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Articles 1 - 30 of 2091

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson Aug 2019

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu Jul 2019

The Multifaceted Effects Induced By Floods On The Macroinvertebrate Communities Inhabiting A Sinking Cave Stream, Octavian Pacioglu, Nicoleta Ianovici, Mărioara N. Filimon, Adrian Sinitean, Gabriel Iacob, Henrietta Barabas, Alexandru Pahomi, Andrei Acs, Hanelore Muntean, Lucian Pârvulescu

International Journal of Speleology

First-order sinking cave streams experience considerable hydrological variability, including spates and periods of base-flow during dry seasons. Early-summer flooding on a first-order stream sinking in Ciur-Ponor Cave (Romania) represented a suitable opportunity to test the response of the macroinvertebrate community and of basal food resources quantity and diversity to such a disturbance event. The invertebrate community and basal resources (i.e., woody debris, leaves, fine particulate organic matter and epilithon) were collected from three sampling sites, before and after the flood. The sampling strategy followed an up-downstream gradient of both species diversity and quantity of allochtonous organic matter decrease as ...


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini Jul 2019

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Victor Fet Jun 2019

Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

The types of Hottentotta species described by A. A. Birula and deposited in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia are revised. The types of H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897), H. niloticus (Birula, 1928), H. penjabensis (Birula, 1897) stat. nov. and H. schach (Birula, 1905) are fully illustrated with color photographs of morphology. Their taxonomic position is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. niloticus and H. schach. We confirm synonymy of Buthus (Hottentotta) minax niloticus Birula, 1928 (Sudan) with Buthus minax L. Koch, 1875, syn. n. Two new species, Hottentotta juliae sp. n. from Iran (Fars Province) and ...


Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson Jun 2019

Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson

Learning Communities Research and Practice

At Humboldt State University (HSU), location is everything. Students are as drawn to our spectacular natural setting as they are to the unique majors in the natural resource sciences that the university has to offer. However, the isolation that nurtures the pristine natural beauty of the area presents a difficult reality for students who are accustomed to more densely populated environments. With the large majority of our incoming students coming from distant cities, we set out to cultivate a “home away from home” by connecting first-year students majoring in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to the communities and local ...


Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík May 2019

Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

We review the taxonomy of the Madagascar endemic buthid genus Grosphus Simon, 1880. We split the genus and describe Teruelius gen. n. on the basis of nine morphological characters, six of them new for Grosphus: positions of trichobothria d2 on pedipalp femur and Eb3 on chela manus, number of pectine teeth, shape of female basal pectinal tooth, form of hemispermatophore capsule posterior lobe, spiracle shape, metasoma I ventromedian carination, telotarsal setation and UV fluorescence. We discuss functional and taxonomic aspects of these characters, and propose that Teruelius gen. n. is monophyletic, while Grosphus (sensu stricto) is paraphyletic. Some ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre May 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre

Euscorpius

Barbaracurus feti sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Barbaracurus, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. In addition to morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of B. feti sp. n. (2n=23). Included is a key for Barbaracurus. Babycurus borellii Rossi, 2019 is synonymized with Barbaracurus yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 syn. n. as a junior synonym because the description dated in February 2018 ...


Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet Apr 2019

Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet

Georgia Journal of Science

The identification of roadkill hotspots is necessary prior to the consideration of wildlife road mortality mitigation measures. In a previous study, 178 roadkill specimens were tallied via a driving survey along 21.4 km (13.3 mi) on three connected roadways in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkill locations were recorded to the nearest 0.16 km (0.1 mi) using the vehicle odometer. In the current study, location data were used to generate three graphical displays of roadkill distribution: 1) a linear graph of roadkills per 0.16 km (0.1 mi) bin; 2) a linear graph of roadkills per 0 ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers Apr 2019

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


An Endemic Species In A Protected Area: Euscorpius Carpathicus (L., 1767) In The Cozia National Park, Romania (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov, Sára Ferenţi Mar 2019

An Endemic Species In A Protected Area: Euscorpius Carpathicus (L., 1767) In The Cozia National Park, Romania (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov, Sára Ferenţi

Euscorpius

In 2016-2018, we identified 48 distribution records of Euscorpius carpathicus in the Cozia National Park, from the Romanian Southern Carpathians. The Carpathian scorpion was found between 300 and 847 m a.s.l., in forested regions, being more numerous in the lower areas situated along the Olt River. E. carpathicus is a native species in the region; it populates natural areas with low human impact.


A Review Of Orthochirus From Turkey, Iraq, And Iran (Khoozestan, Ilam, And Lorestan Provinces), With Descriptions Of Three New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Victor Fet, Fenik S. Hussen Feb 2019

A Review Of Orthochirus From Turkey, Iraq, And Iran (Khoozestan, Ilam, And Lorestan Provinces), With Descriptions Of Three New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Victor Fet, Fenik S. Hussen

Euscorpius

Three new species, Orthochirus fomichevi sp. n. from Turkey and Iraq, O. gantenbeini sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province), and O. navidpouri sp. n. from Iran (Khoozestan and Lorestan Provinces) are described, compared with other Orthochirus species from the region, and fully illustrated with color photos. Lectotype of O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n. from Iran (Khoozestan Province) is designated. Emended diagnoses are given for O. iranus Kovařík, 2004, O. iraqus Kovařík, 2004, O. mesopotamicus Birula, 1918 stat. n., and O. zagrosensis Kovařík, 2004. A key and a distribution map are included.


Trypanothacus Gen. N., A New Genus Of Burrowing Scorpion From The Arabian Peninsula (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský Feb 2019

Trypanothacus Gen. N., A New Genus Of Burrowing Scorpion From The Arabian Peninsula (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík, Mark Stockmann, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

We define a new fossorial buthid genus Trypanothacus gen. n., similar to Buthacus Birula, 1908, differing primarily in telson shape, with a bulbous vesicle and aculeus shorter than the vesicle, and in heavier dentition on metasomal segments II–III and IV. The new genus includes two species: T. barnesi sp. n. from Oman and T. buettikeri (Hendrixson, 2006) comb. n. from Saudi Arabia, the latter transferred from Buthacus. We provide detailed illustrations of both species from preserved materials, and in vivo habitus and natural habitat are shown for T. barnesi sp. n.. Information is also provided on ecology and captive ...


Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), Shahrokh Navidpour, František Kovařík, Michael Soleglad, Victor Fet Feb 2019

Scorpions Of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part X. Alborz, Markazi And Tehran Provinces With A Description Of Orthochirus Carinatus Sp. N. (Buthidae), Shahrokh Navidpour, František Kovařík, Michael Soleglad, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

Nine species of scorpions belonging to two families are reported from the Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces of Iran. Of these, Compsobuthus kaftani Kovařík, 2003 is recorded from Tehran Province for the first time; Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) is recorded from Alborz Province for the first time; Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880) is recorded for Alborz and Markazi Provinces for the first time; Iranobuthus krali Kovařík, 1997 is recorded for Tehran Province for the first time; Mesobuthus eupeus eupeus (C. L. Koch, 1839) is recorded from Alborz, Markazi and Tehran Provinces for the first time; Odontobuthus doriae (Thorell, 1876) is recorded ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch Feb 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch

Euscorpius

The male of Pandiborellius meidensis (Karsch, 1879) is introduced for the first time and illustrated in detail with color photos, and sexual dimorphism and occurrence of the species are discussed. Pandinurus fulvipes sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as of its habitat.


Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík Feb 2019

Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Chaerilus alberti sp. n. from Malaysia (Cameron Highlands) is described and fully illustrated with color photographs of preserved specimens, as well as of their habitat. Males of C. alberti sp. n. have a unique shape of chela which is stout with the manus swollen anteriorly. They are compared to other species from Southeast Asia, from all of which C. alberti sp. n. differs by the shape of pedipalp chela parallel or swollen posteriorly or medially. Pedipalp chela is illustrated with color photographs of 21 of these species.


A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel Jan 2019

A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

A new species of the buthid scorpion genus Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966, is herein described from specimens of both sexes collected at three nearby localities in the western part of the Guantánamo Bay Area, southeast Cuba. It belongs in the "jaumei" species-group of the subgenus Microtityus (Parvabsonus) Armas, 1974 and is very peculiar not only by its external morphology (very distinct from its other Cuban congeners), but also by the unusual habitat where it occurs in and seems to be restricted to (dry and hot cactus scrub on volcanic sandy plain). The present contribution reinforces the position of this genus as ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe Jan 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

Gint banfasae sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Gint, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. Included is a key for Gint.


Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes Jan 2019

Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Phidiana hiltoni is a conspicuous nudibranch sea slug native to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Over the past thirty years the range of P. hiltoni has expanded about 200 km northward, but the mechanism that facilitated this expansion is poorly understood. In this study, we use mtDNA and microsatellite data to investigate the population structure of P. hiltoni in its historical range as well as in recently colonized localities. Microsatellite analyses reveal little to no genetic structure and thus high gene flow throughout the range of P. hiltoni. This is consistent with mtDNA analysis results, which revealed shared haplotypes between Southern ...


Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt Jan 2019

Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

A nonnative population of all-female spotted whiptails from the Asidoscelis flagellicauda/sonorae complex was reported from suburban Irvine, Orange County in 2015 and 2016. We report additional suburban observations dating back to 2010 from Laguna Woods and extending the range south ~6 km southwest to Aliso Viejo. We hope that this and other exotic reptile species will remain restricted to highly altered urban environments and not threaten native species in natural habitats.


An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling Jan 2019

An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis (EGS) has been introduced to California and has expanded its geographic range since initial introductions. In this study we projected the potential future geographic range of the EGS in California using Maxent to create an ecological niche model. Location data were obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2015 from museum specimens, wildlife rehabilitation centers, the California Department of Public Health, the California Roadkill Observation System, and non-iNaturalist citizen science observations. Research grade data from iNaturalist was obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2018. Range and habitat suitability maps were developed by mapping ...


Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček Jan 2019

Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

In 1980, Green and Woodruff published an article entitled, “Is Predator Control Going to the Dogs?” At that time, the use of Livestock Guardian Dogs (hereafter LGDs) was a relatively new wildlife damage management tool in North America. Although this tool passed the test of time in its point of origin, early North American adopters stepped into a brave new world with little to guide them. In the modern world, knowledge of methods and means of wildlife damage management exists in written texts, films, and other guides. For LGDs, however, such materials did not exist 40 years ago. Over the ...


Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith Jan 2019

Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Developing the capacity to predict black bear (Ursus americanus; bear) activity in a diversity of habitats will help conserve bear populations and their habitats and minimize human–bear conflicts. This capacity will be particularly important in areas that provide bear habitat and offer backcountry hiking and camping experiences. Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), located on the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah, USA, provides important bear habitat and offers visitors 12 backcountry campsites. To effectively manage these areas to minimize human–bear conflicts, park managers will need better information about black bear use of these campsites and other ...


Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen Jan 2019

Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Livestock guardian dog (Canis lupus familiaris; LGD) breeds of domestic dog worldwide provide a degree of control over predation losses. The application of LGDs as a wildlife damage management tool evolved as a cultural practice in the Old World. In the 1970s, this tool emerged in North America. Despite several decades of science and application, gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding applications for LGDs. From February 2016 to November 2017, we deployed global positioning system transmitters on 4 LGDs on a 20-km2 ranch in Menard County, Texas, USA operated by Texas A&M AgriLife Research to investigate their ...


Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček Jan 2019

Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The use of livestock guardian dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; LGDs) to deter predators from preying on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra spp.) herds continues to increase across the United States. Most research regarding the efficacy of LGDs has been based on queries of rancher satisfaction with LGD performance, yet little is known regarding LGD influence on mesocarnivores, including those species against which they protect livestock. Here, we provide some preliminary observations regarding the effect of LGDs deployed with sheep and goat herds from May 2016 to April 2017 on the detected activity of mesocarnivores within occupied pastures on ...


A Behavior-Analytic Approach To Understanding Octopus “Mind”, Lindsay R. Mehrkam Jan 2019

A Behavior-Analytic Approach To Understanding Octopus “Mind”, Lindsay R. Mehrkam

Animal Sentience

Mather makes a convincing case for octopus sentience based on a lot of evidence of their complex learning capabilities. It should follow from Mather’s findings that these intelligent invertebrates are worthy of welfare considerations, just as vertebrate species with similar capabilities are. I provide a complementary environment-behavior analysis of how we might understand the world of the octopus more straightforwardly, borrowing from Mather’s examples, to show how to promote opportunities for complex learning and species-typical behaviors in the octopus.


Humans Have Always Been Unique!, William C. Mcgrew Jan 2019

Humans Have Always Been Unique!, William C. Mcgrew

Animal Sentience

Arguments about human uniqueness apply not only to extant species but also to extinct ones, that is, the hominin predecessors of anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Thus, unique and superior are doubly relative terms, in past and present. The scope for empirical comparison faces a spectrum of difficulty, from material (e.g., artefacts) to non-material (e.g., concepts) phenomena.


Taking Darwinism Seriously, Carsta Simon Jan 2019

Taking Darwinism Seriously, Carsta Simon

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman propose that dropping the categorical distinction between human and nonhuman animals may reduce the atrocious acts of humans towards nonhuman animals, but will it? Taking Darwinism seriously means accepting physical and behavioral continuity across species, including the capacity to feel pain.


What Is Good For An Octopus?, Heather Browning Jan 2019

What Is Good For An Octopus?, Heather Browning

Animal Sentience

Mather (2019) has brought together the current empirical research in support of the claim that octopuses possess minds; and the weight of the evidence does appear to support octopus sentience. Being sentient means an organism has welfare concerns, a subjective experience of life that can go well or poorly. Protecting welfare requires knowing what conditions will have a positive or negative impact. Understanding what is in the mind of an octopus will give us valuable insight into what is good for an octopus.