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Zoology

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission Of Parvoviruses Among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew Allison, Dennis Kohler, Karen Fox, Justin Brown, Richard Gerhold, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Edward Dubovi, Colin Parrish, Edward Holmes Jan 2013

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission Of Parvoviruses Among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew Allison, Dennis Kohler, Karen Fox, Justin Brown, Richard Gerhold, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Edward Dubovi, Colin Parrish, Edward Holmes

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus ("FPV-like") or canine parvovirus ("CPV-like"). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.


Molecular Confirmation Of Trichomonas Gallinae And Other Parabasalids From Brazil Using The 5.8s And Its-1 Rrna Regions, R Ecco, I Preis, D Vilela, M Luppi, M Malta, R Beckstead, R Stimmelmayer, Richard Gerhold Jr. Nov 2012

Molecular Confirmation Of Trichomonas Gallinae And Other Parabasalids From Brazil Using The 5.8s And Its-1 Rrna Regions, R Ecco, I Preis, D Vilela, M Luppi, M Malta, R Beckstead, R Stimmelmayer, Richard Gerhold Jr.

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the ...


Trichomonosis In Free-Ranging Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia Decaocto) And African Collared Dove Hybrids (Streptopelia Risoria) In The Caribbean And Description Of Its-1 Region Genotypes, R Stimmelmayr, L Stefani, M Thrall, K Landers, F Revan, A Miller, R Beckstead, Richard Gerhold Jr. May 2012

Trichomonosis In Free-Ranging Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia Decaocto) And African Collared Dove Hybrids (Streptopelia Risoria) In The Caribbean And Description Of Its-1 Region Genotypes, R Stimmelmayr, L Stefani, M Thrall, K Landers, F Revan, A Miller, R Beckstead, Richard Gerhold Jr.

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to ...


Reports Of Oligodendrogliomas In Three White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), N Gottdenker, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Cartoceti, M Keel, J Goltz, E Howerth Dec 2011

Reports Of Oligodendrogliomas In Three White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), N Gottdenker, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Cartoceti, M Keel, J Goltz, E Howerth

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Central nervous system tumors are rarely reported in cervids. The current report describes gross and histopathologic oligodendrogliomas in 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and selected immunohistochemical properties of 2 deer. All deer were euthanized due to central nervous system signs. Grossly, masses were variably circumscribed, locally invasive in the brain, light grey, and soft, and ranged from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Histologically, tumors were characteristic for oligodendroglioma. The tumors were composed primarily of oval to round cells with round normochromatic to hyperchromatic nuclei, a pale granular cytoplasm, and well-delineated cytoplasmic membrane, and variable amounts of mucinous material, hemorrhage ...


Diagnosis Of Parelaphostrongylus Spp. Infection As A Cause Of Meningomyelitis In Calves, K Mitchell, J Peters-Kennedy, T Stokol, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Beckstead, T Divers Oct 2011

Diagnosis Of Parelaphostrongylus Spp. Infection As A Cause Of Meningomyelitis In Calves, K Mitchell, J Peters-Kennedy, T Stokol, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Beckstead, T Divers

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Migration of Parelaphostrongylus spp. has been documented to cause central nervous system damage in a number of aberrant host species but appears to be uncommon in cattle. The current report describes the clinical and laboratory findings, antemortem and definitive diagnosis, and response to treatment of Parelaphostrongylus spp. infection in five 3-7- month-old Limousin calves from 2 farms. All calves had signs of acute (n = 2) and chronic (n = 3) progressive spinal cord dysfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a marked eosinophilic (acute cases) or lymphocytic (chronic cases) pleocytosis and elevated protein in all calves. A necropsy and histopathologic evaluation was performed ...


Construction Of Pcr Primers To Detect And Distinguish Eimeria Spp. In Northern Bobwhites And A Survey Of Eimeria On Gamebird Farms In The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald, R Beckstead Sep 2011

Construction Of Pcr Primers To Detect And Distinguish Eimeria Spp. In Northern Bobwhites And A Survey Of Eimeria On Gamebird Farms In The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald, R Beckstead

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Coccidiosis is an important disease in captive gamebirds, including northern bobwhites (Colinusvirginianus). Three Eimeria species, Eimeria lettyae, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria colini, have been described in bobwhites. Distinguishing the various Eimeria spp. is often problematic because of similarity in oocyst morphology and site of infection and thus requires live bird infections to distinguish between the coccidian species. To aid in identification and diagnosis, PCR specific primers were generated against the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1) of the ribosomal RNA gene using sequences obtained from coccidian-positive samples collected from diagnostic cases or litter from captive bobwhites. Three distinct Eimeria spp ...


Immunization Of Chukar Partridges Against Coccidia (Eimeria Kofoidi And Eimeria Legionensis) With Low Doses Of Live Oocysts, A Fuller, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald Aug 2011

Immunization Of Chukar Partridges Against Coccidia (Eimeria Kofoidi And Eimeria Legionensis) With Low Doses Of Live Oocysts, A Fuller, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Experiments were conducted to determine whether chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) chicks would develop protective immunity after inoculation with coccidia. Young chukar chicks in battery cages inoculated with 100 or more oocysts of Eimeria kofoidi or Eimeria legionensis had significant protection at challenge 4 wk later, as measured by greatly reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain as compared with unvaccinated, challenged controls. However, when birds were housed in litter pens and vaccinated by various regimens (including two species of chukar coccidia at 100/dose), coccidiosis rapidly spread through all treatments and caused significant mortality. Vaccination with Coccivac-T or with 100 ...


Molecular Characterization Of Histomonas Meleagridis And Other Parabasalids In The United States Using The 5.8s, Its-1, And Its-2 Rrna Regions, L Lollis, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald, R Beckstead Jul 2011

Molecular Characterization Of Histomonas Meleagridis And Other Parabasalids In The United States Using The 5.8s, Its-1, And Its-2 Rrna Regions, L Lollis, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Mcdougald, R Beckstead

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Extracted DNA from 28 Histomonas meleagridis -infected avian tissue samples from multiple hosts and geographic locations was analyzed for variation in the 5.8S rRNA and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and ITS 2). Samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with known sequences from GenBank accessions of H. meleagridis and other related protozoa. The analyses revealed significant genetic variation within H. meleagridis sequences and suggested the possibility of multiple genotypes within the samples or a possible misdiagnosis. Related protozoa found in some samples were mostly identified as Tetratrichomonas spp. However, 1 sample had ...


Alternaria Fungal Dermatitis In A Free-Ranging Javelina (Pecari Tajacu), L Shender, Richard Gerhold Jr., S Sanchez, M Keel Jun 2011

Alternaria Fungal Dermatitis In A Free-Ranging Javelina (Pecari Tajacu), L Shender, Richard Gerhold Jr., S Sanchez, M Keel

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

We report a javelina from Pinal County, Arizona, USA, with severe fungal dermatitis and cellulitis. Extreme emaciation and rostral disfiguration, including left-lateral displacement of the nasal planum, justified euthanasia. A pus-filled tract within the rostrum was observed. Histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation with hyphae morphologically consistent with Alternaria sp. isolated by culture.


Oocyst Production Of Eimeria Lettyae In Northern Bobwhites Following Low-Dose Inoculations, Richard Gerhold Jr., E Guven, L Mcdougald May 2011

Oocyst Production Of Eimeria Lettyae In Northern Bobwhites Following Low-Dose Inoculations, Richard Gerhold Jr., E Guven, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Inoculation of northern bobwhite quail ( Colinus virginianus ) with low doses of Eimeria lettyae oocysts stimulates a protective immune response, suggesting immunization may be an option for controlling coccidiosis. However, the oocyst production of inoculated birds could be considerable, leading to subsequent outbreaks. To determine the oocyst production following inoculation with E. lettyae, we orally infected 12-wk-old bobwhites with 100, 1,000, or 10,000 sporulated oocysts. Fecal materials were collected on days 5-9 post-inoculation, and total oocyst production was counted in McMaster chambers. Oocyst production/bird was 49.75, 89.5, and 436 × 10(6) for 100, 1,000, or ...


Prevalence To Toxoplasma Gondii And Sarcocystis Spp. In A Reintroduced Fisher (Martes Pennanti) Population In Pennsylvania, J Larkin, M Gabriel, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, J Wester, J Humphreys, R Beckstead, J Dubey May 2011

Prevalence To Toxoplasma Gondii And Sarcocystis Spp. In A Reintroduced Fisher (Martes Pennanti) Population In Pennsylvania, J Larkin, M Gabriel, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, J Wester, J Humphreys, R Beckstead, J Dubey

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Understanding the role of disease in population regulation is important to the conservation of wildlife. We evaluated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Sarcocystis spp. infection in 46 road-killed and accidentally trapper-killed fisher (Martes pennanti) carcasses collected and stored at -20 C by the Pennsylvania Game Commission from February 2002 to October 2008. Blood samples were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1 : 25) and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT, 1 : 128). For genetic analysis, DNA samples were extracted from thoracic and pelvic limb skeletal muscle from each carcass to test for Sarcocystis ...


Partial Sequence Of The Alpha-Tubulin Gene From Histomonas Meleagridis Isolates From The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, L Mcdougald, R Beckstead Mar 2011

Partial Sequence Of The Alpha-Tubulin Gene From Histomonas Meleagridis Isolates From The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, L Mcdougald, R Beckstead

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Histomonas meleagridis , the causative agent of histomoniasis, is a protozoan parasite classified in the Dientamoebidae (order Tritrichomonadida). The α-tubulin gene of 7 H. meleagridis isolates originating from either domestic chickens or turkeys from the United States was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced. A 91.4-99.8% nucleotide identity was shared among the 7 different sequences, and phylogenetic analysis disclosed that the 7 isolates were divided into at least 3 clades. These sequences had a 91-99% nucleotide identity and a 96-100% amino acid identity compared with 3 H. meleagridis α-tubulin sequences obtained from isolates originating from turkeys in Germany. Further ...


The Efficacy Of Anticoccidial Products Against Eimeria Spp. In Northern Bobwhites, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Fuller, L Lollis, C Parr, L Mcdougald Feb 2011

The Efficacy Of Anticoccidial Products Against Eimeria Spp. In Northern Bobwhites, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Fuller, L Lollis, C Parr, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with ...


Low-Dose Immunization Of Northern Bobwhites (Colinus Virginianus) With Eimeria Lettyae Provides Protection Against A High-Dose Challenge, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Fuller, R Beckstead, L Mcdougald Nov 2010

Low-Dose Immunization Of Northern Bobwhites (Colinus Virginianus) With Eimeria Lettyae Provides Protection Against A High-Dose Challenge, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Fuller, R Beckstead, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

To determine whether northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) could be immunized against Eimeria lettyae by a low-dose inoculation of oocysts, we inoculated 30 birds each with either 100 or 1000 oocysts at 2 days of age (given orally by pipette). Four weeks after immunization, the immunized birds and unimmunized controls were challenged with 1 x 10(6) E. lettyae oocysts. Eight days after challenge, birds were killed and weighed, and their intestines examined for gross lesions. Effectiveness of the immunization was measured by analyzing weight gain, intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, feed conversion ratio, and oocyst production. After challenge, birds ...


An Unusual Case Of Coccidiosis In Laboratory-Reared Pheasants Resulting From A Breach In Biosecurity, Richard Gerhold Jr., S Williams, A Fuller, L Mcdougald Aug 2010

An Unusual Case Of Coccidiosis In Laboratory-Reared Pheasants Resulting From A Breach In Biosecurity, Richard Gerhold Jr., S Williams, A Fuller, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria ...


Mercury Poisoning In A Free-Living Northern River Otter (Lontra Canadensis), J Sleeman, D Cristol, A White, D Evers, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel Jun 2010

Mercury Poisoning In A Free-Living Northern River Otter (Lontra Canadensis), J Sleeman, D Cristol, A White, D Evers, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A moribund 5-year-old female northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) was found on the bank of a river known to be extensively contaminated with mercury. It exhibited severe ataxia and scleral injection, made no attempt to flee, and died shortly thereafter of drowning. Tissue mercury levels were among the highest ever reported for a free-living terrestrial mammal: kidney, 353 microg/g; liver, 221 microg/g; muscle, 121 microg/g; brain (three replicates from cerebellum), 142, 151, 151 microg/g (all dry weights); and fur, 183 ug/g (fresh weight). Histopathologic findings including severe, diffuse, chronic glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were ...


Molecular Confirmation Of Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis Infection In A Horse With Verminous Encephalitis, M Tanabe, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Beckstead, A De Lahunta, S Wade Jun 2010

Molecular Confirmation Of Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis Infection In A Horse With Verminous Encephalitis, M Tanabe, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Beckstead, A De Lahunta, S Wade

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

No abstract provided.


Establishment Of Culture Conditions For Survival Of Histomonas Meleagridis In Transit, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, R Beckstead, L Mcdougald May 2010

Establishment Of Culture Conditions For Survival Of Histomonas Meleagridis In Transit, Richard Gerhold Jr., L Lollis, R Beckstead, L Mcdougald

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Fresh ceca samples from turkeys in North Carolina infected with Histomonas meleagridis were collected at necropsy, inoculated into warmed Dwyers medium, and sent by overnight courier to our laboratory at The University of Georgia. Further incubation at 40 C yielded positive cultures from all four samples. PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of H. meleagridis. To further establish conditions for survival in transit, we infected turkeys with H. meleagridis, euthanatized the birds 10 days postinfection, and allowed carcasses to incubate at room temperature for either 2 or 24 hr. After incubation, samples of cecal contents (0.5 g) were ...


Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis-Associated Meningoencephalitis In A Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel, K Arnold, D Hotton, R Beckstead Dec 2009

Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis-Associated Meningoencephalitis In A Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel, K Arnold, D Hotton, R Beckstead

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

An adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) from Wicomico County, Maryland, USA, was found circling and having no fear of humans. The animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. There were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. tenuis-associated encephalitis in a sika deer.


Histomonas Meleagridis And Capillarid Infection In A Captive Chukar (Alectoris Chukar), J Reis Jr., R Beckstead, C Brown, Richard Gerhold Jr. Nov 2009

Histomonas Meleagridis And Capillarid Infection In A Captive Chukar (Alectoris Chukar), J Reis Jr., R Beckstead, C Brown, Richard Gerhold Jr.

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A female, adult, pen-raised chukar (Alectoris chukar) was submitted for postmortem examination. The main gross findings were severe emaciation, coelomic cavity and pericardial edema, and a large, sharply demarcated area of necrosis in the liver. Histologically, the liver lesions were characterized by areas of severe necrosis and inflammation containing numerous protozoal organisms morphologically consistent with Histomonas meleagridis. There was necrotizing typhlitis, with few histomonads and scant Heterakis spp. worms, in the cecum. Numerous aphasmid organisms, consistent with capillarids, were present in the crop and esophageal mucosa. Histomonas meleagridis was identified from frozen samples of liver by polymerase chain reaction and ...


Examination For Double-Stranded Rna Viruses In Trichomonas Gallinae And Identification Of A Novel Sequence Of A Trichomonas Vaginalis Virus, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Allison, H Sellers, E Linnemann, T Chang, J Alderete Aug 2009

Examination For Double-Stranded Rna Viruses In Trichomonas Gallinae And Identification Of A Novel Sequence Of A Trichomonas Vaginalis Virus, Richard Gerhold Jr., A Allison, H Sellers, E Linnemann, T Chang, J Alderete

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

To determine if double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses exist and are potential virulence factors in Trichomonas gallinae, virus purification via ultracentrifugation was attempted for 12 T. gallinae isolates recovered from wild birds. Following purification, virus-like particles were not observed by transmission electron microscopy, nor were dsRNA segments visualized in agarose gels after electrophoresis of extracted RNA from any of the 12 T. gallinae isolates. However, virus particles and dsRNA segments were detected from a previously determined virus-infected T. vaginalis isolate as a control using identical purification procedures. Subsequent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the dsRNA of the virus in this ...


Hemolytic Activity Of Trichomonas Gallinae Isolates Does Not Correspond With Clinical Virulence, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, J Fischer Feb 2009

Hemolytic Activity Of Trichomonas Gallinae Isolates Does Not Correspond With Clinical Virulence, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, J Fischer

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

The hemolytic activity of 22 Trichomonas gallinae isolates was investigated using an 18h erythrocyte hemolysis assay which has been shown to correlate with the clinical virulence of T. vaginalis. Absorbance of the assay supernatants was measured at 540nm and expressed as percentage of complete hemolysis. Mean hemolytic activity of the T. gallinae isolates ranged from 3.5% to 53.4% and did not correspond with clinical virulence. The results of this investigation suggest hemolytic activity is not a useful in vitro virulence assay for T. gallinae.


Molecular Characterization Of The Trichomonas Gallinae Morphologic Complex In The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, A Smith, E Ostergaard, W Mannan, J Cann, J Fischer Nov 2008

Molecular Characterization Of The Trichomonas Gallinae Morphologic Complex In The United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley, A Smith, E Ostergaard, W Mannan, J Cann, J Fischer

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Forty-two Trichomonas gallinae isolates were molecularly characterized to determine whether isolates differed in genetic sequence of multiple gene targets depending on host species or geographical location. The 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. The results of the sequence analysis strongly suggest at least 2 species may exist within the T. gallinae morphologic complex. Based on ITS sequences, one group demonstrated high nucleotide identity to the 3 T. gallinae sequences available in GenBank, whereas the second group was more closely related to ...


Johne's Disease In A Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer From Virginia And Subsequent Surveillance For Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis, J Sleeman, E Manning, J Rohm, J Sims, S Sanchez, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel Dec 2007

Johne's Disease In A Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer From Virginia And Subsequent Surveillance For Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis, J Sleeman, E Manning, J Rohm, J Sims, S Sanchez, Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium ...


Toxoplasmosis In A Red-Bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes Carolinus), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley Nov 2007

Toxoplasmosis In A Red-Bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes Carolinus), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Yabsley

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), clinically exhibiting intermittent seizures, was examined by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. Microscopically, the woodpecker had protozoal meningoencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii was identified by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the SAG2 locus disclosed that the T gondii detected was the Type III genotype. This is apparently the first report of clinical neural toxoplasmosis in any species in the order Piciformes.


Infectious Canine Hepatitis In A Gray Fox (Urocyon Cinereoargenteus), Richard Gerhold Jr., A Allison, D Temple, M Chamberlain, K Strait, M Keel Sep 2007

Infectious Canine Hepatitis In A Gray Fox (Urocyon Cinereoargenteus), Richard Gerhold Jr., A Allison, D Temple, M Chamberlain, K Strait, M Keel

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A free-ranging adult male gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) with moderate diarrhea and thick ocular mucus discharge was examined postmortem. Microscopically, the fox had intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. Canine adenovirus-1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical infectious canine hepatitis in a gray fox.


Necropsy Findings And Arbovirus Surveillance In Mourning Doves From The Southeastern United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., C Tate, S Gibbs, D Mead, A Allison, J Fischer Dec 2006

Necropsy Findings And Arbovirus Surveillance In Mourning Doves From The Southeastern United States, Richard Gerhold Jr., C Tate, S Gibbs, D Mead, A Allison, J Fischer

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the United States. However, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. Records of necropsy accessions at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. One hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr period. Trichomonosis constituted 40% (n = 54) of all diagnoses and was the most frequent diagnosis. Toxicoses and avian pox constituted 18.5% (n = 25) and 14 ...


Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga Jun 2006

Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Outbreaks At A Southeastern Reservoir, J Fischer, L Lewis-Weis, C Tate, J Gaydos, Richard Gerhold Jr., R Poppenga

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease of unknown etiology that affects bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and several species of waterfowl. An unidentified neurotoxin is suspected as the cause of AVM, which has been documented at several reservoirs in the southeastern United States. We conducted diagnostic and epidemiologic studies annually during October-March from 1998-2004 at Clarks Hill/Strom Thurmond Lake on the Georgia/South Carolina border to better understand the disease. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed or suspected as the cause of morbidity and mortality of 28 bald eagles, 16 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), six ...


Avian Tuberculosis In A Wild Turkey, Richard Gerhold Jr., J Fischer Feb 2005

Avian Tuberculosis In A Wild Turkey, Richard Gerhold Jr., J Fischer

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A liver from a hunter-harvested wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kansas was evaluated by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. Grossly, the liver contained several grayish-white masses ranging from 0.5-3 cm in diameter. These masses were scattered throughout the parenchyma and bulged from the capsular surface. Histologic examination revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomas with low numbers of acid-fast bacilli within multinucleated giant cells at the periphery of the granulomas. Culture of the liver yielded Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium and low numbers of Staphylococcus intermedius.


Sarcocystis Neurona-Associated Meningoencephalitis And Description Of Intramuscular Sarcocysts In A Fisher (Martes Pennanti), Richard Gerhold Jr., E Howerth, D Lindsay Dec 2004

Sarcocystis Neurona-Associated Meningoencephalitis And Description Of Intramuscular Sarcocysts In A Fisher (Martes Pennanti), Richard Gerhold Jr., E Howerth, D Lindsay

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

A free-ranging juvenile fisher (Martes pennanti) with ataxia, lethargy, stupor, and intermittent, whole-body tremors was examined postmortem. Microscopically, the fisher had protozoal meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism testing, and genetic sequencing. Sarcocysts found in the skeletal muscle of the fisher were negative for S. neurona by PCR, but were morphologically similar to previous light and electron microscopy descriptions of S. neurona. This is the first report of clinical neural S. neurona infection in a fisher.