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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Worldwide Prevalence Of Lentivirus Infection In Wild Feline Species: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, Robert A. Olmstead, Raymond Langley, Melody E. Roelke, Robert M. Goeken, Diane Adger-Johnson, Julie P. Goff, John P. Albert, Craig Packer, M. Karen Laurenson, Tim M. Caro, Lue Scheepers, David E. Wildt, Mitchell Bush, Janice S. Martenson, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Worldwide Prevalence Of Lentivirus Infection In Wild Feline Species: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, Robert A. Olmstead, Raymond Langley, Melody E. Roelke, Robert M. Goeken, Diane Adger-Johnson, Julie P. Goff, John P. Albert, Craig Packer, M. Karen Laurenson, Tim M. Caro, Lue Scheepers, David E. Wildt, Mitchell Bush, Janice S. Martenson, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

The natural occurrence of lentiviruses closely related to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in nondomestic felid species is shown here to be worldwide. Cross-reactive antibodies to FIV were common in several free-ranging populations of large cats, including East African lions and cheetahs of the Serengeti ecosystem and in puma (also called cougar or mountain lion) populations throughout North America. Infectious puma lentivirus (PLV) was isolated from several Florida panthers, a severely endangered relict puma subspecies inhabiting the Big Cypress Swamp and Everglades ecosystems in southern Florida. Phylogenetic analysis of PLV genomic sequences from disparate geographic isolates revealed appreciable divergence from domestic ...


The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson Oct 2016

The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson

Stephen O'Brien

The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long ...


The Tiger Genome And Comparative Analysis With Lion And Snow Leopard Genomes, Yun Sung Cho, Li Hu, Haolong Hou, Hang Lee, Jiaohui Xu, Soowhan Kwon, Sukhun Oh, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Sangsoo Kim, Young-Ah Shin, Byung Chul Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Chang-Uk Kim, Shu-Jin Luo, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Jason A. Turner, L. Marker, Cindy K. Harper, Susan M. Miller, Wilhelm Jacobs, Laura D. Bertola, Tae Hyung Kim, Sunghoon Lee, Qian Zhou, Hyun-Ju Jung, Xiao Xu, Priyvrat Gadhvi, Pengwei Xu, Yingqi Xiong, Yadan Luo, Shengkai Pan, Caiyun Gou, Xiuhui Chu, Jilin Zhang, Sanyang Liu, Jing He, Ying Chen, Linfeng Yang, Yulan Yang, Jiaju He, Sha Liu, Junyi Wang, Chul Hong Kim, Hwanjong Kwak, Jong-Soo Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Junsu Ko, Chang-Bae Kim, Sangtae Kim, Damdin Bayarlkhagva, Woon Kee Paek, Seong-Jin Kim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jun Wang, Jong Bhak Oct 2016

The Tiger Genome And Comparative Analysis With Lion And Snow Leopard Genomes, Yun Sung Cho, Li Hu, Haolong Hou, Hang Lee, Jiaohui Xu, Soowhan Kwon, Sukhun Oh, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Sangsoo Kim, Young-Ah Shin, Byung Chul Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Chang-Uk Kim, Shu-Jin Luo, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Jason A. Turner, L. Marker, Cindy K. Harper, Susan M. Miller, Wilhelm Jacobs, Laura D. Bertola, Tae Hyung Kim, Sunghoon Lee, Qian Zhou, Hyun-Ju Jung, Xiao Xu, Priyvrat Gadhvi, Pengwei Xu, Yingqi Xiong, Yadan Luo, Shengkai Pan, Caiyun Gou, Xiuhui Chu, Jilin Zhang, Sanyang Liu, Jing He, Ying Chen, Linfeng Yang, Yulan Yang, Jiaju He, Sha Liu, Junyi Wang, Chul Hong Kim, Hwanjong Kwak, Jong-Soo Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Junsu Ko, Chang-Bae Kim, Sangtae Kim, Damdin Bayarlkhagva, Woon Kee Paek, Seong-Jin Kim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jun Wang, Jong Bhak

Stephen O'Brien

Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G ...


The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson Oct 2016

The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson

Stephen O'Brien

The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long ...


The Dynamic Proliferation Of Cansines Mirrors The Complex Evolution Of Feliforms, Kathryn B. Walters-Conte, Diana L. E. Johnson, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery Oct 2016

The Dynamic Proliferation Of Cansines Mirrors The Complex Evolution Of Feliforms, Kathryn B. Walters-Conte, Diana L. E. Johnson, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery

Stephen O'Brien

Background: Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the ...


The Adaptive Evolution Of The Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Maria J. Ramos, Agostinho Antunes Oct 2016

The Adaptive Evolution Of The Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Maria J. Ramos, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation ...


Subspecific Status Of The Korean Tiger Inferred By Ancient Dna Analysis, Mu-Yeong Lee, Jee Yun Hyun, Seo-Jin Lee, Junghwa An, Eunok Lee, Mi-Sook Min, Junpei Kimura, Shin-Ichirio Kawada, Nozomi Kurihara, Shu-Jin Luo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Hang Lee Oct 2016

Subspecific Status Of The Korean Tiger Inferred By Ancient Dna Analysis, Mu-Yeong Lee, Jee Yun Hyun, Seo-Jin Lee, Junghwa An, Eunok Lee, Mi-Sook Min, Junpei Kimura, Shin-Ichirio Kawada, Nozomi Kurihara, Shu-Jin Luo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Hang Lee

Stephen O'Brien

The tiger population that once inhabited the Korean peninsula was initially considered a unique subspecies (Panthera tigris coreensis), distinct from the Amur tiger of the Russian Far East (P. t. altaica). However, in the following decades, the population of P. t. coreensis was classified as P. t. altaica and hence forth the two populations have been considered the same subspecies. From an ecological point of view, the classification of the Korean tiger population as P. t. altaica is a plausible conclusion. Historically, there were no major dispersal barriers between the Korean peninsula and the habitat of Amur tigers in Far ...


Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species ...


Sequences, Annotation And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of The Major Histocompatibility Complex In The Domestic Cat, Naoya Yuhki, James C. Mullikin, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Sequences, Annotation And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of The Major Histocompatibility Complex In The Domestic Cat, Naoya Yuhki, James C. Mullikin, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Two sequences of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) regions in the domestic cat, 2.976 and 0.362 Mbps, which were separated by an ancient chromosome break (55–80 MYA) and followed by a chromosomal inversion were annotated in detail. Gene annotation of this MHC was completed and identified 183 possible coding regions, 147 human homologues, possible functional genes and 36 pseudo/unidentified genes) by GENSCAN and BLASTN, BLASTP RepeatMasker programs. The first region spans 2.976 Mbp sequence, which encodes six classical class II antigens (three DRA and three DRB antigens) lacking the functional DP, DQ regions, nine antigen processing ...


Sequencing The Genome Of The Domestic Cat Felis Catus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric S. Lander, M. E. Haskins, Urs Giger, Niels C. Pederson, David E. Wildt, William J. Murphy, Naoya Yuhki, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond Oct 2016

Sequencing The Genome Of The Domestic Cat Felis Catus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric S. Lander, M. E. Haskins, Urs Giger, Niels C. Pederson, David E. Wildt, William J. Murphy, Naoya Yuhki, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond

Stephen O'Brien

No abstract provided.


Recurrent Evolution Of Melanism In South American Felids, Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh, Eduardo Eizirik Oct 2016

Recurrent Evolution Of Melanism In South American Felids, Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh, Eduardo Eizirik

Stephen O'Brien

Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To ...


Prevalence And Implications Of Feline Coronavirus Infections Of Captive And Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx Jubatus), J. L. Heeney, J. F. Evermann, A. J. Mckeirnan, L. Marker-Kraus, M. E. Roelke, M. Bush, D. E. Wildt, D. G. Meltzer, L. Colly, J. Lukas, V. J. Manton, T. Caro, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Prevalence And Implications Of Feline Coronavirus Infections Of Captive And Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx Jubatus), J. L. Heeney, J. F. Evermann, A. J. Mckeirnan, L. Marker-Kraus, M. E. Roelke, M. Bush, D. E. Wildt, D. G. Meltzer, L. Colly, J. Lukas, V. J. Manton, T. Caro, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

The extent and progression of exposure to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, was monitored by a world-wide serological survey with indirect fluorescent antibody titers to coronavirus. The indirect fluorescent antibody assay was validated by Western blots, which showed that all indirect fluorescent antibody-positive cheetah sera detected both domestic cat and cheetah coronavirus structural proteins. There was a poor correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody results and the presence of coronaviruslike particles in cheetah feces, suggesting that electron microscopic detection of shed particles may not be an easily interpreted diagnostic parameter for FIP disease. Low, but verifiable ...


Primate Tnf Promoters Reveal Markers Of Phylogeny And Evolution Of Innate Immunity, Andres Baena, Alan R. Mootnick, James V. Falvo, Alla V. Tsytsykova, Filipa Ligeiro, Ousmane M. Diop, Claudia Brieva, Pascal Gagneux, Stephen J. O'Brien, Oliver A. Ryder, Anne E. Goldfeld Oct 2016

Primate Tnf Promoters Reveal Markers Of Phylogeny And Evolution Of Innate Immunity, Andres Baena, Alan R. Mootnick, James V. Falvo, Alla V. Tsytsykova, Filipa Ligeiro, Ousmane M. Diop, Claudia Brieva, Pascal Gagneux, Stephen J. O'Brien, Oliver A. Ryder, Anne E. Goldfeld

Stephen O'Brien

Background. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a critical cytokine in the immune response whose transcriptional activation is controlled by a proximal promoter region that is highly conserved in mammals and, in particular, primates. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of the proximal human TNF promoter have been identified, which are markers of human ancestry. Methodology/Principal findings. Using a comparative genomics approach we show that certain fixed genetic differences in the TNF promoter serve as markers of primate speciation. We also demonstrate that distinct alleles of most human TNF promoter SNPs are identical to fixed nucleotides in primate TNF promoters ...


Phylogeography And Genetic Ancestry Of Tigers (Panthera Tigris), Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Warren E. Johnson, Joelle Van Der Walt, Janice S. Martenson, Naoya Yuhki, Dale Miquelle, Olga Uphyrkina, John M. Goodrich, Howard Quigley, R. Tilson, Gerald Brady, Paolo Martelli, Vellayan Subramaniam, Charles Mcdougal, Sun Hean, Shi-Qiang Huang, Wenshi Pan, Ullas K. Karanth, Melvin Sunquist, James L. D. Smith, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Phylogeography And Genetic Ancestry Of Tigers (Panthera Tigris), Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Warren E. Johnson, Joelle Van Der Walt, Janice S. Martenson, Naoya Yuhki, Dale Miquelle, Olga Uphyrkina, John M. Goodrich, Howard Quigley, R. Tilson, Gerald Brady, Paolo Martelli, Vellayan Subramaniam, Charles Mcdougal, Sun Hean, Shi-Qiang Huang, Wenshi Pan, Ullas K. Karanth, Melvin Sunquist, James L. D. Smith, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris), of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular markers: (1) 4.0 kb of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence; (2) allele variation in the nuclear major histocompatibility complex class II DRB gene; and (3) composite nuclear microsatellite genotypes based on 30 ...


Murine Retroviral Restriction Genes Fv-4 And Akvr-1 Are Alleles Of A Single Locus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric J. Berman, John D. Estes, Murray B. Gardner Oct 2016

Murine Retroviral Restriction Genes Fv-4 And Akvr-1 Are Alleles Of A Single Locus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric J. Berman, John D. Estes, Murray B. Gardner

Stephen O'Brien

The two murine retroviral restriction genes, Fv-4 and Akvr-1, are very similar in their effects, distributions, ranges of action, and phenotypes. Akvr-1 has been shown to segregate independently in backcrosses with a variety of retroviral restriction loci, including Fv-1, Fv-2, Ril-1, and Ril-2. An allelism test cross of FRG (Fv-4R) x LCRR (Akvr-1R) hybrids mated to AKR mice failed to produce any viremic offspring. These results suggested that Akvr-1R and Fv-4R are alleles of a single locus, Fv-4, on mouse chromosome 12.


Molecular Genetic Characterization Of The Rd-114 Gene Family Of Endogenous Feline Retroviral Sequences, Roger H. Reeves, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Molecular Genetic Characterization Of The Rd-114 Gene Family Of Endogenous Feline Retroviral Sequences, Roger H. Reeves, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

RD-114 is a replication-competent, xenotropic retrovirus which is homologous to a family of moderately repetitive DNA sequences present at ca. 20 copies in the normal cellular genome of domestic cats. To examine the extent and character of genomic divergence of the RD-114 gene family as well as to assess their positional association within the cat genome, we have prepared a series of molecular clones of endogenous RD-114 DNA segments from a genomic library of cat cellular DNA. Their restriction endonuclease maps were compared with each other as well as to that of the prototype-inducible RD-114 which was molecularly cloned from ...


Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates The Origin Of The Extinct Caspian Tiger And Its Relationship To The Amur Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Alfred L. Roca, Shu-Jin Luo, David W. Macdonald, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates The Origin Of The Extinct Caspian Tiger And Its Relationship To The Amur Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Alfred L. Roca, Shu-Jin Luo, David W. Macdonald, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary ...


Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal An Explosive Radiation Of Extinct And Extant Bears Near The Miocene-Pliocene Boundary, Johannes Krause, Tina Unger, Aline Nocon, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Mathias Stiller, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Helen Spriggs, Paul H. Dear, Adrian W. Briggs, Sarah C. E. Bray, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gernot Rabeder, Paul Matheus, Alan Cooper, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Paabo, Michael Hofreiter Oct 2016

Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal An Explosive Radiation Of Extinct And Extant Bears Near The Miocene-Pliocene Boundary, Johannes Krause, Tina Unger, Aline Nocon, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Mathias Stiller, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Helen Spriggs, Paul H. Dear, Adrian W. Briggs, Sarah C. E. Bray, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gernot Rabeder, Paul Matheus, Alan Cooper, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Paabo, Michael Hofreiter

Stephen O'Brien

Background: Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. Results: We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete mitochondrial genome sequences from all eight living and two recently extinct bear species, the European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and the American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). The mitogenomic data yield a well-resolved topology for ursids, with the sloth bear at the basal position within the genus ...


Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman Oct 2016

Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman

Stephen O'Brien

Background The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV) that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively). However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery. Description To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly ...


Initial Sequence And Comparative Analysis Of The Cat Genome, J. U. Pontius, James C. Mullikin, Douglas R. Smith, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Sante Gnerre, Michele Clamp, Jean Chang, R. Stephens, Beena A. Neelam, Natalia Volfovsky, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, Kristina Narfstrom, William J. Murphy, Urs Giger, Alfred L. Roca, Agostinho Antunes, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Naoya Yuhki, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Warren E. Johnson, Guillaume Bourque, Glenn Tesler, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Initial Sequence And Comparative Analysis Of The Cat Genome, J. U. Pontius, James C. Mullikin, Douglas R. Smith, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Sante Gnerre, Michele Clamp, Jean Chang, R. Stephens, Beena A. Neelam, Natalia Volfovsky, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, Kristina Narfstrom, William J. Murphy, Urs Giger, Alfred L. Roca, Agostinho Antunes, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Naoya Yuhki, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Warren E. Johnson, Guillaume Bourque, Glenn Tesler, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms ...


How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik Oct 2016

How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik

Stephen O'Brien

The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration) is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus) is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the ‘black panther’ and the extremely high frequency ...


Genomic Microsatellites As Evolutionary Chronometers: A Test In Wild Cats, Carlos A. Driscoll, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, George Nelson, David Goldstein, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genomic Microsatellites As Evolutionary Chronometers: A Test In Wild Cats, Carlos A. Driscoll, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, George Nelson, David Goldstein, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. We have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized populations of cheetahs, lions and pumas in recapitulating demographic history. The results imply that the microsatellite diversity measures (heterozygosity, allele reconstitution and microsatellite allele variance) offer proportionate indicators, albeit with large variance, of ...


Genomic Legacy Of The African Cheetah, Acinonyx Jubatus, Pavel Dobrynin, Shiping Liu, Gaik Tamazian, Zijun Xiong, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Ksenia Krasheninnikova, Sergey Kliver, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Warren E. Johnson, Lukas F. K. Kuderna, Raquel Garcia-Perez, Marc De Manuel, Ricardo Godinez, Aleksey Komissarov, Alexey Makunin, Vladimir Brukhin, Weilin Qiu, Long Zhou, Fang Li, Jian Yi, Carlos A. Driscoll, Agostinho Antunes, T. K. Oleksyk, Eduardo Eizirik, Polina Perelman, Melody E. Roelke, David E. Wildt, Mark Diekhans, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Laurie Marker, Jong Bhak, Jun Wang, Guojie Zhang, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genomic Legacy Of The African Cheetah, Acinonyx Jubatus, Pavel Dobrynin, Shiping Liu, Gaik Tamazian, Zijun Xiong, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Ksenia Krasheninnikova, Sergey Kliver, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Warren E. Johnson, Lukas F. K. Kuderna, Raquel Garcia-Perez, Marc De Manuel, Ricardo Godinez, Aleksey Komissarov, Alexey Makunin, Vladimir Brukhin, Weilin Qiu, Long Zhou, Fang Li, Jian Yi, Carlos A. Driscoll, Agostinho Antunes, T. K. Oleksyk, Eduardo Eizirik, Polina Perelman, Melody E. Roelke, David E. Wildt, Mark Diekhans, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Laurie Marker, Jong Bhak, Jun Wang, Guojie Zhang, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Background Patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations. Results Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs. Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ...


Genetic And Phylogenetic Divergence Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus In The Puma (Puma Concolor), Margaret A. Carpenter, Eric W. Brown, Melanie Culver, Warren E. Johnson, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Dulce Brousset, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genetic And Phylogenetic Divergence Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus In The Puma (Puma Concolor), Margaret A. Carpenter, Eric W. Brown, Melanie Culver, Warren E. Johnson, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Dulce Brousset, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the domestic cat. The puma sequences formed two highly divergent groups, analogous to the clades which have been defined for domestic cat and lion ...


Genetics And Pathogenesis Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus, Meredith Brown, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, M. Roelke-Parker, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genetics And Pathogenesis Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus, Meredith Brown, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, M. Roelke-Parker, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were ...


Genetic Mapping Of Endogenous Rd-114 Retroviral Sequences Of Domestic Cats, Roger H. Reeves, William G. Nash, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genetic Mapping Of Endogenous Rd-114 Retroviral Sequences Of Domestic Cats, Roger H. Reeves, William G. Nash, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

The RD-114 family of endogenous retroviral sequences in domestic cats has been shown to consist of approximately 20 copies of genetically divergent virogenes per haploid genome. The chromosomal localization for four endogenous sequences (RDV1-4) was accomplished by correlating the occurrence of specific feline chromosomes with diagnostic viral DNA fragments in a panel of cat x rodent somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of the hybrid panel revealed that endogenous RD-114 sequences are dispersed on multiple cat chromosomes, that certain proviral segments are polymorphic with respect to the presence or absence of virus, and that a restriction fragment characteristic of inducible RD-114 resides ...


Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes Oct 2016

Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background: The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems. Results: We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were ...


Functions, Structure, And Read-Through Alternative Splicing Of Feline Apobec3 Genes, Carsten Munk, Thomas W. Beck, Jorg Zielonka, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Sarah Chareza, Marion Battenberg, Jens Thielebein, Klaus Cichutek, Ignacio G. Bravo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Martin Lochelt, Naoya Yuhki Oct 2016

Functions, Structure, And Read-Through Alternative Splicing Of Feline Apobec3 Genes, Carsten Munk, Thomas W. Beck, Jorg Zielonka, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Sarah Chareza, Marion Battenberg, Jens Thielebein, Klaus Cichutek, Ignacio G. Bravo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Martin Lochelt, Naoya Yuhki

Stephen O'Brien

Background: Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results: Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very ...


Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janet L. Moore, Malcolm A. Martin, James E. Womack Oct 2016

Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janet L. Moore, Malcolm A. Martin, James E. Womack

Stephen O'Brien

Several recent reports have established the biological and molecular genetic similarity between the endogenous AKV virus of strain AKR, and an N-ecotropic endogenous virus found in the genome of feral Japanese mice, Mus musculus molossinus. The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV+ strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by ...


Evidence Of Natural Bluetongue Virus Infection Among African Carnivores, Kathleen A. Alexander, N. James Maclachlan, Pieter W. Kat, Carol House, Stephen J. O'Brien, Nicholas W. Lerche, Mary Sawyer, Laurence G. Frank, Kay Holekamp, Laura Smale, J. Weldon Mcnutt, M. Karen Laurenson, M. G. L. Mills, Bennie I. Osburn Oct 2016

Evidence Of Natural Bluetongue Virus Infection Among African Carnivores, Kathleen A. Alexander, N. James Maclachlan, Pieter W. Kat, Carol House, Stephen J. O'Brien, Nicholas W. Lerche, Mary Sawyer, Laurence G. Frank, Kay Holekamp, Laura Smale, J. Weldon Mcnutt, M. Karen Laurenson, M. G. L. Mills, Bennie I. Osburn

Stephen O'Brien

Bluetongue is an International Office of Epizootics List A disease described as the century's most economically devastating affliction of sheep. Bluetongue (BLU) viruses were thought to infect only ruminants, shrews, and some rodents, but recently, inadvertent administration of BLU virus-contaminated vaccine resulted in mortality and abortion among domestic dogs. We present evidence of natural BLU virus infection among African carnivores that dramatically widens the spectrum of susceptible hosts. We hypothesize that such infection occurred after ingestion of meat and organs from BLU virus infected prey species. The effect of BLU virus on endangered carnivores such as the cheetah and ...