studies On The Ecology Of The Endangered Camaenid Land Snail Thersites Mitchellae (Cox, 1864), Jonathan Leslie Parkyn

Theses

Many Australian land snail species are assumed to have declined in distribution and abundance, but there are few quantitative data available to assess their conservation status. Thersites mitchellae (Cox, 1864) (Camaenidae) is listed as endangered (category ENC2a) on the IUCN 1997 Red List of Threatened Species. Population parameters such as abundance, probability of survival, and probability of site occupancy were estimated. The methods take detection probability into account and allow for the inclusion of sampling, habitat, and individual animal covariates. These models and techniques offer considerable scope for application to land snail conservation particularly for species at risk of extinction.


Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam Jan 2014

Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that causes the serious neurologic disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The life cycle of S. neurona progresses through multiple developmental stages that differ morphologically and molecularly. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple related proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. The SAG surface antigens in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum are life cycle stage-specific and seem necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. The present research was conducted to explore the gene family of SnSAGs in S. neurona. Specifically, the ...


Effects Of Road-Stream Crossings On Populations Of The Idaho Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon Aterrimus), Richard K. Honeycutt Jan 2014

Effects Of Road-Stream Crossings On Populations Of The Idaho Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon Aterrimus), Richard K. Honeycutt

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Habitat disturbances affect wildlife populations through numerous mechanisms, and determining specific components of habitat disturbances affecting those populations is challenging. For example, a single disturbance can both change local habitat conditions and impose limitations on dispersal of animals. Both of these components can negatively affect biological responses, such as body condition, local movement patterns, or survival. Culverts are a habitat disturbance having both of these components. Culverts affect local habitat conditions by increasing sediment levels in downstream reaches, negatively affecting animals downstream of culverts. Culverts also impose limits on dispersal by blocking passage of stream organisms to upstream reaches, negatively ...


Habitat Quality Influences Migratory Strategy Of Female White-Tailed Deer, Charles R. Henderson Jr. Jan 2014

Habitat Quality Influences Migratory Strategy Of Female White-Tailed Deer, Charles R. Henderson Jr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Partial migration is a life history strategy that is common for ungulate species living in seasonal environments. One factor that influences the decision to migrate by ungulates is access to high quality habitat. We evaluated the influence of access to winter habitat of high quality on the probability of an individual migrating, the differences in seasonal habitat use between and within migratory and resident classes of deer, and the effects of this decision on the survival of female white-tailed deer. We hypothesized that deer with home ranges of relatively low quality in winter would have a relatively high probability of ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2014

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Audible Human Disturbance On Koala (Phascolarctos Cinereus) Behavior In Queensland, Australia And Implications For Management, Galina Eugenia Kinsella Jan 2014

Effects Of Audible Human Disturbance On Koala (Phascolarctos Cinereus) Behavior In Queensland, Australia And Implications For Management, Galina Eugenia Kinsella

Honors Theses and Capstones

As the growing human population continues to encroach on wildlife habitat, species are forced to adapt in order to survive. In addition to causing habitat loss, human presence can create more subtle disturbances, such as noise pollution, that disrupt wildlife behavior. Adapting to human presence is particularly difficult for species with specialized resource needs or low mobility. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), a national icon of Australia, meets both these criteria. Koalas were once abundant throughout Australia, but are now classified as “threatened.” Habitat loss is at least partly responsible for this decline, but anthropogenic noise may also be a factor ...


The Evolution Of Salamander Mimicry: Predators, Prey, And Perception, Andrew C. Kraemer Jan 2014

The Evolution Of Salamander Mimicry: Predators, Prey, And Perception, Andrew C. Kraemer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Batesian mimicry is an interspecific relationship in which a palatable species, the mimic, avoids attacks from predators by resembling an unpalatable species, the model. Mimicry has long been studied to understand the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation, yet many factors affecting the co-evolution of mimics and models are understudied in natural systems. In the first portion of this dissertation, I describe mimicry between two salamander species in which the erythristic color morph of Plethodon cinereus (the mimic) resembles the juvenile eft stage of Notophthalmus viridescens (the model). I found that the coloration of mimics resembles that of models, particularly from the ...


"Mining" For A Reference Condition In Southern West Virginia Streams, Matthew Rouch Jan 2014

"Mining" For A Reference Condition In Southern West Virginia Streams, Matthew Rouch

Theses and Dissertations

Quarterly samples were used to estimate assemblage-level (all species combined) fish production within three minimally-impacted, southern West Virginia streams. The total annual fish production estimate was highest in Slaunch Fork (37.52 kg∙ha-1∙y-1), a tributary of the Tug Fork River, and lowest in Cabin Creek (10.59 kg∙ha-1∙y-1), a Guyandotte River tributary. Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus, Mottled Sculpin Cottus bairdii and Blacknose Dace Rhinicthys atratulus were the most abundant species among sites, accounting for >90% of all sampled individuals. Reference condition criteria were also selected and metrics calculated for each of the ...


Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno Jan 2014

Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) abundances commonly are estimated using fixed-wing surveys, but these estimates are likely to be negatively biased because of violations of key assumptions underpinning line-transect methodology. Reducing bias and improving precision of abundance estimates through use of detection probability and mark-resight models may allow for more responsive pronghorn management actions. Given their potential application in population estimation, we evaluated detection probability and mark-resight models for use in estimating pronghorn population abundance. We used logistic regression to quantify probabilities that detecting pronghorn might be influenced by group size, animal activity, percent vegetation, cover type, and topography. We estimated pronghorn ...


Determinants Of Bite Force In Four Species Of Sharks From The Gulf Of Mexico With An Emphasis On The Atlantic Sharpnose Shark, Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae, Kyle Walter Rice Jan 2014

Determinants Of Bite Force In Four Species Of Sharks From The Gulf Of Mexico With An Emphasis On The Atlantic Sharpnose Shark, Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae, Kyle Walter Rice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bite force can provide valuable information regarding the physiological ecology of an organism. However, there have been few studies wherein bite force in sharks has been considered. Herein I report on a study of the bite force of four species of sharks with particular emphasis on that of the atlantic sharpnose shark, rhizoprionodon terraenovae. Among the four species examined, blacktip shark, carcharhinus limbatus bite force was significantly higher than that of sharpnose, rhizoprionodon terraenovae. There was no significant difference between the bite force of those species compared with the same for finetooth shark, c. Isodon and spinner shark, c. Brevipinna ...


Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla Jan 2014

Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Rise Of A Floater Class: Behavioral Adjustments By Breeding Bald Eagles In A Population Approaching Saturation, Courtney L. Turrin Jan 2014

Rise Of A Floater Class: Behavioral Adjustments By Breeding Bald Eagles In A Population Approaching Saturation, Courtney L. Turrin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Short-Term Effects Of A Routine Poisoning Campaign On The Movements And Detectability Of A Social Top-Predator., B L. Allen, R. M. Engeman, L. K-P. Leung Jan 2014

The Short-Term Effects Of A Routine Poisoning Campaign On The Movements And Detectability Of A Social Top-Predator., B L. Allen, R. M. Engeman, L. K-P. Leung

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Top-predators can be important components of resilient ecosystems, but they are still controlled in many places to mitigate a variety of economic, environmental and/or social impacts. Lethal control is often achieved through the broadscale application of poisoned baits. Understanding the direct and indirect effects of such lethal control on subsequent movements and behaviour of survivors is an important pre-requisite for interpreting the efficacy and ecological outcomes of top predator control. In this study, we use GPS tracking collars to investigate the fine-scale and short-term movements of dingoes (Canis lupus dingo and other wild dogs) in response to a routine ...


Phylogenetic Systematics Of The Prickleback Family Stichaeidae (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei) Using Morphological Data, Todd R. Clardy Jan 2014

Phylogenetic Systematics Of The Prickleback Family Stichaeidae (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei) Using Morphological Data, Todd R. Clardy

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The prickleback family Stichaeidae, as currently recognized, is a diverse group of small (<30 cm TL) eel- or blenny-like marine fishes distributed in intertidal, subtidal, and continental slope waters of the North Pacific, Arctic, and North Atlantic oceans. Stichaeidae is one of nine families within the Cottiformes suborder Zoarcoidei and includes six subfamilies, 38 genera, and about 80 species. However, there are questions regarding the monophyly of the family and its position within Zoarcoidei, due in part to a lack of fundamental descriptive anatomical data for the family. The first chapter of my dissertation describes the osteology of Xiphister, a genus of Stichaeidae that includes two species, X. atropurpureus and X. mucosus, found in intertidal and subtidal waters from southern Alaska to southern California. I describe and illustrate their skeletal anatomy, clarify aspects of their anatomy discussed by previous researchers, and describe for the first time elements such as the hyoid and gill arches, scales, and the development of their lateral line canals. These data establish a foundation for the further anatomical and systematic studies of Stichaeidae, and Zoarcoidei generally. Some members of Stichaeidae, including both species of Xiphister , have multiple lateral line canals on their trunk, which is a feature found in only 15 families of teleostean fishes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, the structure and ontogeny of lateral line canals of both species of Xiphister were studied using cleared & stained specimens and histology. Both species have seven cephalic canals and three paired canals on the trunk located on the dorsolateral, mediolateral, and ventrolateral body surfaces. The ventrolateral canal also includes a short loop across the ventral surface of the abdomen. The trunk canals and four short branches of the infraorbitals that extend across the cheek are supported by small ossified rings. The trunk canals develop asynchronously and separately from the development of scales, suggesting that the ossified rings that support the canals are not modified scales. Results from histology show that neuromasts, the sensory components of the mechanosensory system, are found only in the cephalic, dorsolateral, and mediolateral canals; the ventrolateral canal and its loop lack neuromasts. The evolution and functional role of multiple trunk lateral line canals is discussed. The third chapter of my dissertation examines the phylogenetic systematics of Stichaeidae using 106 morphological characters and 60 terminal taxa, including 30 genera of Stichaeidae, representatives from all eight other families of Zoarcoidei, and additional outgroup taxa. The suborder Zoarcoidei was recovered as a monophyletic group sister to Cottoidei within the order Cottiformes. Within Zoarcoidei, however, the family Stichaeidae was not recovered as a monophyletic family. Only two of the six subfamilies within Stichaeidae, Lumpeninae and Neozoarcinae, were recovered as monophyletic. The high level of homoplasy in the remaining four stichaeid subfamilies, and the inclusion of zoarcoid families nested within Stichaeidae, suggests that the current classification of Stichaeidae does not accurately reflect the evolutionary history of Zoarcoidei.


Natural Variation In Fertility And Gnrh Neurons In A Wild, Natural Population Of White-Footed Mice, Peromyscus Leucopus, Melissa Proffitt Jan 2014

Natural Variation In Fertility And Gnrh Neurons In A Wild, Natural Population Of White-Footed Mice, Peromyscus Leucopus, Melissa Proffitt

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten Dec 2013

Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten

Shaun W Molloy Dr

The ngwayir (western ringtail possum Pseudocheirus occidentalis) is an arboreal species endemic to south-western Australia. The range and population of this species have been significantly reduced through multiple anthropogenic impacts. Classified as vulnerable, the ngwayir is highly susceptible to extremes of temperature and reduced water intake. Ngwayir distribution was determined using three different species distribution models using ngwayir presence records related to a set of 19 bioclimatic variables derived fromhistorical climate data, overlaid with 2050 climate change scenarios.MaxEnt was used to identify core habitat and demonstrate how this habitat may be impacted. A supplementary modelling exercise was also conducted ...


Can They Dig It? Functional Morphology And Degrees Of Semifossoriality Among Some American Shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae)., Neal Woodman, Sarah A. Gaffney Dec 2013

Can They Dig It? Functional Morphology And Degrees Of Semifossoriality Among Some American Shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae)., Neal Woodman, Sarah A. Gaffney

Neal Woodman

Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1 ...