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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough Dec 2014

Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups ...


Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models For Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?, Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson, Jonathan A. Jenks Sep 2014

Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models For Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?, Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson, Jonathan A. Jenks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of ...


Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips Jun 2014

Widespread Rapid Reductions In Body Size Of Adult Salamanders In Response To Climate Change, Nicholas M. Caruso, Michael W. Sears, Dean C. Adams, Karen R. Lips

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1 ...


Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks Mar 2014

Influence Of Landscape Characteristics On Retention Of Expandable Radiocollars On Young Ungulates, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher N. Jacques, Todd J. Brinkman, Christopher C. Swanson, Christopher S. Deperno, Kevin L. Monteith, Jaret D. Sievers, Vernon C. Bleich, John G. Kie, Jonathan A. Jenks

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

One tool used for wildlife management is the deployment of radiocollars to gain knowledge of animal populations. Understanding the influence of individual factors (e.g., species, collar characteristics) and landscape characteristics (e.g., forested cover, shrubs, and fencing) on retention of expandable radiocollars for ungulates is important for obtaining empirical data on factors influencing ecology of young-of-the-year ungulates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 198 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, 142 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns, and 73 mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in South Dakota, Minnesota, and California, USA. We documented 72 (36.4%), 8 (5.6%), and 7 ...


Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen Mar 2014

Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Extreme environmental events (EEEs) are likely to exert deleterious effects on populations. From 1996 to 2012 we studied the nesting dynamics of a riverine population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that experienced seven years with significantly definable spring floods. We used capture–mark–recapture methods to estimate the relationships between more than 5 m and more than 6 m flood events and population parameters. Contrary to expectations, flooding was not associated with annual differences in survival, recruitment or annual population growth rates of the adult female segment of the population. These findings suggest that female C. pictaexhibit resiliency to ...


Population Genetics Of Blanding’S Turtle (Emys Blandingii) In The Midwestern United States, Arun Sethuraman, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Morgan L. Becker, Christopher H. Chandler, James L. Christiansen, Sue Hayden, Andrea Leclere, Jennifer Monson-Miller, Erin M. Myers, Ryan T. Paitz, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Terry J. Vandewalle, Fredric J. Janzen Feb 2014

Population Genetics Of Blanding’S Turtle (Emys Blandingii) In The Midwestern United States, Arun Sethuraman, Suzanne E. Mcgaugh, Morgan L. Becker, Christopher H. Chandler, James L. Christiansen, Sue Hayden, Andrea Leclere, Jennifer Monson-Miller, Erin M. Myers, Ryan T. Paitz, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Terry J. Vandewalle, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Blanding’s turtle (Emys blandingii) has declined substantially in North America due to anthropogenic activities, leaving populations smaller and increasingly fragmented spatially. We sampled 212 turtles to evaluate variation at eight microsatellite loci within and among 18 populations of E. blandingii across its primary range in the midwestern United States (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska). All loci and populations were highly polymorphic. Our analyses also detected considerable genetic structure within and among the sampled localities, and revealed ancestral gene flow of E. blandingii in this region north and east from an ancient refugium in the central Great Plains, concordant with ...


Behavioral Response To A Novel “X” Shape Target Stimuli In A Harbor Seal, Johanna F. Sholar, Anna K. Johnson, Keiko Sampson, Chad Comer, Kevin Drees Jan 2014

Behavioral Response To A Novel “X” Shape Target Stimuli In A Harbor Seal, Johanna F. Sholar, Anna K. Johnson, Keiko Sampson, Chad Comer, Kevin Drees

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to provide an environmental enrichment device (shape target) to determine if it improved the Harbor Seal’s visibility in the underwater viewing windows when housed at the Blank Park Zoo. One male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) 3-years of age weighing 39 kg was used. Testing occurred Saturday through Tuesday over 6 consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1330 h. Live observations were collected continuously by one observer. Latency, frequency, and duration were measured. All data is presented descriptively. During baseline the Seal had no interest in the window. Upon presenting the “X” target, he approached ...


Inclusion Of Fresh Pork Pancreas In Raw Pork Meat-Based Diets For African Wildcats (Felis Silvestris Tristrami) Does Not Impact Macronutrient Digestibility, Cheryl L. Morris, Kelly Kappen Jan 2014

Inclusion Of Fresh Pork Pancreas In Raw Pork Meat-Based Diets For African Wildcats (Felis Silvestris Tristrami) Does Not Impact Macronutrient Digestibility, Cheryl L. Morris, Kelly Kappen

Animal Industry Report

Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility was evaluated in 4 African wildcats (Felis silvestris tristrami) fed beef or pork-based raw meat diets. Diets were formulated to meet nutrient requirements of cats (NRC, 2006). Cats were fed isocaloric amounts of either control (standard beef raw diet) or pork-based raw diets containing 0, 3, or 5% added raw pancreas, in four 14-day periods. Protein digestibility was higher for pork diets compared with beef and inclusion up to 5% fresh pancreas did not increase macronutrient digestibility in healthy animals. Raw pork can be fed to exotic felids as a viable alternative to standard beef-based ...


Trans-Gulf Of Mexico Loop Migration Of Tree Swallows Revealed By Solar Geolocation, David W. Bradley, Robert G. Clark, Peter O. Dunn, Andrew J. Laughlin, Caz M. Taylor, Carol M. Vleck, Linda A. Whittingham, David W. Winkler, D. Ryan Norris Jan 2014

Trans-Gulf Of Mexico Loop Migration Of Tree Swallows Revealed By Solar Geolocation, David W. Bradley, Robert G. Clark, Peter O. Dunn, Andrew J. Laughlin, Caz M. Taylor, Carol M. Vleck, Linda A. Whittingham, David W. Winkler, D. Ryan Norris

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

One of the greatest feats of avian migration is the non-stop crossing of extensive areas of inhospitable habitat such as deserts and seas. Differences in spring and autumn migration routes have been reported in species that cross such barriers, and are thought to have evolved in response to seasonal variation in prevailing wind direction. We tested the hypothesis that migration routes vary seasonally with respect to the Gulf of Mexico in the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor using solar geolocators attached and retrieved at 4 breeding sites in central North America. We found that 100 % of birds (n = 10) made a ...


Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno Jan 2014

Incorporating Detection Probability Into Northern Great Plains Pronghorn Population Estimates, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Deperno

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) abundances commonly are estimated using fixed-wing surveys, but these estimates are likely to be negatively biased because of violations of key assumptions underpinning line-transect methodology. Reducing bias and improving precision of abundance estimates through use of detection probability and mark-resight models may allow for more responsive pronghorn management actions. Given their potential application in population estimation, we evaluated detection probability and mark-resight models for use in estimating pronghorn population abundance. We used logistic regression to quantify probabilities that detecting pronghorn might be influenced by group size, animal activity, percent vegetation, cover type, and topography. We estimated pronghorn ...


Loss Of Gq/11 Genes Does Not Abolish Melanopsin Phototransduction, Kylie S. Chew, Tiffany M. Schmidt, Alan C. Rupp, Paulo Kofuji, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi Jan 2014

Loss Of Gq/11 Genes Does Not Abolish Melanopsin Phototransduction, Kylie S. Chew, Tiffany M. Schmidt, Alan C. Rupp, Paulo Kofuji, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

In mammals, a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) expresses the photopigment melanopsin, which renders them intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). These ipRGCs mediate various non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Melanopsin phototransduction begins with activation of a heterotrimeric G protein of unknown identity. Several studies of melanopsin phototransduction have implicated a G-protein of the Gq/11 family, which consists of Gna11, Gna14, Gnaq and Gna15, in melanopsin-evoked depolarization. However, the exact identity of the Gq/11 gene involved in this process has remained elusive. Additionally, whether Gq/11 G-proteins are necessary for melanopsin phototransduction ...


The Evolution Of Salamander Mimicry: Predators, Prey, And Perception, Andrew C. Kraemer Jan 2014

The Evolution Of Salamander Mimicry: Predators, Prey, And Perception, Andrew C. Kraemer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Batesian mimicry is an interspecific relationship in which a palatable species, the mimic, avoids attacks from predators by resembling an unpalatable species, the model. Mimicry has long been studied to understand the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation, yet many factors affecting the co-evolution of mimics and models are understudied in natural systems. In the first portion of this dissertation, I describe mimicry between two salamander species in which the erythristic color morph of Plethodon cinereus (the mimic) resembles the juvenile eft stage of Notophthalmus viridescens (the model). I found that the coloration of mimics resembles that of models, particularly from the ...


Exogenous Application Of Estradiol To Eggs Unexpectedly Induces Male Development In Two Turtle Species With Temperaturedependent Sex Determination, Daniel A. Warner, Elizabeth Addis, Wei-Guo Du, Thane Wibbels, Fredric J. Janzen Jan 2014

Exogenous Application Of Estradiol To Eggs Unexpectedly Induces Male Development In Two Turtle Species With Temperaturedependent Sex Determination, Daniel A. Warner, Elizabeth Addis, Wei-Guo Du, Thane Wibbels, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Steroid hormones affect sex determination in a variety of vertebrates. The feminizing effects of exposure to estradiol and the masculinizing effects of aromatase inhibition during development are well established in a broad range of vertebrate taxa, but paradoxical findings are occasionally reported. Four independent experiments were conducted on two turtle species with temperature-dependent sex determination (Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina) to quantify the effects of egg incubation temperature, estradiol, and an aromatase inhibitor on offspring sex ratios. As expected, the warmer incubation temperatures induced female development and the cooler temperatures produced primarily males. However, application of an aromatase inhibitor had ...


Immobile And Mobile Life-History Stages Have Different Thermal Physiologies In A Lizard, Rory S. Telemeco Jan 2014

Immobile And Mobile Life-History Stages Have Different Thermal Physiologies In A Lizard, Rory S. Telemeco

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Temperature affects multiple aspects of an organism’s biology and thus defines a major axis of the fundamental niche. For ectotherms, variation in the thermal environment is particularly important because most of these taxa have a limited capacity to thermoregulate via metabolic heat production. While temperature affects all life-history stages, stages can differ in their ability to respond to the thermal environment. For example, in oviparous organisms, free-living adults can behaviorally thermoregulate, whereas developing embryos are at the mercy of the nest environment. These differences in the realized thermal environment should select for life-history stages to have different thermal tolerances ...


Onecut1 And Onecut2 Play Critical Roles In The Development Of The Mouse Retina, Jillian J. Goetz, Gregory M. Martin, Rebecca Chowdhury, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi Jan 2014

Onecut1 And Onecut2 Play Critical Roles In The Development Of The Mouse Retina, Jillian J. Goetz, Gregory M. Martin, Rebecca Chowdhury, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The entire repertoire of intrinsic factors that control the cell fate determination process of specific retinal neurons has yet to be fully identified. Single cell transcriptome profiling experiments of retinal progenitor cells revealed considerable gene expression heterogeneity between individual cells, especially among different classes of transcription factors. In this study, we show that two of those factors, Onecut1 and Onecut2, are expressed during mouse retinal development. Using mice that are deficient for each of these transcription factors, we further demonstrate a significant loss (∼70–80%) of horizontal cells in the absence of either of these proteins, while the other retinal ...


Computational Modeling Suggests Dimerization Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Is Required For Rna Binding, Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Hyelee Loyd, Kinsey Cornick, Jerald R. Chavez, Drena Dobbs, Susan Carpenter Jan 2014

Computational Modeling Suggests Dimerization Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Is Required For Rna Binding, Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Hyelee Loyd, Kinsey Cornick, Jerald R. Chavez, Drena Dobbs, Susan Carpenter

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background

The lentiviral Rev protein mediates nuclear export of intron-containing viral RNAs that encode structural proteins or serve as the viral genome. Following translation, HIV-1 Rev localizes to the nucleus and binds its cognate sequence, termed the Rev-responsive element (RRE), in incompletely spliced viral RNA. Rev subsequently multimerizes along the viral RNA and associates with the cellular Crm1 export machinery to translocate the RNA-protein complex to the cytoplasm. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev is functionally homologous to HIV-1 Rev, but shares very little sequence similarity and differs in domain organization. EIAV Rev also contains a bipartite RNA binding domain ...