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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley Apr 2019

The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley

Dissertations

The reproductive success of the beluga whale is critical for a species facing extinction in its endangered Cook Inlet, Alaska population. To date, little is known about the mating behavior of these whales in wild populations. On the other hand, observations of beluga whales in human care allow researchers to better understand many aspects of their daily lives and life histories that are difficult to assess in wild populations. Thus far, a catalog of socio-sexual behavior has been established based on observations of belugas; however, the developmental trajectory of socio-sexual behavior is not well-understood. The present study explored how socio-sexual ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis Apr 2019

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List Apr 2019

Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List

Senior Theses

In my two main internships during college, I worked closely with two very different animals: raccoons and alligators. Additionally, I gained experience in presenting educational programs during my internship at Fripp Island, where my most common program was our Gator Walk. For my thesis project, I built upon my experience in interpretive programming, drawing on my experience with alligators and raccoons to develop a unique educational program to present at Congaree National Park. This report will describe the process of developing this program as well as it’s implementation and outcomes. In addition, it includes a review of scholarly literature ...


Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath Feb 2019

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are socially sophisticated mammals with high fission-fusion dynamics and complex communication. The relative positioning of individual dolphins as they swim within their social group may aid in the expression of social roles. This study sought to quantify relative positioning in a small social group of female bottlenose dolphins at the National Aquarium in Baltimore that included two mother-daughter pairs, maternal and paternal half-sisters, a half-aunt and niece, and one unrelated female. We devised a method for scoring relative positioning in three dimensions. We found that the two mothers and their juvenile and adult daughters often swam ...


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins Jan 2019

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


Long-Term Effects Of Different Fat Sources And Vitamin E Supplementation On Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, And Immune Capacity Of Pigs With Heavy Slaughter Weight Up To 150 Kg, Ding Wang Jan 2019

Long-Term Effects Of Different Fat Sources And Vitamin E Supplementation On Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, And Immune Capacity Of Pigs With Heavy Slaughter Weight Up To 150 Kg, Ding Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Two experiments were used to evaluate the potential interaction of fat source and vitamin E (VE) in heavy slaughter weight pigs. In Experiment 1, a total of 64 individually-fed pigs (28.41 ± 0.83 kg) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments in a 4×2 factorial arrangement. Fat treatments included cornstarch (CS), tallow (TW), corn-oil (CO), and coconut-oil (CN). VE treatments were dietary α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA) at 11 and 200 ppm. In Experiment 2, a total of 72 individually fed pigs (28.55 ± 1.16 kg) were randomly assigned to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement ...


Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland Jan 2019

Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the relationships between physiological factors of hair color, sex, nutritional health, and body size (mass) with measures of hair cortisol in domesticated Nicaraguan hunting dogs on the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve. Prior research on cortisol in dogs has been relatively limited to small, homogenous population samples under restricted environmental conditions. This leaves a gap in current knowledge, and a need for larger-scale studies to assess whether current understandings of how cortisol acts in dogs is applicable to dogs within dynamic and heterogeneous environments. The population of hunting dogs examined in this study live in an unpredictable environment in ...


Distance Gradient Of Vocalization Discrimination And Aggression In Neighborhoods Of Rufous-And-White Wrens (Thryophilus Rufalbus), Andrew P. Newgard Jan 2019

Distance Gradient Of Vocalization Discrimination And Aggression In Neighborhoods Of Rufous-And-White Wrens (Thryophilus Rufalbus), Andrew P. Newgard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vocalization-based communication networks have been observed in multiple animal taxa. Many territorial animals in these communication networks tend to act differentially towards their neighbors compared to farther-removed strangers given competitive pressure in habitats. My study investigated communication among rufous-and-white wrens (Thryophilus rufalbus), and whether this involves greater aggression towards neighbors or towards strangers. T. rufalbus vocally defend territories year-round and have been shown to exhibit ability to discriminate between vocalizations of neighbors versus strangers (neighbor-stranger discrimination, NSD). I quantified whether T. rufalbus demonstrates different levels of aggression upon hearing played-back vocalizations from close-by neighbors, neighbors of adjacent neighbors, and most ...


Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward Jan 2019

Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In addition to the typical electron transport system in animal mitochondria responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, some species possess an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway, which causes electrons to bypass proton pumping complexes. Although AOX appears to be energetically wasteful, studies have revealed its wide taxonomic distribution, and indicate it plays a role in environmental stress tolerance. AOX discovery in animals is recent, and further research into its expression, regulation, and physiological role has been impeded by the lack of an experimental model organism. DNA database searches using bioinformatics revealed an AOX sequence present in the arthropod Tigriopus californicus. Multiple sequence alignments ...


Quantifying White-Tailed Deer Density And Its Impacts On Agricultural Systems, Jonathan A. Matthews Jan 2019

Quantifying White-Tailed Deer Density And Its Impacts On Agricultural Systems, Jonathan A. Matthews

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) commonly consume row crops, with yield losses often attributed to their browsing. Deer density and field morphology may predict yield losses within local areas. We sought to 1) determine the effects of deer browsing on corn and soybean yields and investigate if deer density or field morphology correlated to yield loss in western Kentucky, and 2) compare pellet-based distance sampling to game camera surveys to determine if a distance sampling technique could accurately estimate deer density during the growing season. Overall, deer reduced corn and soybean yields on one-half of surveyed properties. Deer density did not ...


Effects Of Energy Development On Movements, Home Ranges, And Resource Selection Of White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Bailey S. Gullikson Jan 2019

Effects Of Energy Development On Movements, Home Ranges, And Resource Selection Of White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Bailey S. Gullikson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oil and natural gas development has increased in recent years and research is needed to assess potential impacts on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations. Our objectives were to document movements, home ranges, and resource selection of female white-tailed deer in response to energy development in the western Dakotas. Our study areas included Dunn County, North Dakota, an area with current oil and gas development, and Grant County, North Dakota, and Perkins County, South Dakota, areas without current oil and gas development. We captured and fitted 150 female deer with Very High Frequency (VHF) collars across study sites, and monitored movements ...


Population Viability And Connectivity Of The Federally Threatened Eastern Indigo Snake In Central Peninsular Florida, Javan Bauder Jan 2019

Population Viability And Connectivity Of The Federally Threatened Eastern Indigo Snake In Central Peninsular Florida, Javan Bauder

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the factors influencing the likelihood of persistence of real-world populations requires both an accurate understanding of the traits and behaviors of individuals within those populations (e.g., movement, habitat selection, survival, fecundity, dispersal) but also an understanding of how those traits and behaviors are influenced by landscape features. The federally threatened eastern indigo snake (EIS, Drymarchon couperi) has declined throughout its range primarily due to anthropogenically-induced habitat loss and fragmentation making spatially-explicit assessments of population viability and connectivity essential for understanding its current status and directing future conservation efforts.

The primary goal of my dissertation was to understand how ...


Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave Jan 2019

Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Establishing baseline activity budgets for zoo-housed captive animals can be important in tracking behavior changes that may indicate medical or other concerns, as well as assessing overall welfare and the need for implementation of interventions such as increased amounts of enrichment. This study sought to calculate activity budgets for the current spider monkeys residing at the Central Florida Zoo, a father-daughter pair of Ateles geoffroyi. Having a baseline activity budget is also valuable because major changes in behavior may accompany the upcoming introduction of new individuals to this particular group of spider monkeys. BORIS behavior coding software was used to ...


The Challenges For A Closed-To-The-Public Animal Sanctuary: Prioritizing Animal Welfare While Engaging In Educational Community Outreach, Lisa Tweed Jan 2019

The Challenges For A Closed-To-The-Public Animal Sanctuary: Prioritizing Animal Welfare While Engaging In Educational Community Outreach, Lisa Tweed

All Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

CHALLENGES FOR A CLOSED-TO-THE-PUBLIC ANIMAL SANCTUARY:

PRIORITIZING ANIMAL WELFARE WHILE ENGAGING IN

EDUCATIONALCOMMUNITY OUTREACH

by:

Lisa Michelle Tweed

April 2019

Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest is a small primate sanctuary in Cle Elum, Washington, and is presently home to seven chimpanzees who were retired from biomedical research. I used this sanctuary as a case study to find out how a closed-to-the-public sanctuary can engage in educational outreach without compromising the welfare of the residents. I employed a combination of semi-structured interviews of sanctuary personnel, ethnographic participant-observation as a volunteer caregiver, and an online survey offered to the local community to help ...


Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari Dec 2018

Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari

Master's Projects and Capstones

Using species distribution models (SDMs) in Natural History Collections (NHCs) can influence how humans implement conservation changes in flora and fauna communities and ecosystems. Through the use of legacy data (old NHCs and their associated locality/collection information), data correction (background data or pseudo absences added to presence-only data), and the SDM software, Maxent (and its associated geographic information systems or GIS projected models), it has been shown that it is feasible to create a low budget protocol/setup to project the past, present and future of species population changes. This has been done in the past few decades as ...


Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead Dec 2018

Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead

Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown that bird communities are affected by the species composition and physical structure of plant communities. Within avian communities, the bird species that are the most localized in distribution tend to be the most affected by habitat changes. My research analyzed plant and bird communities found with the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris Linnaeus), a locally common but declining species throughout much of its range. First, I describe vegetation characteristics associated with singing male Painted Buntings in northwest Arkansas. I categorized field sites with singing male Painted Buntings as either managed for wildlife or unmanaged, based on land-use ...


Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre Dec 2018

Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient and benthic algal biomass relationships can guide numeric nutrient criteria development in lotic systems. However, herbivorous macrograzers may confound this relationship by reducing the slope of the positive relationship between nutrients and periphyton biomass in streams. I conducted a mensurative field study to determine if stoneroller and crayfish abundance related to algal biomass at varying nutrient concentrations and manipulated macrograzer presence with electrical exclosures in streams to examine macrograzer effects on algal biomass and understand whether these effects on periphyton varied with total phosphorus (TP) or season. Macrograzer density was quantified across a TP gradient (n=15 streams; range ...


Delphinids On Display: The Capture, Care, And Exhibition Of Cetaceans At Marineland Of The Pacific, 1954-1967, Taylor Michael Bailey Aug 2018

Delphinids On Display: The Capture, Care, And Exhibition Of Cetaceans At Marineland Of The Pacific, 1954-1967, Taylor Michael Bailey

Dissertations and Theses

When Marineland of the Pacific opened in 1954 on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in greater Los Angeles, it was the second oceanarium in the world and the first on the West Coast. An initial investment of $3 million by Oceanarium Inc., owners of the popular Marine Studios park located near St. Augustine, Florida, ensured that Marineland was built with the same state of the art facilities needed to produce an authentic representation of the ocean floor on land. Building on Marine Studios' success exhibiting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Marineland's central draw was its performing cetaceans. During the park's ...


An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi Aug 2018

An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The investigator attempted to predict the vocal learning propensity from either family pedigree or early vocal babbling (subsong). Pedigree trees suggest the possibility that vocal learning ability may depend on family. We failed to predict vocal learning propensity from subsong, but suggested that subsong may influence vocal learning outcome.


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell Aug 2018

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley Aug 2018

The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Cave Salamander, Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822), is a little-known species, yet a common inhabitant of caves in the eastern United States. Salamanders are often important components of ecological communities and ecosystems, influencing critical processes such as nutrient cycling and community composition through their predation on invertebrates. Cave-dwelling salamanders such as E. lucifuga may thus appreciably influence the relatively simple ecosystems and communities of caves. Any such influence may be particularly important because these habitats and the organisms that reside in them are often of conservation concern. I used non-invasive methods to study the demographics, movements, and habitat selection of ...


Unique Osmoregulatory Morphology In Primitive Sharks: An Intermediate State Between Holocephalan And Derived Shark Secretory Morphology, Matthew Eric Larsen Jul 2018

Unique Osmoregulatory Morphology In Primitive Sharks: An Intermediate State Between Holocephalan And Derived Shark Secretory Morphology, Matthew Eric Larsen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discovery of an unusual rectal gland in the Atlantic sixgill shark, Hexanchus vitulus, led to examination of rectal glands in 29 species of epipelagic and deep-sea sharks. Eight of 14 deep-sea species of sharks had digitiform glands that were previously assumed to be characteristic of elasmobranchs (N=281; mean width-length ratio ± SD = 0.18 ± 0.07). Hematoxylin-and-eosin stained sections from deep-sea sharks were similar to those from shallow water sharks. Glands from the family Somniosidae were kidney bean-shaped (N = 3; mean width-length ratio ± SD = 0.46 ± 0.05); whereas those from the families Echinorhinidae and Hexanchidae appeared lobulate (N=39 ...


Survey Of The Critically Endangered Rusty Patched Bumble Bee (Bombus Affinis) At Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, (Usda-Fs) Ill., Anne Hughes Jul 2018

Survey Of The Critically Endangered Rusty Patched Bumble Bee (Bombus Affinis) At Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, (Usda-Fs) Ill., Anne Hughes

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of many plants around the world. Recent declines in populations and range(s) of Bombus spp. are attributed to habitat loss, pesticide use and invasive pathogens. Four species have undergone notable declines in Illinois, with one, the rusty patched bumble bee (B. affinis), recently being listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Prairie restoration over the past 20 years at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, a 20,000 acre preserve near Wilmington, IL, has resulted in much florally rich prairie habitat, yet no comprehensive survey for B. affinis has been conducted, despite known ...


Circannual Patterns Of Adipose Tissue Characteristics In A Hibernator, The Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel (Ictidomys Tridecemlineatus), Amanda Maccannell Jun 2018

Circannual Patterns Of Adipose Tissue Characteristics In A Hibernator, The Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel (Ictidomys Tridecemlineatus), Amanda Maccannell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Obligate hibernators express circannual patterns of body mass and hibernation, which persist under constant laboratory conditions. I hypothesized that in the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and lipid storing white adipose tissue (WAT) volume would follow a circannual pattern. I housed animals at either 25°C (thermoneutral) or 5°C with 12h L:12h D photoperiods for an entire year. I determined volume and water-fat ratio of WAT and BAT using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BAT volume follows a circannual pattern in both conditions, increasing prior to winter, decreasing in late winter with no change ...


Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp May 2018

Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Subterranean digging behaviors provide opportunities for protection, access to prey, and predator avoidance for a diverse array of vertebrates, yet studies of the biomechanics of burrowing have been limited by the technical challenges of measuring kinetics and kinematics of animals moving within a substrate. Prior studies of burrowing have recorded a single axis of x-ray video and/or force. However, empirical observations show that burrowing is not restricted to a single axis or plane. I describe a new system called a ‘tunnel-tube’ for measuring 3D reaction force during burrowing. This tunnel-tube has two separate tubes, one ‘entry tube’ that has ...


Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish May 2018

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Of the most iconic fish species in the world, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, hereafter, cod) has been a mainstay in the North Atlantic for centuries. While many global fish stocks have received increased pressure with the advent of new, more efficient fishing technology in the mid-20th century, exceptional pressure has been placed on this prized gadoid. Bycatch, or the unintended catch of organisms, is one of the biggest global fisheries issues. Directly resulting from the failed recovery of cod in the GoM, attention has been placed as to possible sources of unaccounted catch. Among the most prominent is ...


Biological And Abiotic Factors Influencing Cetacean Mass Strandings In The Northeastern United States, Octavia Williams May 2018

Biological And Abiotic Factors Influencing Cetacean Mass Strandings In The Northeastern United States, Octavia Williams

HCNSO Student Capstones

Marine mammal strandings are frequent occurrences along many coastal areas around the world. The significance of stranded cetaceans has been of interest since around 300 B.C. when philosophers, like Aristotle, pondered why marine mammals, including whales, dolphins and porpoise beach themselves; and famous authors, like Henry David Thoreau, whose fascination in mammal strandings lead him to write a book about these mass occurrences off the coast of Cape Cod. Numerous hypothetical theories have been developed to explain these mass stranding phenomena. Though the causes of mass strandings remain unresolved, recent investigations suggest contributing factors could include environmental elements. Less ...


Trophic Ecology And Parasitism Of A Mesopelagic Fish Assemblage, Matthew Woodstock May 2018

Trophic Ecology And Parasitism Of A Mesopelagic Fish Assemblage, Matthew Woodstock

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Mesopelagic (open ocean, 200-1000 m depth) fishes are important consumers of zooplankton and are prey of oceanic predators. Some mesopelagic fishes (e.g., myctophids and stomiids) undertake a diel vertical migration where they ascend to the near-surface waters during the night to feed and descend into the depths during the day to avoid predators. Other mesopelagic fishes (e.g., Sternoptyx spp.) do not vertically migrate and remain at deep depths throughout the day. While in the epipelagic zone (surface – 200 m depth), vertically migrating fishes become prey to upper-trophic level predators, such as: tunas and billfishes. Benthic fishes (e.g ...


Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo May 2018

Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo

Theses and Dissertations

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...


Towards Quantifying Relevant Land Cover Change: A Case Study In The Central Flyway Of The Monarch Butterfly, Hanna Lenee Ford May 2018

Towards Quantifying Relevant Land Cover Change: A Case Study In The Central Flyway Of The Monarch Butterfly, Hanna Lenee Ford

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past 20 years notable decreases in monarch butterfly populations have led researchers to begin evaluating the landscape for changes and seeking out opportunities for enacting conservation programs to better support their survival. The monarch butterfly has recently come under consideration for listing under the Endangered Species Act which has created a need for a more informed view of the landscape through which the migrate and breed, the central United States. In this research three spatially-explicit models are explored using the most applicable datasets currently available to address pressing policy and land manager decisions regarding monarch butterfly and pollinator ...