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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Using Physical Contact Heterogeneity And Frequency To Characterize Dynamics Of Human Exposure To Nonhuman Primate Bodily Fluids In Central Africa, Victor Narat, Mamdou Kampo, Thibut Heyer, Stephanie Rupp, Philippe Ambata, Richard Njouom, Tamara Giles-Vernick Dec 2018

Using Physical Contact Heterogeneity And Frequency To Characterize Dynamics Of Human Exposure To Nonhuman Primate Bodily Fluids In Central Africa, Victor Narat, Mamdou Kampo, Thibut Heyer, Stephanie Rupp, Philippe Ambata, Richard Njouom, Tamara Giles-Vernick

Publications and Research

Emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin constitute a recurrent threat to global health. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) occupy an important place in zoonotic spillovers (pathogenic transmissions from animals to humans), serving as reservoirs or amplifiers of multiple neglected tropical diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses, parasites and bacteria, as well as retroviruses (simian foamy virus, PTLV) that are pathogenic in human beings. Hunting and butchering studies in Africa characterize at-risk human social groups, but overlook critical factors of contact heterogeneity and frequency, NHP species differences, and meat processing practices. In southeastern Cameroon, a region with a history of zoonotic emergence ...


Cryptic Diversity And Discordance In Single‐Locus Species Delimitation Methods Within Horned Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr. Nov 2017

Cryptic Diversity And Discordance In Single‐Locus Species Delimitation Methods Within Horned Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr.

Publications and Research

Biodiversity reduction and loss continues to progress at an alarming rate, and thus there is widespread interest in utilizing rapid and efficient methods for quantifying and delimiting taxonomic diversity. Single-locus species-delimitation methods have become popular, in part due to the adoption of the DNA barcoding paradigm. These techniques can be broadly classified into tree-based and distance-based methods depending on whether species are delimited based on a constructed genealogy. Although the relative performance of these methods has been tested repeatedly with simulations, additional studies are needed to assess congruence with empirical data. We compiled a large data set of mitochondrial ND4 ...


Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda Sep 2017

Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda

Publications and Research

Ravignani et al. (2013) habituated squirrel monkeys to sound sequences conforming to an ABnA grammar (nD1;2;3), then tested them for their reactions to novel gram- matical and non-grammatical sequences. Although they conclude that the monkeys ``consistently recognized and generalized the sequence ABnA,'' I remark that this conclusion is not robust. The statistical significance of results depends on specific choices of data analysis, namely dichotomization of the response variable and omission of specific data points. Additionally, there is little evidence of generalization to novel patterns (n D 4;5), which is important to conclude that the monkeys recognized the ...


Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian Feb 2017

Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian

Publications and Research

In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal kinematics of gait in Longshanks ...


Lemurfaceid: A Face Recognition System To Facilitate Individual Identification Of Lemurs, David Crouse, Rachel L. Jacobs, Zach Richardson, Scott Klum, Anil Jain, Andrea L. Baden, Stacey R. Tecot Jan 2017

Lemurfaceid: A Face Recognition System To Facilitate Individual Identification Of Lemurs, David Crouse, Rachel L. Jacobs, Zach Richardson, Scott Klum, Anil Jain, Andrea L. Baden, Stacey R. Tecot

Publications and Research

Background: Long-term research of known individuals is critical for understanding the demographic and evolutionary processes that influence natural populations. Current methods for individual identification of many animals include capture and tagging techniques and/or researcher knowledge of natural variation in individual phenotypes. These methods can be costly, time-consuming, and may be impractical for larger-scale, populationlevel studies. Accordingly, for many animal lineages, long-term research projects are often limited to only a few taxa. Lemurs, a mammalian lineage endemic to Madagascar, are no exception. Long-term data needed to address evolutionary questions are lacking for many species. This is, at least in part ...


Sex And Seasonal Differences In Diet And Nutrient Intake In Verreaux's Sifakas (Propithecus Verreauxi), Flávia Koch, Joerg U. Ganzhorn, Jessica M. Rothman, Colin A. Chapman, Claudia Fichtel Oct 2016

Sex And Seasonal Differences In Diet And Nutrient Intake In Verreaux's Sifakas (Propithecus Verreauxi), Flávia Koch, Joerg U. Ganzhorn, Jessica M. Rothman, Colin A. Chapman, Claudia Fichtel

Publications and Research

Fluctuations in food availability are a major challenge faced by primates living in seasonal climates. Variation in food availability can be especially challenging for females, because of the high energetic costs of reproduction. Therefore, females must adapt the particular demands of the different reproductive stages to the seasonal availability of resources. Madagascar has a highly seasonal climate, where food availability can be extremely variable. We investigated the seasonal changes in diet composition, nutrient and energy intake of female and male sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. We examined how females adjust their diet to different ...


Can Colour Vision Re-Evolve? Variation In The X-Linked Opsin Locus Of Cathemeral Azara’S Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae Azarae), N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, Andrea L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Davalos, B. J. Bradley Feb 2016

Can Colour Vision Re-Evolve? Variation In The X-Linked Opsin Locus Of Cathemeral Azara’S Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae Azarae), N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, Andrea L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Davalos, B. J. Bradley

Publications and Research

Background: Do evolutionary specializations lead to evolutionary constraint? This appears plausible, particularly when specialization leads to loss of complex adaptations. In the owl monkey lineage, nocturnality clearly arose from a diurnal ancestor. This behavioural shift was accompanied by morphological changes in the eye and orbit and complete loss of colour vision via missense mutations in the gene encoding the short-wave sensitive visual pigment (SWS opsin). Interestingly, at least one subspecies of owl monkey, Azara’s owl monkey (Aotus azarae azarae), has regained activity in daylight. Given that all primate species that are active in daylight, including primarily diurnal species and ...


Historical And Contemporary Demography Of Leaf-Toed Geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) In The Mexican Dry Forest, Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz, Robert W. Murphy Apr 2015

Historical And Contemporary Demography Of Leaf-Toed Geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) In The Mexican Dry Forest, Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz, Robert W. Murphy

Publications and Research

Disentangling the relative influence of historical versus contemporary processes shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation is critical if we are to effectively mitigate key biodiversity issues. We utilize a comprehensive approach based on different molecular marker types and analytical methods to understand the demographic consequences of recent habitat fragmentation in a spatially explicit context. We focus our efforts on native leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus saxatilis) throughout fragmented habitat in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico as recent evidence suggests that geographic ranges for these geckos may be much smaller than currently realized. However, no data are available regarding ...


Multilocus Coalescent Analyses Reveal The Demographic History Of Mouse Lemur Sister Species., Christopher Blair, Kellie L. Heckman, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder Mar 2014

Multilocus Coalescent Analyses Reveal The Demographic History Of Mouse Lemur Sister Species., Christopher Blair, Kellie L. Heckman, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder

Publications and Research

Debate continues as to whether allopatric speciation or peripatric speciation through a founder effect is the predominant force driving evolution in vertebrates. The mouse lemurs of Madagascar are a system in which evolution has generated a large number of species over a relatively recent time frame. Here, we examine speciation patterns in a pair of sister species of mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus and M. griseorufus. These two species have ranges that are disparately proportioned in size, with M. murinus showing a much more extensive range that marginally overlaps that of M. griseorufus. Given that these two species are sister taxa ...


Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla Jan 2014

Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Ecological Genetics Of Chinese Rhesus Macaque In Response To Mountain Building: All Things Are Not Equal, Christopher Blair, Shan-Jin Wu, Jing Luo, Yan-Qin Wang, Robert E. Murphy, Shi-Fang Wu, Bi-Song Yue, Ya-Ping Zhang, Qing-Qing Li Feb 2013

Ecological Genetics Of Chinese Rhesus Macaque In Response To Mountain Building: All Things Are Not Equal, Christopher Blair, Shan-Jin Wu, Jing Luo, Yan-Qin Wang, Robert E. Murphy, Shi-Fang Wu, Bi-Song Yue, Ya-Ping Zhang, Qing-Qing Li

Publications and Research

Pliocene uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Quaternary glaciation may have impacted the Asian biota more than any other events. Little is documented with respect to how the geological and climatological events influenced speciation as well as spatial and genetic structuring, especially in vertebrate endotherms. Macaca mulatta is the most widely distributed non-human primate. It may be the most suitable model to test hypotheses regarding the genetic consequences of orogenesis on an endotherm.


The Impact Of Gut Passage By Binturongs (Arctictus Binturong) On Seed Germination, Christina P. Colon, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz Feb 2013

The Impact Of Gut Passage By Binturongs (Arctictus Binturong) On Seed Germination, Christina P. Colon, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

Publications and Research

Binturongs (Arctictis binturong) are the largest of Asian civets and, due to their highly frugivorous diet, are expected to play an important role in seed dispersal processes. To study the effect of binturong gut passage on seed viability, we fed 10 captive binturongs with fruits of longan (Dimocarpus longan), papaya (Carica papaya) and chiku (Manilkara zapota), collected the seeds they defaecated, and planted these to determine seed germination rate and time. Of the defaecated seeds, 90.4% passed through binturong gut intact in under nine hours, and 99.4% passed in under 33 hours. Chiku seeds had the highest germination ...


Sceloporus Clarkii—Nocturnal Foraging, Christopher Blair, Noberto Martinez-Mendez, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz Jan 2013

Sceloporus Clarkii—Nocturnal Foraging, Christopher Blair, Noberto Martinez-Mendez, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Schulz Investigates Threat Of Invasive Species, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 2012

Schulz Investigates Threat Of Invasive Species, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Rehg Studies Monkeys To Better Understand Humans, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 2012

Rehg Studies Monkeys To Better Understand Humans, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Parasites Of Civets (Mammalia, Viverridae) In Sabah, Borneo: A Coprological Survey, Christina P. Colon, Sharon Patton Jan 2012

Parasites Of Civets (Mammalia, Viverridae) In Sabah, Borneo: A Coprological Survey, Christina P. Colon, Sharon Patton

Publications and Research

Parasite data were collected from unlogged and selectively logged lowland rain forests in Borneo. Scat from a female Viverra tangalunga (Malay civet) in the unlogged forest contained eggs of Capillaria spp., Trichuris sp., Mamomoganomus sp., and nematode larvae. Scat attributed to V. tangalunga contained reproductive products (eggs/oocysts/cysts/larvae) of Capillaria sp., Toxocara sp., Ancylostoma sp. (probably A. ceylanicum), Isospora spp., strongylate-type eggs (probably Ancylostoma spp.), Paragoni­ mus sp. and other Trematoda eggs, Monocystis sp. cysts, Gnathostoma sp. (probably G. spinigerum), the lungworm Viverrostrongylus brauni, pinworm-type eggs, Eimeria spp., Sarcocystis-type sporocyst, dermanysid mites and mesostigmatid mites. Parasites from gut ...


Notes On The Diet Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) And Other Civets In Logged And Unlogged Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forests In Sabah, Borneo, Christina P. Colon, John B. Sugau Jan 2012

Notes On The Diet Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) And Other Civets In Logged And Unlogged Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forests In Sabah, Borneo, Christina P. Colon, John B. Sugau

Publications and Research

Civet diets were examined in a logged and unlogged Bornean rain forest. Malay civets (Viverra tangalunga) consumed invertebrates, fruit, rodents, insectivores, birds, snakes and lizards, and appear to show preference for centipedes and scorpions. Other civet species consumed fruit, such as figs, Connarus sp. and Annona sp., particularly in the unlogged forest, but also consumed invertebrates and vertebrates. Reduced fruit consumption observed in the logged forest may be due to lower availability and may be offset by increased consumption of invertebrates. The increased overlap in diet between Malay civets and other civets in disturbed areas may lead to increased competition.


Ecology Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) In A Logged And An Unlogged Forest In Sabah, East Malaysia, Christina P. Colon May 1999

Ecology Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) In A Logged And An Unlogged Forest In Sabah, East Malaysia, Christina P. Colon

Publications and Research

Malay civets in a dipterocarp rain forest were studied from December, 1995, through June, 1997, in the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve in Sabah, East Malaysia. To investigate the basic ecology of this species and explore the potential impact of selective logging, data on home range, activity and diet were collected on study animals in an unlogged and a selectively logged forest, and comparisons made.

Density in the unlogged forest was 1/0.46 km2 , and 1/1.07 km2 in the logged forest. Mean home range size based on a 95% minimum convex polygon was 110 ha. and ...


Los Zoológicos: ¿Último Recurso?, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 1986

Los Zoológicos: ¿Último Recurso?, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Lo Que Todos Debemos Saber: Las Reglas De La Nomenclatura Zoológica, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 1973

Lo Que Todos Debemos Saber: Las Reglas De La Nomenclatura Zoológica, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


La Nueva Sección De Hidrobiología Del Museo De Zoología De Barcelona, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 1972

La Nueva Sección De Hidrobiología Del Museo De Zoología De Barcelona, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.