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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Free-Ranging, Feral Mare Equus Caballus Affords Similar Maternal Care To Her Genetic And Adopted Offspring, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein Nov 2013

A Free-Ranging, Feral Mare Equus Caballus Affords Similar Maternal Care To Her Genetic And Adopted Offspring, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Cassandra M.V. Nuñez

Adoption of nongenetic offspring occurs in a variety of species but is rare in equids. We report a case of adoption by a free-ranging, feral mare Equus caballus and compare the maternal care received by her genetic offspring (born 1995) to that of her adopted offspring (born 1996) for the first 30 weeks of development. We compare five measures of care: (1) total time spent suckling, (2) mare aggression during suckling, (3) number of mare-terminated suckling bouts, (4) contact maintenance, and (5) mare-foal distance. For most behaviors, we detected no difference in the mare’s treatment of the two foals ...


Moving Across The Border: Modeling Migratory Bat Populations, Ruscena Wiederholt, Laura López-Hoffman, Jon Cline, Rodrigo A. Medellín, Paul Cryan, Amy L. Russell, Gary Mccracken, Jay Diffendorfer, Darius Semmens Aug 2013

Moving Across The Border: Modeling Migratory Bat Populations, Ruscena Wiederholt, Laura López-Hoffman, Jon Cline, Rodrigo A. Medellín, Paul Cryan, Amy L. Russell, Gary Mccracken, Jay Diffendorfer, Darius Semmens

Amy L. Russell

The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Repeated Oral Administration Of Tramadol Hydrochloride In Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, Lillian Gerhardt, Sherry Cox Aug 2013

Pharmacokinetics Of Repeated Oral Administration Of Tramadol Hydrochloride In Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, Lillian Gerhardt, Sherry Cox

Sherry Cox

Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography ...


Tb157: Capture, Care, And Handling Of Fishers (Martes Pennanti), Herbert C. Frost, William B. Krohn Aug 2013

Tb157: Capture, Care, And Handling Of Fishers (Martes Pennanti), Herbert C. Frost, William B. Krohn

William B. Krohn

These authors brought fishers into captivity to assess the reproductive cycles of both sexes and to monitor females with known reproductive histories. In addition, kits born in captivity were raised to sexual maturity to monitor growth and development. Here they report on the rates at which fishers were caught, the care and maintenance of fishers while in captivity, and the handling procedures used with 44 fishers taken from the wild and 38 fishers conceived in the wild and born in captivity, during the period from 1990 to 1993.


Tb132: An Annotated Bibliography Of Predator Research In Maine, 1974-1988, Stephen M. Arthur, William B. Krohn Aug 2013

Tb132: An Annotated Bibliography Of Predator Research In Maine, 1974-1988, Stephen M. Arthur, William B. Krohn

William B. Krohn

From 1974 to 1988, graduate students (13 M.S. and 5 Ph.D.) and faculty members from the University of Maine conducted a series of studies regarding the ecology of coyotes, red foxes, bobcats, pine martens, fishers, otters, and their prey. This research was reported in 67 theses, journal articles, or other reports, which are abstracted here. An introductory section summarizes the major findings.


Pharmacokinetics Of Repeated Oral Administration Of Tramadol Hydrochloride In Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, Lillian Gerhardt, Sherry Cox Jun 2013

Pharmacokinetics Of Repeated Oral Administration Of Tramadol Hydrochloride In Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona Ventralis), Marcy Souza, Lillian Gerhardt, Sherry Cox

Marcy J Souza

Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography ...


On Hypogean Roncocreagris (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) From Portugal, With Descriptions Of Three New Species, Ana Reboleira, Juan Zaragoza, Fernando Gonçalves, Pedro Oromí Jun 2013

On Hypogean Roncocreagris (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) From Portugal, With Descriptions Of Three New Species, Ana Reboleira, Juan Zaragoza, Fernando Gonçalves, Pedro Oromí

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Three new hypogean species of the Iberian genus Roncocreagris Mahnert, 1974 are described from mainland Portugal: R. borgesi sp. nov. and R. gepesi sp. nov. from caves in the Sicó massif, and R. occidentalis sp. nov. from caves in the Montejunto and Cesaredas karst plateau. This brings to nine the number of known hypogean species of the mostly Iberian genus Roncocreagris: five from Portugal and four from Spain. Ecological comments and new localities for some of the previously known species are also included.


Germline Transgenic Methods For Tracking Cells And Testing Gene Function During Regeneration In The Axolotl, Shahryar Khattak, Maritta Schuez, Tobias Richter, Dunja Knapp, Saori Haigo, Tatiana Sandoval-Guzman, Kristyna Hradlikova, Annett Duemmler, Ryan Kerney, Elly Tanaka Jun 2013

Germline Transgenic Methods For Tracking Cells And Testing Gene Function During Regeneration In The Axolotl, Shahryar Khattak, Maritta Schuez, Tobias Richter, Dunja Knapp, Saori Haigo, Tatiana Sandoval-Guzman, Kristyna Hradlikova, Annett Duemmler, Ryan Kerney, Elly Tanaka

Ryan Kerney

The salamander is the only tetrapod that regenerates complex body structures throughout life. Deciphering the underlying molecular processes of regeneration is fundamental for regenerative medicine and developmental biology, but the model organism had limited tools for molecular analysis. We describe a comprehensive set of germline transgenic strains in the laboratory-bred salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) that open up the cellular and molecular genetic dissection of regeneration. We demonstrate tissue-dependent con- trol of gene expression in nerve, Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, muscle, epidermis, and cartilage. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of tamoxifen-induced Cre/loxP-mediated recombination to indelibly mark different cell types. Finally, we ...


The World’S Deepest Subterranean Community - Krubera-Voronja Cave (Western Caucasus), Alberto Sendra, Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira Jun 2013

The World’S Deepest Subterranean Community - Krubera-Voronja Cave (Western Caucasus), Alberto Sendra, Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Subsurface biota extends over a wide variety of habitats that can be spatially interconnected. The largest communities of this subsurface biota inhabit cavities and are well known mainly in caves where biologists are able to have access. Data about deep subterranean communities and arthropods living under one thousand meters was unknown. An expedition to world’s deepest cave, Krubera-Voronja in Western Caucasus, revealed an interesting subterranean community, living below 2000 meters and represented by more than 12 species of arthropods, including several new species for science. This deep cave biota is composed of troglobionts and also epigean species, that can ...


Subterranean Species Of Acipes Attems, 1937 (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae), Henrik Enghoff, Ana Reboleira Apr 2013

Subterranean Species Of Acipes Attems, 1937 (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae), Henrik Enghoff, Ana Reboleira

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Two new blind, cave-dwelling species of the genus Acipes Attems, 1937, are described from the Algarve, southern Portugal: A. machadoi n. sp. and A. bifilum n. sp. Acipes andalusius Enghoff & Mauriès, 1999, is reported from the mesovoid shallow substratum in Alicante (Spain), 250 km from the type locality in Andalusia.


The Genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928—An Iberian-N African Outlier Of A Mainly Tropical Tribe Of Millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), Ana Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff Apr 2013

The Genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928—An Iberian-N African Outlier Of A Mainly Tropical Tribe Of Millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), Ana Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

The genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928, is revised. The synonymy of Liliputia Attems, 1952, under Boreviulisoma is confirmed, but L. badia Attems, 1951, from Spain, is resurrected, as Boreviulisoma badium, from synonymy under B. liouvilleiBrolemann, 1928 (the type species of Boreviulisoma) from Morocco. Boreviulisoma barrocalense n. sp. is described from the subterranean environment of the Algarve, the southernmost province of Portugal. The distribution of the three known species of Boreviulisoma is mapped, main characters of the genus and its species are reviewed and a key to species of the genus is included. The isolated occurrence of Boreviulisoma badium and B. barrocalense ...


Predicting Nesting Habitat Of Northern Goshawks In Mixed Aspen-Lodgepole Pine Forests In A High-Elevation Shrub-Steppe Dominated Landscape., Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Marc J. Bechard, Dena Santini Apr 2013

Predicting Nesting Habitat Of Northern Goshawks In Mixed Aspen-Lodgepole Pine Forests In A High-Elevation Shrub-Steppe Dominated Landscape., Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Marc J. Bechard, Dena Santini

Robert Miller

We developed a habitat suitability model for predicting nest locations of breeding Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in the high-elevation mixed forest and shrub-steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, USA. We used elevation, slope, aspect, ruggedness, distance-to-water, canopy cover, and individual bands of Landsat imagery as predictors for known nest locations with logistic regression. We found goshawks prefer to nest in gently-sloping, east-facing, non-rugged areas of dense aspen and lodgepole pine forests with low reflectance in green (0.53 - 0.61 μm) wavelengths during the breeding season. We used the model results to classify our 43,169 hectare study area into nesting ...


Reproductive Behavior In Horseshoe Crabs: Does Density Matter?, Jennifer Mattei, Mark Beekey, Adam Rudman, Alyssa Woronik Apr 2013

Reproductive Behavior In Horseshoe Crabs: Does Density Matter?, Jennifer Mattei, Mark Beekey, Adam Rudman, Alyssa Woronik

Jennifer Mattei

While the four species of horseshoe crabs share many common reproductive traits with respect to their reproductive systems, they do differ with respect to their mating behavior (monogamy vs. polygynandry). Past research has attributed these differences to a number of factors including: spawning densities, operational sex ratios (OSR’s), male condition (or age), environmental and/or genetic factors, or a combination thereof. Mating behaviors in the three Asian horseshoe crab species (Tachypleus gigas , T. tridentatus, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda ) with low spawning densities and 1:1 operational sex ratios are typically monogamous. In Limulus polyphemus , mating behavior is more variable ranging ...


Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves Mar 2013

Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Karst systems harbor large groundwater resources for human consumption and represent an important habitat for rare and unprotected specialized animals, the so-called stygofauna. Due to the highly adapted features towards underground life, together with the geographic isolation provided by the subterranean aquifers, groundwater-dwelling animals may lose the ability to face sudden changes on their ecosystems, and therefore the risk of extinction is remarkably high. A little is known about their sensitiveness, especially linked to contamination pressure in urbanized karst areas. Understanding the impact of contaminants on stygofauna is important for setting groundwater environmental quality and management of karst systems. We ...


Response From Stark And Banks, John D. Stark, John Banks Feb 2013

Response From Stark And Banks, John D. Stark, John Banks

John Banks

No abstract provided.


A Study Of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Modeling Of Nonstationary Time Series Data With Time-Dependent Spectra, Josue G. Martinez, Kirsten M. Bohn, Raymond J. Carroll, Jeffrey S. Morris Feb 2013

A Study Of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Modeling Of Nonstationary Time Series Data With Time-Dependent Spectra, Josue G. Martinez, Kirsten M. Bohn, Raymond J. Carroll, Jeffrey S. Morris

Jeffrey S. Morris

We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to ...


Frequent Cross-Species Transmission Of Parvoviruses Among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew Allison, Dennis Kohler, Karen Fox, Justin Brown, Richard Gerhold, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Edward Dubovi, Colin Parrish, Edward Holmes Jan 2013

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission Of Parvoviruses Among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew Allison, Dennis Kohler, Karen Fox, Justin Brown, Richard Gerhold, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Edward Dubovi, Colin Parrish, Edward Holmes

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus ("FPV-like") or canine parvovirus ("CPV-like"). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.


Geographic Variation In Nonmetric Dental Traits Of The Deciduous Molars Of Pan And Gorilla, Anna Hardin, Scott Legge Dec 2012

Geographic Variation In Nonmetric Dental Traits Of The Deciduous Molars Of Pan And Gorilla, Anna Hardin, Scott Legge

Scott Legge

Physical anthropologists often use nonmetric dental traits to trace the movement of human populations, but similar analysis of the teeth of nonhuman primates or the deciduous teeth is rare. Because nonmetric dental characteristics are manifestations of genetic differences among groups, they vary among geographically distant members of the same species and subspecies. We use 28 nonmetric dental traits in the deciduous molars to compare genetically and geographically distinct groups of extant African apes (Gorilla and Pan). Previous researchers have studied these traits in the adult or juvenile teeth of great apes and humans, and we score our observations according to ...


Influence Of Latitude On The Winter Abundance Of Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In Illinois, Given Harper, Anna Groves, Vic Berardi, Paul Sweet, Jance Sweet, Angelo P. Capparella Dec 2012

Influence Of Latitude On The Winter Abundance Of Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In Illinois, Given Harper, Anna Groves, Vic Berardi, Paul Sweet, Jance Sweet, Angelo P. Capparella

Given Harper

We use five years of data from 18 routes surveyed to determine the temporal stability of a first reported 100 years pattern, and reconfirmed that the abundance of winter 50 years ago tailed Hawk and American Kestrel decreases with increasing latitude, being more high in the central regions of Illinos in the northern regions. Trained volunteers conducted sampling ( n  = 143) a month driving along selected routes from December to February, from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009. We found significant increases in the abundance of both species from the northern regions to the central regions of Illinois. No significant effects of the year ...


Metamodels For Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Wildlife Population Dynamics, Robert C. Lacy, Philip S. Miller, Philip J. Nyhus, J. P. Pollak, B. E. Raboy, S. L. Zeigler Dec 2012

Metamodels For Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Wildlife Population Dynamics, Robert C. Lacy, Philip S. Miller, Philip J. Nyhus, J. P. Pollak, B. E. Raboy, S. L. Zeigler

Philip J. Nyhus

Wildlife population models have been criticized for their narrow disciplinary perspective when analyzing complexity in coupled biological – physical – human systems. We describe a “metamodel” approach to species risk assessment when diverse threats act at different spatiotemporal scales, interact in non-linear ways, and are addressed by distinct disciplines. A metamodel links discrete, individual models that depict components of a complex system, governing the flow of information among models and the sequence of simulated events. Each model simulates processes specific to its disciplinary realm while being informed of changes in other metamodel components by accessing common descriptors of the system, populations, and ...


Presence And Distribution Of Hawaiian False Killer Whales (Pseudorca Crassidens) In Maui County Waters: A Historical Perspective, Itana F. Silva, Gregory D. Kaufman, Robert W. Rankin, Daniela Maldini Dec 2012

Presence And Distribution Of Hawaiian False Killer Whales (Pseudorca Crassidens) In Maui County Waters: A Historical Perspective, Itana F. Silva, Gregory D. Kaufman, Robert W. Rankin, Daniela Maldini

Daniela Maldini

No abstract provided.


The Type Localities Of The Mule Deer, Odocoileus Hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), And The Kansas White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus Macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), Are Not Where We Thought They, Neal Woodman Dec 2012

The Type Localities Of The Mule Deer, Odocoileus Hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), And The Kansas White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus Macrourus (Rafinesque, 1817), Are Not Where We Thought They, Neal Woodman

Neal Woodman

Among the iconic mammals of the North American West is the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This species and a western subspecies of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus macrourus) were two of seven mammals originally named and described as new species in 1817 by Constantine S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque never saw the animals that he named. Instead, he followed the then-acceptable practice of basing his new species on animals characterized in another published work, in this case the putative journal of Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian fur trader who was said to have traversed the upper Missouri River region before the ...


Melanistic Adult Male Northern Harrier Wintering In Idaho, Robert A. Miller, Neil Paprocki, Elizabeth H. Urban Dec 2012

Melanistic Adult Male Northern Harrier Wintering In Idaho, Robert A. Miller, Neil Paprocki, Elizabeth H. Urban

Robert Miller

Field observation of a Northern Harrier with rare aberrant plumage.