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Zoology

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 263

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Distance Movement In A Dusky Great Horned Owl And Limits To Phylogeography For Establishing Provenance, Robert W. Dickerman, Sabrina M. Mcnew, Christopher C. Witt Dec 2013

Long-Distance Movement In A Dusky Great Horned Owl And Limits To Phylogeography For Establishing Provenance, Robert W. Dickerman, Sabrina M. Mcnew, Christopher C. Witt

Western North American Naturalist

The Dusky Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus saturatus) of the Pacific Northwest region of North America is generally considered to be nonmigratory. Here we report a specimen of a Dusky Great Horned Owl that was salvaged in New Mexico and identified based on comparison of its plumage with a large series of museum skins. We attempted to corroborate this identification by comparing mitochondrial DNA sequences between the specimen and a representative sample of 5 Great Horned Owl subspecies from western North America. This analysis revealed minimal mitochondrial genetic variation and no evidence of population genetic structure, suggesting that the marked ...


Evaluating Survival Of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks In Strawberry Valley, Utah, By Use Of Microtransmitters: Does Handling Time Negatively Influence Survival Rates?, Jared J. Baxter, Jordan P. Hennefer, Rick J. Baxter, Randy T. Larsen, Jerran T. Flinders Dec 2013

Evaluating Survival Of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks In Strawberry Valley, Utah, By Use Of Microtransmitters: Does Handling Time Negatively Influence Survival Rates?, Jared J. Baxter, Jordan P. Hennefer, Rick J. Baxter, Randy T. Larsen, Jerran T. Flinders

Western North American Naturalist

Research indicates that low nest success and juvenile survival may be factors contributing to Greater Sage-Grouse population declines. Recent technological advances in microtransmitters have allowed researchers to monitor individual chicks and broods. We initiated a chick survival study in 2006 and used microtransmitters to (1) examine the viability of using microtransmitters on chicks to assess survival, including the effect of handling time during the suturing process; (2) estimate overall chick survival; and (3) compare chick survival in the Strawberry Valley population to other published reports. We used a known-fate model in program MARK to estimate ĉ (overdispersion), weekly survival rates ...


Net Primary Productivity Of Subalpine Meadows In Yosemite National Park In Relation To Climate Variability, Peggy E. Moore, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Julie L. Yee, Mitchel P. Mcclaran, David N. Cole, Neil K. Mcdougald, Matthew L. Brooks Dec 2013

Net Primary Productivity Of Subalpine Meadows In Yosemite National Park In Relation To Climate Variability, Peggy E. Moore, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Julie L. Yee, Mitchel P. Mcclaran, David N. Cole, Neil K. Mcdougald, Matthew L. Brooks

Western North American Naturalist

Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate. Our objective was to describe patterns and variability in aboveground live vascular plant biomass in relation to climatic factors. We harvested aboveground biomass at peak growth from four 64-m2 plots each in xeric, mesic, and hydric meadows annually from 1994 to 2000. Data from nearby weather stations provided independent variables ...


Rodent-Mediated Interactions Among Seed Species Of Differing Quality In A Shrubstepe Ecosystem, Karen H. Beard, Craig A. Faulhaber, Frank P. Howe, Thomas C. Edwards Jr. Dec 2013

Rodent-Mediated Interactions Among Seed Species Of Differing Quality In A Shrubstepe Ecosystem, Karen H. Beard, Craig A. Faulhaber, Frank P. Howe, Thomas C. Edwards Jr.

Western North American Naturalist

Interactions among seeds, mediated by granivorous rodents, are likely to play a strong role in shrubsteppe ecosystem restoration. Past studies typically consider only pairwise interactions between preferred and less preferred seed species, whereas rangeland seedings are likely to contain more than 2 seed species, potentially leading to complex interactions. We examined how the relative proportion of seeds in a 3-species polyculture changes rodent seed selectivity (i.e., removal) and indirect interactions among seeds. We presented 2 rodent species, Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice) andPerognathus parvus (pocket mice), in arenas with 3-species seed mixtures that varied in the proportion of a ...


Seasonal Habitat Selection By Elk In North Central Utah, Jeffrey L. Beck, Kurt T. Smith, Jerran T. Flinders, Craig L. Clyde Dec 2013

Seasonal Habitat Selection By Elk In North Central Utah, Jeffrey L. Beck, Kurt T. Smith, Jerran T. Flinders, Craig L. Clyde

Western North American Naturalist

Understanding anthropogenic and environmental factors that influence seasonal habitat selection is critical in establishing conservation objectives for wildlife populations. However, many resource selection studies provide inferences only for single seasons, potentially masking factors essential to populations during other times of the year. Our objective was to model elk (Cervus elaphus) habitat selection for 4 seasons to identify factors influencing selection within and across seasons. Using aerial relocation data, we evaluated seasonal habitat selection for 46 radio-marked, migratory adult female elk in a 6123-km2 landscape in north central Utah, USA, from 1993 to 1997. We evaluated habitat use and availability ...


Seed-Feeding Beetles (Bruchinae, Curculionidae, Brentidae) From Legumes (Dalea Ornata, Astragalus Filipes) And Other Forbs Needed For Restoring Rangelands Of The Intermountain West, James H. Cane, Clarence Johnson, Jesus Romero Napoles, Douglas A. Johnson, Robert Hammon Dec 2013

Seed-Feeding Beetles (Bruchinae, Curculionidae, Brentidae) From Legumes (Dalea Ornata, Astragalus Filipes) And Other Forbs Needed For Restoring Rangelands Of The Intermountain West, James H. Cane, Clarence Johnson, Jesus Romero Napoles, Douglas A. Johnson, Robert Hammon

Western North American Naturalist

Seed-feeding beetles of the genera Acanthoscelides, Apion, and occasionally Tychiuswere commonly found occurring in seeds from wild populations of Astragalus filipesand Dalea ornata across rangelands of the United States Intermountain West, resulting in many new state, county, and host records. These 2 legumes, as well as other perennial herbaceous species, are being commercially farmed to produce seed supplies to rehabilitate sagebrush-steppe and adjoining juniper woodlands following wildfires. Most of the seeds examined in this study hosted one or more seed-feeding beetles; beetles that pupate and overwinter in the seeds pose the risk of being transported to storage warehouses ...


Impacts From Winter–Early Spring Elk Grazing In Foothills Rough Fescue Grassland, Tanya M. Thrift, Tracy K. Mosley, Jeffrey C. Mosley Dec 2013

Impacts From Winter–Early Spring Elk Grazing In Foothills Rough Fescue Grassland, Tanya M. Thrift, Tracy K. Mosley, Jeffrey C. Mosley

Western North American Naturalist

Foothills rough fescue (Festuca campestris) grasslands provide important foraging habitat for wildlife and livestock in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. Foothills rough fescue is sensitive to grazing during late spring–early summer but is believed to be more tolerant of grazing during winter–early spring. We evaluated vegetation and soil impacts from long-term winter–early spring grazing at 2 intensities (HG = heavy grazing, LG = light grazing). We studied a foothills rough fescue grassland in west central Montana, USA, that had been grazed almost exclusively by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) during winter–early spring for 58 years ...


Insect Prey Eaten By Hoary Bats (Lasiurus Cinereus) Prior To Fatal Collisions With Wind Turbines, Ernest W. Valdez, Paul M. Cryan Dec 2013

Insect Prey Eaten By Hoary Bats (Lasiurus Cinereus) Prior To Fatal Collisions With Wind Turbines, Ernest W. Valdez, Paul M. Cryan

Western North American Naturalist

Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the ...


New Records Of Marginal Locations For American Pika (Ochotona Princeps) In The Western Great Basin, Constance I. Millar, Robert D. Westfall, Diane L. Delany Dec 2013

New Records Of Marginal Locations For American Pika (Ochotona Princeps) In The Western Great Basin, Constance I. Millar, Robert D. Westfall, Diane L. Delany

Western North American Naturalist

We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide information for assessing environmental tolerance limits. Several locations are known from historic observations (Madeline Plain, Bodie Mtns., Wassuk Mtns., Mono Craters) and are included here to update current status. Site elevations range from 1848 m to 3392 m; relative to the broad range of pika sites in the region ...


Impact Of Livestock Grazing On Plant And Small Mammal Communities In The Ruby Mountains, Northeastern Nevada, Eric A. Rickart, Klaus G. Bienek, Rebecca J. Rowe Dec 2013

Impact Of Livestock Grazing On Plant And Small Mammal Communities In The Ruby Mountains, Northeastern Nevada, Eric A. Rickart, Klaus G. Bienek, Rebecca J. Rowe

Western North American Naturalist

We assessed the effects of livestock grazing on vegetation and small mammals in semiarid habitat at a site in northeastern Nevada. Habitat within a fenced exclosure that had been protected from grazing for more than 50 years supported more vegetation and had greater plant diversity compared to habitat immediately outside the exclosure. Likewise, species richness and abundance of small mammals were greater in ungrazed areas. Results suggest that grazing regulation in recent decades may account for some of the changes seen in regional plants and small mammals over the past century. The incorporation of long-term exclosures in a comparative framework ...


Influence Of Boulders On Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis Reticulata) Growth And Distribution In The Wasatch Foothills, Alex Argyle, Michael T. Stevens Dec 2013

Influence Of Boulders On Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis Reticulata) Growth And Distribution In The Wasatch Foothills, Alex Argyle, Michael T. Stevens

Western North American Naturalist

In a landscape, abiotic features, such as boulders, influence microhabitats and consequently affect patterns of vegetation. We hypothesized that boulders in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains east of Provo, Utah, affected the growth patterns of netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) by providing shade on their north faces. To test this hypothesis, we set up 3 transects 6 m wide and up to 50 m long. Along these transects, we measured all hackberries taller than 30 cm (n = 249). We recorded whether the hackberries grew within 0.5 m of a boulder that was at least 0.5 m along one ...


An Arizona Bark Scorpion (Centruroides Sculpturatus) Found Consuming A Venomous Prey Item Nearly Twice Its Length, Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham Dec 2013

An Arizona Bark Scorpion (Centruroides Sculpturatus) Found Consuming A Venomous Prey Item Nearly Twice Its Length, Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham

Western North American Naturalist

Arizona bark scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing) are commonly found throughout the Sonoran Desert in southwestern North America, and they are well known for being the most venomous scorpion in the United States. Despite their medical significance, C. sculpturatus remains ecologically understudied, and little is known regarding its natural foraging and feeding behaviors. Here, we present the first documented case of C. sculpturatus feeding on the Sonoran Desert centipede (Scolopendra polymorpha Wood) in the wild.


Los Alacranes de Corteza de Arizona (Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing), por lo general, se encuentran en todo el Desierto de Sonora, en el sudoeste de Norteamérica, y ...


Helminths Of The Speckled Rattlesnake, Crotalus Mitchellii (Squamata: Viperidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Xavier Glaudas Dec 2013

Helminths Of The Speckled Rattlesnake, Crotalus Mitchellii (Squamata: Viperidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Xavier Glaudas

Western North American Naturalist

Fifty-six speckled rattlesnakes, Crotalus mitchellii, from western North America were examined for helminths. One species of Cestoda (tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp.) and 5 species of Nematoda (gravid adults of Abbreviata terrapenis, Physaloptera abjecta, Thubunaea cnemidophorus, and Travassoascaris araujoi and larvae ofPhysocephalus sp.) were found. Travassoascaris araujoi had the highest prevalence and greatest mean intensity of helminths infecting C. mitchellii. Three new host records forC. mitchellii are reported. As has been reported for other North American rattlesnakes,C. mitchellii is parasitized by “generalist” helminths.


Cincuenta y seis Viboras de Cascabel (Cascabeles Pintítas, Crotalus mitchellii) del oeste de América del ...


Outstanding Natural History Paper Of 2012 Dec 2013

Outstanding Natural History Paper Of 2012

Western North American Naturalist

The winning paper is "Site-occupancy monitoring of an ecosystem indicator: linking characteristics of riparian vegetation to beaver occurrence" by Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare (WNAN 72:432–441).


Front Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4 Dec 2013

Front Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4 Dec 2013

End Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Beaver Reintroduction Correlates With Spotted Frog Population Restoration And Terrestrial Movement Patterns Of Newly Metamorphosed Columbia Spotted Frogs In The Owyhee Uplands Of Southwestern Idaho, Hallie Anne Lingo Dec 2013

Beaver Reintroduction Correlates With Spotted Frog Population Restoration And Terrestrial Movement Patterns Of Newly Metamorphosed Columbia Spotted Frogs In The Owyhee Uplands Of Southwestern Idaho, Hallie Anne Lingo

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines topics relevant to Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Owyhee Uplands of southwestern Idaho. First, I present a detailed discussion of both the ecology and conservation status of spotted frogs. Concerns about declining spotted frog numbers in the southern portions of the species’ range were first expressed in the early 1990’s. In response, several studies on the behavior and ecology of spotted frog have been conducted by Boise State University. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitors the status of spotted frogs in the Owyhees using an occupancy model developed and implemented ...


First State Record And Interdiction For The Wood Slave, Hemidactylus Mabouia (Moreau De Jonnès 1818) (Gekkonidae), In Maryland, Usa., Louis A. Somma, William L. Grogan Jr. Dec 2013

First State Record And Interdiction For The Wood Slave, Hemidactylus Mabouia (Moreau De Jonnès 1818) (Gekkonidae), In Maryland, Usa., Louis A. Somma, William L. Grogan Jr.

Papers in Herpetology

The Wood Slave, Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès 1818; Fig. 1), is indigenous to Africa south of the Sahara, with nonindigenous populations established in Cape Verde, Mexico, much of Central and South America, numerous localities in the Caribbean, perhaps Madagascar, and at least 21 counties in Florida, USA (Carranza and Arnold 2006; Kraus 2009; Krysko et al. 2011a, 2011b; Meshaka 2011; Powell and Henderson 2012). Recently, H. mabouia has successfully invaded temperate regions of southern Africa and northern peninsular Florida (Alexander and Marais 2007, Krysko and Somma 2007).

On 20 December 2012, Brian R. Grogan and Shane Forsythe collected and ...


Landscape Genetics Of The Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma Opacum) At Mammoth Cave National Park, James Kyle Martin Dec 2013

Landscape Genetics Of The Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma Opacum) At Mammoth Cave National Park, James Kyle Martin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Habitat connectivity is important to maintain in order to prevent loss of genetic diversity, reduce inbreeding depression, and decrease extinction risk in threatened or endangered species. Here I present a landscape genetics study on marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in highly connected forested habitat at Mammoth Cave National Park. This investigation of gene flow among ponds within a mostly continuous landscape provides data that can be compared with patterns observed in more fragmented landscapes. These comparisons can provide a means of investigating the separate effects of structural and functional habitat connectivity on amphibian genetic population structure. Structural connectivity refers to the ...


Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green Dec 2013

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green

Theses and Dissertations

Dramatic range-wide declines in Greater Sage-Grouse populations have prompted efforts to determine habitat characteristics that are selected by sage-grouse for foraging, nesting and brood-rearing areas in an effort to conserve this species. Managers at Heart Mountain and Y U Bench in northwestern Wyoming expressed the need to quantify various habitat characteristics and to determine key use areas at both study sites. Data were collected on a variety of habitat variables in spots selected by grouse for foraging, nesting, and brood-rearing activities. These variables were compared to the same variables measured at random points at both study sites. Significant differences existed ...


Novel Applications Of Multivariate Methods For Exploring Personality In African Elephants, Shilo Kimberly Felton Dec 2013

Novel Applications Of Multivariate Methods For Exploring Personality In African Elephants, Shilo Kimberly Felton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Investigators have shown that elephants exhibit consistent individual differences in behavior by rating elephants using personality adjectives. These adjectives, however, are not based on pre-defined measurements of the behaviors performed. Instead, they are based on the observers’ interpretations of an animal’s behavioral patterns, therefore making them subject to observer bias. Furthermore, elephants have a capacity for learning; thus, they may alter their behavioral patterns over time. This behavioral plasticity in itself might be a way of measuring consistent behavioral differences among individuals. With this in mind, I approached elephant personality as a multivariate problem. I used behavioral observations collected ...


First Documented Record Of Hooded Oriole (Icterus Cucullatus) In Nebraska, Joseph Gubanyi Dec 2013

First Documented Record Of Hooded Oriole (Icterus Cucullatus) In Nebraska, Joseph Gubanyi

Nebraska Bird Review

During May 2013 a very cooperative Hooded Oriole (Icterus cucullatus) provided lots of excitement for Nebraska birders, becoming the first documented record for the species in Nebraska. The bird was first observed 25 May 2013 by Susie and Bill Daro at their residence in Garrison (Butler County). The Daros have several oriole feeders, and Baltimore and Orchard Orioles are common visitors. On the morning of May 25 they noted an unusual oriole visiting their feeders and, after checking the National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, concluded it was a Hooded Oriole. They found this hard to ...


Fall Field Report, August–November 2013, W. Ross Silcock Dec 2013

Fall Field Report, August–November 2013, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

In most ways, this was a routine fall season. Most interesting from an ongoing point of view were quite a large number of sightings of passerines at rather late dates, notably Empidonax flycatchers, wood warblers, native sparrows, tanagers, towhees, grosbeaks, and buntings. A similar phenomenon was noted among a few cold-sensitive non-passerines, such as Black and Common Terns.

One of the more significant ongoing trends is the proliferation of western and southern hummingbirds and the alteration of traditional migration and summer ranges; no fewer than 6 species were found. Calliope and Rufous Hummingbirds were seemingly more numerous in the east ...


Index To Volume 81 Dec 2013

Index To Volume 81

Nebraska Bird Review

Akers, D. J. 164
Albano, D. J. 164
Alberts, Byron 103, 113
Allen: Edward 4, 52, 103, 136; Jan 136
Arctos 168
Arnold, K. A. 31
Aubushon, Kathy 34
Austin, O. L. 92
Avocet, American 59, 94, 95, 109, 142, 171

. . .

Yantachka, Jen 52
Yellowlegs: Greater 10, 59, 94, 96, 109, 142, 171; Lesser 60, 94, 96, 110, 142, 171
Yellowthroat, Common 71, 97, 117, 156, 173
Young, Matt 53
Zimmerman: Jerald 34; Roy 53
Ziolkowski, D., Jr. 80
Zonotrichia leucophrys: leucophrys 158; oriantha 158


Correction [December 2013] Dec 2013

Correction [December 2013]

Nebraska Bird Review

The first Nebraska record of an Acorn Woodpecker was from Holt Co., 19–22 May 1996, not Cherry Co., as was reported on page 112 of the September 2013 issue of The Nebraska Bird Review.


Hayden, Tristram, And A Pigeon From “Nebraska”, Rick Wright Dec 2013

Hayden, Tristram, And A Pigeon From “Nebraska”, Rick Wright

Nebraska Bird Review

A passenger pigeon skin in the World Museum in Liverpool, England, was collected during an expedition to Nebraska and Dakota led by Gouverneur K. Warren between 1855 and 1857 and later cataloged by geologist and naturalist Ferdinand V. Hayden. For a time it was in the collection of Henry Baker Tristram, a famous naturalist and a founder of the British Ornithologists’ Union. Passenger pigeons were once “quite abundant” along the Missouri River.


Bridgeport Fall Field Days, Janis Paseka Dec 2013

Bridgeport Fall Field Days, Janis Paseka

Nebraska Bird Review

The 2013 NOU Fall Field Days took place at the Prairie Winds Community Center in Bridgeport on Sept. 20–22. The meeting, organized by Kathy DeLara, drew a total of 50 attendees. On Friday evening Luke Hamilton led a group owling to the Bridgeport SRA and to Courthouse Rock. Field trip destinations on Saturday and on Sunday morning included Bridgeport SRA, Fleisbach WMA (aka Facus Springs), Crescent Lake NWR, Hackberry Road in Banner Co., the I-80 Exit I area in Kimball Co, Oliver Reservoir, Wildcat Hills SRA and Wind Springs Ranch. Trips were led by Kathy DeLara, Ann Duey, Cheryl ...


Subscription And Organization Information [December 2013] Dec 2013

Subscription And Organization Information [December 2013]

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Bird Review is published quarterly by the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, Inc., as its official journal, and is sent to members not in arrears of dues. Annual subscription rates (on a calendar-year basis only): $25 in the United States and $35 in all other countries, payable in advance. Single copies are $7 each, postpaid, in the United States and $9 elsewhere. Send orders for back issues to Anita Breckbill, NOU Librarian, c/o Music Library, WMB 30, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0101.

Memberships in the NOU (on a calendar-year basis only): Active Household (one or more people) $25 ...


Nebraska Bird Review (December 2013) 81(4), Whole Issue Dec 2013

Nebraska Bird Review (December 2013) 81(4), Whole Issue

Nebraska Bird Review

Fall Field Report, August–November 2013 … 134

First Documented Record of Hooded Oriole (Icterus cucullatus) in Nebraska … 161

Hayden, Tristram, and a Pigeon from “Nebraska” … 165

Bridgeport Fall Field Days, September 20–22, 2013 ... 169

Index to Volume 81 ... 175

Subscription and Organization Information ... 187


An Assessment Of Habitat Suitability For Pronghorn Populations Of The Central Valley Region Of California, Virginia Burroughs Dec 2013

An Assessment Of Habitat Suitability For Pronghorn Populations Of The Central Valley Region Of California, Virginia Burroughs

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Efforts to reintroduce and maintain populations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) to the California Central Valley, specifically the Carrizo Plain National Monument (CPNM) and the Mojave Desert (Antelope Valley) portion of Tejon Ranch, have largely been unsuccessful due to dwindling numbers of translocated animals. The objective of this study was to improve upon previous models for the CPNM using aerial survey data and then apply the model to the Tejon Ranch. Aerial survey data collected from 2000-2010 on the CPNM was used to establish “use” and “non-use” areas in the model. Model variables included vegetation type (forest, shrub, grassland, semi-desert scrub ...