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Zoology

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 281

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

What Can We Learn From Confusing Olivella Columellaris And O. Semistriata, Two Key Species In Panamic Sandy Beach Ecosystems?, Alison Troost, Samantha Rupert, Ariel Cyrus, Frank Paladino, Benjamin Dattilo, Winfried Peters Jul 2014

What Can We Learn From Confusing Olivella Columellaris And O. Semistriata, Two Key Species In Panamic Sandy Beach Ecosystems?, Alison Troost, Samantha Rupert, Ariel Cyrus, Frank Paladino, Benjamin Dattilo, Winfried Peters

Benjamin F. Dattilo

Olivella columellaris (Sowerby 1825) and O. semistriata (Gray 1839) are suspension feeding, swash surfing snails on tropical sandy beaches of the east Pacific. While they often are the numerically dominant macrofaunal element in their habitats, their biology is poorly understood; the two species actually have been confused in all of the few publications that address their ecology. Frequent misidentifications in publications and collections contributed also to an overestimation of the geographic overlap of the two species. To provide a sound taxonomic basis for further functional, ecological, and evolutionary investigations, we evaluated the validity of diagnostic traits in wild populations and ...


The Debate On Marine Mammals In Captivity, Lorna C. Scribner Dec 2012

The Debate On Marine Mammals In Captivity, Lorna C. Scribner

Honors Theses

Are marine mammal species better off today because of captivity? Is captivity ethical and should it be continued? As this debate grows stronger, both of these sides of the argument offer substantial evidence in their favor. In this paper, I discuss data for both sides and evaluate the justifications of marine mammal captivity. Ideally, no matter the outcome, this research will educate the public on influential factors of wild and captive populations.


Variation In Fast-Start Performance Within A Population Of Polyphenic Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus), Shannon Page Gerry, A. Robbins, D. J. Ellerby Dec 2012

Variation In Fast-Start Performance Within A Population Of Polyphenic Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus), Shannon Page Gerry, A. Robbins, D. J. Ellerby

Shannon Gerry

Bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus exhibit intraspecific variation in their morphology and swimming performance based on habitat. The pelagic form has a relatively streamlined, fusiform body shape associated with greater steady-state swimming speed and energy economy. In contrast, littoral bluegill have deeper bodies with fins located farther from their center of mass to enhance maneuverability among littoral vegetation. Deeper body shapes have been associated with increased faststart performance to escape predators or capture prey. We hypothesized that littoral bluegill, which have a deeper body shape, would exhibit greater fast-start performance than pelagic bluegill. A total of 29 bluegill (16 littoral, 13 ...


Five New Species Of Chaerilus Simon, 1877 From China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík Dec 2012

Five New Species Of Chaerilus Simon, 1877 From China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, And Vietnam (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Chaerilus cimrmani sp. n. from Thailand, C. seiteri sp. n. from Philippines (Negros Island), C. solegladi sp. n. from Indonesia and Malaysia (Borneo Island), C. terueli sp. n. from Vietnam (Côn Son Island), and C. wrzecionkoi sp. n. from China (Tibet) are described. A key to all species of the genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877 is also presented.


Three New Species Of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 From Yemen, Jordan, Israel, And Somaliland (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík Dec 2012

Three New Species Of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 From Yemen, Jordan, Israel, And Somaliland (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Compsobuthus krali sp. n. of the werneri group from Yemen, C. levyi sp. n. of the werneri group from Jordan and Israel, and C. somalilandus sp. n. of the acutecarinatus group from Somaliland are described. A key to all species of the genus Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 is presented.


Molecular Phylogeny Of Microhylid Frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) With Emphasis On Relationships Among New World Genera, Rafael O. De Sá, Jeffrey W. Streicher, Relebohile Sekonyela, Mauricio C. Forlani, Simon P. Loader, Eli Greenbaum, Stephen Richards, Célio F.B. Haddad Dec 2012

Molecular Phylogeny Of Microhylid Frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) With Emphasis On Relationships Among New World Genera, Rafael O. De Sá, Jeffrey W. Streicher, Relebohile Sekonyela, Mauricio C. Forlani, Simon P. Loader, Eli Greenbaum, Stephen Richards, Célio F.B. Haddad

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis).

Results: One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We ...


Bellevue Fall Field Days, Janis Paseka Dec 2012

Bellevue Fall Field Days, Janis Paseka

Nebraska Bird Review

The 2012 NOU Fall Field Days was held in conjunction with the Inland Bird Banding Association meeting at Fontenelle Forest Nature Center in Bellevue on October 26–28. The meeting, organized by Betty Grenon and Rick Schmid, drew a total of 104 attendees, including 33 members of the Inland Bird Banding Association.

On Friday evening, Phil Swanson's photographic presentation "Welcome to Omaha . . . It's for the Birds" included a brief history of Omaha, an overview of area birding hotspots, and photos of many of the birds which can be seen in the area. Following the presentation, a group led ...


Fall Field Report, August–November 2012, W. Ross Silcock Dec 2012

Fall Field Report, August–November 2012, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

Some of you may be curious about the sources of sightings I use to compile these reports. The primary sources are reports posted to NEBirds, the Nebraska Listserv, along with the full reports (early and late dates, peak counts for all species) sent by a few faithful reporters around the state. The latter reports are very useful overviews of movements in the reporters' regions. Lately, thanks to a suggestion by Clem Klaphake, I have been receiving the eBird daily rarity report for Nebraska which I find to be an excellent check against reports posted to NEBirds, while providing a few ...


Subscription And Organization Information [December 2012] Dec 2012

Subscription And Organization Information [December 2012]

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Bird Review is published quarterly by the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, Inc., as its official journal, and is sent to members not in arrears of dues. Annual subscription rates (on a calendar-year basis only): $15 in the United States, $18 in Canada and $30 in all other countries, payable in advance. Single copies are $4 each, postpaid, in the United States, $5 in Canada, and $8 elsewhere. Send orders for back issues to Anita Breckbill, NOU Librarian, c/o Music Library, WMB 30, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0101 (or at the email address listed below).

Memberships in the ...


Nebraska Bird Review (December 2012) 80(4), Whole Issue Dec 2012

Nebraska Bird Review (December 2012) 80(4), Whole Issue

Nebraska Bird Review

Fall Field Report, August–November 2012 … 126

Bellevue Fall Field Days ... 158

Notes on a Greater Sage-Grouse Record by Levi L. Mohler ... 162

Index to Volume 80 ... 164

Subscription and Organization Information ... 175


Index To Volume 80 Dec 2012

Index To Volume 80

Nebraska Bird Review

Addy, Darren 47, 75

Albrecht, Jeff 75

Albright, Patty 111

Allen, Edward 128

Allison, Scott 28, 48

American Ornithologists' Union 120

Anderson, Leif 129

Anthony, Courtney 75

Armknecht, Henry 88

Arnett, Gladys 128

Avocet, American 54, 79, 93, 137

. . .

Wren: Bewick's 99; Carolina 13, 36–37, 63, 99, 110, 147, 161; House 63, 81, 99, 106–110, 147; Marsh 13, 36-37, 63, 81, 99, 147, 161; Rock 63, 99, 119, 147; Sedge 63, 81, 99, 108, 147; Winter 13, 36–37, 63, 147, 160

Wright, Rick 48

Yellowlegs: Greater 10, 54, 93, 137, 160; Lesser 46, 54, 79, 93 ...


Notes On A Greater Sage-Grouse Record By Levi L. Mohler, Mark A. Brogie Dec 2012

Notes On A Greater Sage-Grouse Record By Levi L. Mohler, Mark A. Brogie

Nebraska Bird Review

In Nebraska, Greater Sage-Grouse has been considered an uncommon casual winter visitor in the extreme northwest (Sharpe et al. 2001). This species may now be extirpated in Nebraska due to habitat loss. There have been no known Nebraska observations of Greater Sage-Grouse in the last 25 years. The only documented record accepted by the NOURC of Greater Sage-Grouse in Nebraska (Accession #243) is a description of an adult male in September 1987 in extreme northwest Sioux County by Douglas Kapke (Grenon AG. 1990).

In 2002 Wayne Mollhoff received the following record from Levi L. Mohler and submitted it to the ...


How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik Dec 2012

How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik

Biology Faculty Articles

The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration) is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus) is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the ‘black panther’ and the extremely high frequency ...


Geographic Variation In The Lower Temperature Tolerance In The Invasive Brown Anole, Anolis Sagrei And The Native Green Anole, Anolis Carolinensis (Sauria: Polychrotidae), Laura Carolina Maria Rubio Dec 2012

Geographic Variation In The Lower Temperature Tolerance In The Invasive Brown Anole, Anolis Sagrei And The Native Green Anole, Anolis Carolinensis (Sauria: Polychrotidae), Laura Carolina Maria Rubio

Masters Theses

Invasive species are considered to be the second greatest threat to native biodiversity and several factors have been identified as contributing to the success of introduced species, including their initial genetic variation and the ability of populations to adapt to a new environment. Temperature has a significant impact on reptilian ecology and distribution since they ordinarily rely on external heat sources for the maintenance of body temperatures suitable for normal activity. Body temperature affects performance in these organisms given its importance for all aspects of behavior, locomotion, courtship and rates of feeding and growth. Critical thermal tolerances can, therefore, give ...


Factors Influencing Relocation Success Of Utah Prairie Dog (Cynomys Parvidens), Rachel Curtis Dec 2012

Factors Influencing Relocation Success Of Utah Prairie Dog (Cynomys Parvidens), Rachel Curtis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) have been extirpated in 90% of their historical range. Because most of the population occurs on private land, this threatened species is continually in conflict with landowners. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources has been relocating prairie dogs from private to public land since the 1970s, but relocations have been largely unsuccessful due to high mortality. Prairie dogs are highly social animals, but they are usually relocated without regard to their family group (coterie). I hypothesized that relocating Utah prairie dogs with their social structure intact may positively affect their survival rates and behavior. Utah ...


Understanding The Tradeoff Between Safety And Food Quality In A Mammalian Herbivore Specialist, The Pygmy Rabbit, Jamie Lyn Utz Dec 2012

Understanding The Tradeoff Between Safety And Food Quality In A Mammalian Herbivore Specialist, The Pygmy Rabbit, Jamie Lyn Utz

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Conserving a sensitive animal species requires understanding the simultaneous tradeoffs between food and shelter within a landscape. Most management approaches only consider single factors like percent cover at landscape spatial scales. Quantifying the synergy between cover and food quality at a scale relevant to a foraging animal could better reveal the forces that shape habitat use. To better understand habitat use components, I investigated tradeoffs between predation risk and diet quality in a sagebrush endemic, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). This species is a rare example of a specialist herbivore that relies almost entirely on sagebrush for cover and 50-99 ...


Deglaciation Explains Bat Extinction In The Caribbean, Liliana M. Davalos, Amy L. Russell Nov 2012

Deglaciation Explains Bat Extinction In The Caribbean, Liliana M. Davalos, Amy L. Russell

Amy L. Russell

Ecological factors such as changing climate on land and interspecific competition have been debated as possible causes of postglacial Caribbean extinction. These hypotheses, however, have not been tested against a null model of climate-driven postglacial area loss. Here, we use a new Quaternary mammal database and deep-sea bathymetry to estimate species–area relationships (SARs) at present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for bats of the Caribbean, and to model species loss as a function of area loss from rising sea level. Island area was a significant predictor of species richness in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser Antilles ...


Pre-Settlement History May Obscure The Effect Of Forest Fragmentation On Genetic Variation In Eastern Red-Backed Salamanders, Mark Jordan, Douglas Morris, Scott Gibson Nov 2012

Pre-Settlement History May Obscure The Effect Of Forest Fragmentation On Genetic Variation In Eastern Red-Backed Salamanders, Mark Jordan, Douglas Morris, Scott Gibson

Mark A. Jordan

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Water And Habitat Quality On Amphibian Assemblages In Two Midwest Watersheds, Abel Castaneda, Mark Jordan Nov 2012

The Effects Of Water And Habitat Quality On Amphibian Assemblages In Two Midwest Watersheds, Abel Castaneda, Mark Jordan

Mark A. Jordan

No abstract provided.


Molecular Confirmation Of Trichomonas Gallinae And Other Parabasalids From Brazil Using The 5.8s And Its-1 Rrna Regions, R Ecco, I Preis, D Vilela, M Luppi, M Malta, R Beckstead, R Stimmelmayer, Richard Gerhold Jr. Nov 2012

Molecular Confirmation Of Trichomonas Gallinae And Other Parabasalids From Brazil Using The 5.8s And Its-1 Rrna Regions, R Ecco, I Preis, D Vilela, M Luppi, M Malta, R Beckstead, R Stimmelmayer, Richard Gerhold Jr.

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the ...


Structural Irregularities In Sagittal Otoliths Of Black Croaker (Cheilotrema Saturnum) From Southern California, Eric F. Miller Nov 2012

Structural Irregularities In Sagittal Otoliths Of Black Croaker (Cheilotrema Saturnum) From Southern California, Eric F. Miller

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Reproduction In Cope’S Leopard Lizard, Gambelia Copeii (Squamata: Crotaphytidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Clark R. Mahrdt, Kent R. Beaman Nov 2012

Reproduction In Cope’S Leopard Lizard, Gambelia Copeii (Squamata: Crotaphytidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Clark R. Mahrdt, Kent R. Beaman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Avian Material From Rancho Del Oro, A Pleistocene Locality In San Diego County, California, Daniel Guthrie Nov 2012

Avian Material From Rancho Del Oro, A Pleistocene Locality In San Diego County, California, Daniel Guthrie

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Late Pleistocene avifaunal material from a construction site in Oceanside, California is described. The material includes 77 bones from 21 species, only one of which (Podiceps parvus) is extinct. Two previously described Pleistocene species (Oxyura bessomi and Bucephala fossilis) are placed in extant species. The first fossil record for Phalaropus lobatus is recorded.


Spatial And Temporal Variation Of Dissolved Oxygen And Ecosystem Energetics In Devils Hole, Nevada, Melody J. Bernot, Kevin P. Wilson Nov 2012

Spatial And Temporal Variation Of Dissolved Oxygen And Ecosystem Energetics In Devils Hole, Nevada, Melody J. Bernot, Kevin P. Wilson

Western North American Naturalist

Devils Hole, a unique ecosystem in the Mojave Desert, is home to a few dominant species of algae and invertebrates as well as the endangered Devils Hole pupfish,Cyprinodon diabolis. With consistently high water temperature (33.5 °C/93 °F) and low dissolved oxygen (O2) concentration (about 2.5 mg O2 ⋅ L–1), organisms are at the extremes of their physiological limits, and production of O2 by microbial biofilms is essential to ecosystem stability. Water column O2 concentrations were measured from July 2008 to March 2010 in the deep pool and shallow shelf habitats of Devils ...


The Nest Predator Assemblage For Songbirds In Mono Lake Basin Riparian Habitats, Quresh S. Latif, Sacha K. Heath, Grant Ballard Nov 2012

The Nest Predator Assemblage For Songbirds In Mono Lake Basin Riparian Habitats, Quresh S. Latif, Sacha K. Heath, Grant Ballard

Western North American Naturalist

Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at 50 nests of 3 songbird species and direct observations of additional nests confirmed 10 distinct nest-predator species and suggested one additional species. Video-monitored nests experienced reduced predation rates, and video observations mainly captured nestling predation, even though predation rates were higher for nonvideo-monitored nests during the egg period. These findings ...


Cui-Ui Reproductive Success From Potential Egg Deposition To Larval Emigration, G. Gary Scoppettone, Peter H. Rissler Nov 2012

Cui-Ui Reproductive Success From Potential Egg Deposition To Larval Emigration, G. Gary Scoppettone, Peter H. Rissler

Western North American Naturalist

From 1985 to 2006, we tracked cui-ui, Chasmistes cujus, survival from potential egg deposition of migrating spawners to emigrating larvae. Tahoe sucker larvae emigrated to Pyramid Lake the same time as cui-ui larvae, but cui-ui was the predominant catostomid larvae we captured. Survival of cui-ui larvae ranged from 0.46% to 21.17%, declining significantly with decreased flow and increased number of spawners (P < 0.01). Mean total length of emigrating larvae ranged from 11.5 to 12.6 mm and may have been affected by stream flow. Removal of impediments to upstream migrating cui-ui spawners, along with sufficient stream flows, may enhance early life-stage survival.


Desde 1985 hasta 2006, rastreamos la supervivencia de peces cui-ui, Chasmistes cujus,de una posible deposición de huevos de hembras migratorias a larvas emigrantes. Las larvas del pez Tahoe sucker emigraron al Lago Pirámide al mismo ...


Influence Of Relictual Species On The Morphology Of A Hybridizing Oak Complex: An Analysis Of The Quercus X Undulata Complex In The Four Corners Region, Ross A. Mccauley, Brenna J. Christie, Erik L. Ireland, Rae A. Landers, Haley R. Nichols, Matthew T. Schendel Nov 2012

Influence Of Relictual Species On The Morphology Of A Hybridizing Oak Complex: An Analysis Of The Quercus X Undulata Complex In The Four Corners Region, Ross A. Mccauley, Brenna J. Christie, Erik L. Ireland, Rae A. Landers, Haley R. Nichols, Matthew T. Schendel

Western North American Naturalist

The genus Quercus represents an important component of the scrublands and low forests of the Four Corners area of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, southwestern Colorado, and northwestern New Mexico. The area is dominated by the widespread Quercus gambelii, although relictual and marginal populations of Q. turbinella and Q. havardii are also present. Hybridization among these 3 species is common, leading to much variability in phenotypic traits, and this hybridization forms part of the widespread complex of hybrid oaks recognized as Q. x undulata.Multivariate analysis of leaf morphology was performed in 9 populations, representing the various taxa and levels of ...


Ecology And Population Dynamics Of Sclerocactus Mesae-Verdae (Boissev. & C. Davidson) L.D. Benson, Janet J. Coles, Karin L. Decker, Tamara S. Naumann Nov 2012

Ecology And Population Dynamics Of Sclerocactus Mesae-Verdae (Boissev. & C. Davidson) L.D. Benson, Janet J. Coles, Karin L. Decker, Tamara S. Naumann

Western North American Naturalist

The population dynamics of Sclerocactus mesae-verdae were documented annually in 3 plots over 20 years in southwestern Colorado. Demographic studies of this duration are rare but they are necessary to gain a more accurate estimate of population trends in long-lived desert species. Sclerocactus mesae-verdae was federally listed as threatened in 1979; this study was initiated in 1986 with the objective of determining whether Colorado populations were growing, declining, or stable. Data collected yearly around 1 May included diameter, vigor, and flower/fruit counts for 1629 stems belonging to 659 plants. We used regression analysis to estimate the mean, variance, and ...


Inundation Depth, Duration, And Temperature Influence Fremon Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii) Seedling Growth And Survival, L. C. Auchincloss, J. H. Richards, C. A. Young, M. K. Tansey Nov 2012

Inundation Depth, Duration, And Temperature Influence Fremon Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii) Seedling Growth And Survival, L. C. Auchincloss, J. H. Richards, C. A. Young, M. K. Tansey

Western North American Naturalist

Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is an early successional foundation species found in riparian forest ecosystems in the North American Southwest. Along rivers, the upper limit of the seedling establishment zone depends on the proximity of seedling roots to the declining water table. The lower limit is a function of the maximum elevation of inundation or scour. Fremont cottonwood seedlings are likely to experience short-term (1- to 5-week) inundation during their first year of growth under both natural and human-influenced hydrologic regimes. Previous studies show that inundation can account for more than 70% of seedling mortality during this time. Using controlled ...


Salinity Of The Little Colorado River In Grand Canyon Confers Anti-Parasitic Properties On A Native Fish, David L. Ward Nov 2012

Salinity Of The Little Colorado River In Grand Canyon Confers Anti-Parasitic Properties On A Native Fish, David L. Ward

Western North American Naturalist

Water in the Little Colorado River within Grand Canyon is naturally high in salt (NaCl), which is known to prohibit development of external fish parasites such as Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The naturally high salinity (>0.3%) of the Little Colorado River at baseflow may be one factor allowing survival and persistence of larval and juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fishes in Grand Canyon. We compared salinity readings from the Little Colorado River to those reported in the literature as being effective at removing protozoan parasites from fish. In laboratory tests, 10 juvenile roundtail chub (Gila robusta; 61 ...