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Zoology

William & Mary

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Virginia Shark Identification Guide, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Apr 2019

Virginia Shark Identification Guide, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Table of Contents:

Atlantic Sharpnose Shark | Bigeye Thresher Shark | Bignose Shark | Blacknose Shark | Blacktip Shark | Blue Shark | Bluntnose Sixgill Shark | Bonnethead Bull Shark | Dusky Shark | Finetooth Shark | Great Hammerhead Shark | Great White Shark | Gulper Shark | Lemon Shark | Longfin Mako Shark | Night Shark | Oceanic Whitetip Shark | Porbeagle | Sandbar Shark | Sand Tiger Shark | Scalloped Hammerhead Shark | Sharpnose Sevengill Shark | Shortfin Mako Shark | Silky Shark | Smooth Dogfish | Smooth Hammerhead Shark | Spinner Shark | Spiny Dogfish | Thresher Shark | Tiger Shark


Likely Locations Of Sea Turtle Stranding Mortality Using Experimentally-Calibrated, Time And Space-Specific Drift Models, Bianca Silva Santos, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Sarah A. Rose, Susan G. Barco, David Michael Kaplan Jan 2018

Likely Locations Of Sea Turtle Stranding Mortality Using Experimentally-Calibrated, Time And Space-Specific Drift Models, Bianca Silva Santos, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Sarah A. Rose, Susan G. Barco, David Michael Kaplan

Articles

This is an accepted manuscript of the published article.

Sea turtle stranding events provide an opportunity to study drivers of mortality, but causes of strandings are poorly understood. A general turtle carcass oceanographic drift model was developed to estimate likely mortality locations from coastal sea turtle stranding records. Key model advancements include realistic direct wind forcing on carcasses, temperature driven carcass decomposition and the development of mortality location predictions for individual strandings. We applied this model to 2009-2014 stranding events within the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Predicted origin of vessel strike strandings were compared to commercial vessel data, and potential hazardous ...


Age, Growth And Reproduction Of Western North Atlantic Butterfly Rays (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae), With The Description Of Two New Species, Kristene Teal Parsons Jan 2017

Age, Growth And Reproduction Of Western North Atlantic Butterfly Rays (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae), With The Description Of Two New Species, Kristene Teal Parsons

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Batoid fishes are among the most threatened and least understood chondrichthyan species worldwide due to their large body size, conservative life-history characteristics, and predominantly coastal distributions where fishing and habitat degradation threaten the stability of populations. A lack of empirical life history data is widespread across batoid taxa — nearly half of all species are considered data deficient, thus hindering species assessments and the development of effective management strategies. Furthermore, many batoid taxa are in need of taxonomic re-examination. Increasing our understanding of life history traits that determine population productivity, such as age and size at maturity, growth rate, and fecundity ...


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton Aug 2016

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

Arts & Sciences Articles

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks May 2016

Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the filter-feeding mechanisms of the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The data indicate that paddlefish use a filtration method termed cross-step filtration, which utilizes vortices formed behind the branchial arches by the incoming water flow. Videos of these vortices were obtained and quantified for the first time inside the oral cavities of preserved paddlefish. Since the paddlefish can move the branchial arches within the oral cavity, the effects of changing branchial arch angle on vortex characteristics were studied in 3D models. The vortices in three models with different arch angles were quantified. The data demonstrated that a change ...


Effects Of Embryonic Exposure To Salinity Stress Or Hypoxia On Post-Metamorphic Growth And Survival Of The Polychaete Capitella Teleta, Ja Pechenik, Or Chaparro, A Pilnick, M Karp, M Acquafredda, R Burns Jan 2016

Effects Of Embryonic Exposure To Salinity Stress Or Hypoxia On Post-Metamorphic Growth And Survival Of The Polychaete Capitella Teleta, Ja Pechenik, Or Chaparro, A Pilnick, M Karp, M Acquafredda, R Burns

VIMS Articles

Although a good number of studies have investigated the impact of larval experience on aspects of post-metamorphic performance, only a few have considered the potential impact of stresses experienced by brooded embryos. In this study we separately investigated the impact of salinity stress (as low as 10) and hypoxia (1 ml O2 1 sub-1) experienced by brooded embryos of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta on hatching success, metamorphosis, post-metamorphic survival, and post-metamorphic growth. Salinity reduction from 30 to 10 or 15 reduced relative hatching success, presumably by reducing embryonic survival, but generally had no negative latent effects on juvenile survival ...


Reproductive Altruism, Social Diversity And Host Association In Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimps, Synalpheus, Tin Chi Solomon Chak Jan 2016

Reproductive Altruism, Social Diversity And Host Association In Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimps, Synalpheus, Tin Chi Solomon Chak

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The diversity of animal social strategies has interested evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Eusociality—the apex of animal sociality—traditionally characterized by cooperative offspring care, overlapping generations and reproductive division of labor, was until recently known only in insects and a few vertebrate species. The independent evolution of eusociality in shrimps in the genus Synalpheus offers a unique opportunity to test the generality of social evolution theories that are based mainly on insects and social vertebrates. The genus Synalpheus is particularly ideal for comparative analysis because their social organizations are highly diverse, yet they share very similar ecology ...


Impact Of Anguillicolides Crassus On American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata), Andrew Wargo, Rob Latour, Troy Tuckey, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein Oct 2015

Impact Of Anguillicolides Crassus On American Eels (Anguilla Rostrata), Andrew Wargo, Rob Latour, Troy Tuckey, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein

Presentations

American eels Anguilla rostrata are infected by an introduced parasitic nematode Anguillicoloides crassus, which can cause extreme necrosis of their swimbladders, yet effects on the eel population are currently unknown. We collected 3 eel life stages (glass, elver, and yellow) and the presence of A. crassus and swimbladder damage in each eel was quantified. The preliminary data show over 60% prevalence and an even higher prevalence of damaged swimbladders.


Integrative Taxonomy, A New Tool For Fisheries Conservation, Adela Roa-Varon, Eric J. Hilton Oct 2015

Integrative Taxonomy, A New Tool For Fisheries Conservation, Adela Roa-Varon, Eric J. Hilton

Presentations

Species delimitation is becoming increasingly objective and integrative. Sequence capture approaches allow collection of 1000s of loci for 100s of individuals. New approaches address the computational challenges of large datasets and offer potential for genome-wide sampling of variation at different evolutionary scales. These new approaches also allow integration of genetic and non-genetic data in a unified framework. Despite these advances, few studies have attempted to combine genetic and morphological data for delimiting species. Hakes (Merluccius spp.) are an ideal group for an empirical test of the power and applicability of these new methods because they are morphologically conserved and have ...


The Reproductive Biology Of Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) In Chesapeake Bay, Carissa L. Gervasi Jan 2015

The Reproductive Biology Of Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) In Chesapeake Bay, Carissa L. Gervasi

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) is an anadromous finfish that supports a lucrative fishery along the Atlantic coast of the United States and serves as a vital component of estuarine food webs. Once Striped Bass stocks were restored after crashing in the late 1980s, abundance skyrocketed to record levels. Over the past decade however, abundance has steadily declined, concurrent with an outbreak of mycobacteriosis. Disease prevalence is currently >50%, and previous research has demonstrated diseasepositive fish exhibit slower growth and increased natural mortality compared to diseasenegative fish. The purpose of this research was to provide a contemporary description of Chesapeake ...


Phylogeny, Ontogeny And Distribution Of The Ribbonfishes (Lampridiformes: Trachipteridae), Jennifer M. Martin Jan 2015

Phylogeny, Ontogeny And Distribution Of The Ribbonfishes (Lampridiformes: Trachipteridae), Jennifer M. Martin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The ribbonfish family Trachipteridae (Lampridiformes) includes three well-defined genera (Trachipterus, Desmodema, and Zu), which are distributed worldwide throughout the pelagic marine environment as with most families of Lampridiformes, drastic changes in morphology occur throughout ontogeny due to extreme allometric growth. Combined with the rarity of specimens, this has led to the description of different life history stages as different species, rather than as part of the ontogenetic continuum of a single species. There is significant uncertainty concerning the ontogeny, distribution, nomenclature, number and phylogenetic affinity of trachipterid and other lampridiform genera.;The first chapter of my dissertation is a taxonomic ...


Habitat Use Of The Declining Wood Thrush In Coastal Virginia, Vitek Jirinec Jan 2015

Habitat Use Of The Declining Wood Thrush In Coastal Virginia, Vitek Jirinec

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Noise On The Social Structure Of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Autumn Swan Jan 2015

Effect Of Noise On The Social Structure Of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Autumn Swan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Atlas Of Lobster Anatomy And Histology, Jeffrey D. Shields, Robert A. Boyd Jan 2014

Atlas Of Lobster Anatomy And Histology, Jeffrey D. Shields, Robert A. Boyd

Reports

This is a histological atlas of the most common organs and tissues found in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. The atlas contains photomicrographs from histological sections of healthy tissues. The atlas contains pictures of tissues that are readily observed in dissection and several that are commonly affected by diseases. It is not a complete atlas. Several organs are not covered, notably the brain, ventral nerve ganglion, sensory organs, and organs associated with molting.


Phylogenetic Systematics Of The Prickleback Family Stichaeidae (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei) Using Morphological Data, Todd R. Clardy Jan 2014

Phylogenetic Systematics Of The Prickleback Family Stichaeidae (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei) Using Morphological Data, Todd R. Clardy

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The prickleback family Stichaeidae, as currently recognized, is a diverse group of small (<30 cm TL) eel- or blenny-like marine fishes distributed in intertidal, subtidal, and continental slope waters of the North Pacific, Arctic, and North Atlantic oceans. Stichaeidae is one of nine families within the Cottiformes suborder Zoarcoidei and includes six subfamilies, 38 genera, and about 80 species. However, there are questions regarding the monophyly of the family and its position within Zoarcoidei, due in part to a lack of fundamental descriptive anatomical data for the family. The first chapter of my dissertation describes the osteology of Xiphister, a genus of Stichaeidae that includes two species, X. atropurpureus and X. mucosus, found in intertidal and subtidal waters from southern Alaska to southern California. I describe and illustrate their skeletal anatomy, clarify aspects of their anatomy discussed by previous researchers, and describe for the first time elements such as the hyoid and gill arches, scales, and the development of their lateral line canals. These data establish a foundation for the further anatomical and systematic studies of Stichaeidae, and Zoarcoidei generally. Some members of Stichaeidae, including both species of Xiphister , have multiple lateral line canals on their trunk, which is a feature found in only 15 families of teleostean fishes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, the structure and ontogeny of lateral line canals of both species of Xiphister were studied using cleared & stained specimens and histology. Both species have seven cephalic canals and three paired canals on the trunk located on the dorsolateral, mediolateral, and ventrolateral body surfaces. The ventrolateral canal also includes a short loop across the ventral surface of the abdomen. The trunk canals and four short branches of the infraorbitals that extend across the cheek are supported by small ossified rings. The trunk canals develop asynchronously and separately from the development of scales, suggesting that the ossified rings that support the canals are not modified scales. Results from histology show that neuromasts, the sensory components of the mechanosensory system, are found only in the cephalic, dorsolateral, and mediolateral canals; the ventrolateral canal and its loop lack neuromasts. The evolution and functional role of multiple trunk lateral line canals is discussed. The third chapter of my dissertation examines the phylogenetic systematics of Stichaeidae using 106 morphological characters and 60 terminal taxa, including 30 genera of Stichaeidae, representatives from all eight other families of Zoarcoidei, and additional outgroup taxa. The suborder Zoarcoidei was recovered as a monophyletic group sister to Cottoidei within the order Cottiformes. Within Zoarcoidei, however, the family Stichaeidae was not recovered as a monophyletic family. Only two of the six subfamilies within Stichaeidae, Lumpeninae and Neozoarcinae, were recovered as monophyletic. The high level of homoplasy in the remaining four stichaeid subfamilies, and the inclusion of zoarcoid families nested within Stichaeidae, suggests that the current classification of Stichaeidae does not accurately reflect the evolutionary history of Zoarcoidei.


Rise Of A Floater Class: Behavioral Adjustments By Breeding Bald Eagles In A Population Approaching Saturation, Courtney L. Turrin Jan 2014

Rise Of A Floater Class: Behavioral Adjustments By Breeding Bald Eagles In A Population Approaching Saturation, Courtney L. Turrin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Natural Variation In Fertility And Gnrh Neurons In A Wild, Natural Population Of White-Footed Mice, Peromyscus Leucopus, Melissa Proffitt Jan 2014

Natural Variation In Fertility And Gnrh Neurons In A Wild, Natural Population Of White-Footed Mice, Peromyscus Leucopus, Melissa Proffitt

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Short Report: Gongylonema Pulchrum Infection In A Resident Of Williamsburg, Virginia, Verified By Genetic Analysis, Jonathon D. Allen, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher Oct 2013

Short Report: Gongylonema Pulchrum Infection In A Resident Of Williamsburg, Virginia, Verified By Genetic Analysis, Jonathon D. Allen, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher

Arts & Sciences Articles

We describe the thirteenth reported case of human infection with Gongylonema spp. in the United States and the first to be confirmed as Gongylonema pulchrum. The parasite described was isolated from the oral cavity of a resident of Williamsburg, Virginia. The identity of the parasite was verified through morphological and genetic approaches, and provided the first genetic confirmation of a Gongylonema sp. in humans.


Sexual Dimorphism, Diet, And Body Condition Of Rusty Blackbirds Wintering In Virginia, Andrew John Mcgann Jan 2012

Sexual Dimorphism, Diet, And Body Condition Of Rusty Blackbirds Wintering In Virginia, Andrew John Mcgann

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Patterns Of Population Structure And Historical Dispersal In Squaloid Sharks: A Species-Level Approach Using Molecular Markers, Ana Christina Pimenta Verissimo Jan 2012

Patterns Of Population Structure And Historical Dispersal In Squaloid Sharks: A Species-Level Approach Using Molecular Markers, Ana Christina Pimenta Verissimo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Squaloids (Order Squaliformes) are a highle diverse group of mostly deepwater habitats (> 200 m). Many species are regularly caught in commercial fisheries worldwide but their low productivity and correspondingly low intrinsic rebound potentials make them particularly vulnerable to population depletion and overexploitation. of special concern to fisheries management and conservation efforts are the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, the leafscale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis. These taxa have recently been declared overfished in several parts of each species' distribution but management efforts have been made to recover the "stocks" without a good understanding of the species ...


Behavioral And Mechanical Particle Selectivity In A Suspension-Feeding Detritivorous Fish, Matthew Kyle Heidman Jan 2011

Behavioral And Mechanical Particle Selectivity In A Suspension-Feeding Detritivorous Fish, Matthew Kyle Heidman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Golf Course Landscapes On The Occupancy And Reproductive Success Of Eastern Bluebirds, Marie Louise Pitts Jan 2011

The Influence Of Golf Course Landscapes On The Occupancy And Reproductive Success Of Eastern Bluebirds, Marie Louise Pitts

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Mate-Guarding In The Australian Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia Guttata: For Males, Protecting Paternity Is More Important Than Extra-Pair Copulations, Leah Catherine Wilson Jan 2011

Mate-Guarding In The Australian Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia Guttata: For Males, Protecting Paternity Is More Important Than Extra-Pair Copulations, Leah Catherine Wilson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Survival In An Urbanized Landscape: Radio-Tracking Fledgling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis) On Golf Courses, Allyson Kathleen Jackson Jan 2010

Survival In An Urbanized Landscape: Radio-Tracking Fledgling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis) On Golf Courses, Allyson Kathleen Jackson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Migration Dynamics, Within-Estuary Behaviors And Cardiorespiratory Responses Of Summer Flounder To Selected Estuarine Conditions, Karen M. Capossela Jan 2010

Migration Dynamics, Within-Estuary Behaviors And Cardiorespiratory Responses Of Summer Flounder To Selected Estuarine Conditions, Karen M. Capossela

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

A comprehensive understanding of migration dynamics, within-estuary behaviors and physiological tolerances of fish is needed to assess and predict future responses of fish to environmental disturbance and to protect habitat necessary for growth and survival. This study adds to current knowledge of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) responses to environmental conditions by (1) examining migration and within-estuarine behaviors of adult summer flounder and (2) establishing summer flounder metabolic requirements and cardiorespiratory responses to variations in hypoxia and temperature. To elucidate use of a southern mid-Atlantic Bight estuary by adult summer flounder, the movements of 45 fish were monitored using acoustic telemetry ...


Prey Utilization And Energy Demand Of A Breeding Peregrine Falcon (Falco Peregrinus) Population, Elizabeth Claire Long Jan 2009

Prey Utilization And Energy Demand Of A Breeding Peregrine Falcon (Falco Peregrinus) Population, Elizabeth Claire Long

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Female Plumage Coloration In Eastern Bluebirds, Sialia Sialis: Is It A Sexually Selected Trait?, Joanna Kay Hubbard Jan 2009

Female Plumage Coloration In Eastern Bluebirds, Sialia Sialis: Is It A Sexually Selected Trait?, Joanna Kay Hubbard

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Previous Experience Shapes Mate Preferences Of Female Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Kelly Caroline Minton Jan 2009

Previous Experience Shapes Mate Preferences Of Female Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Kelly Caroline Minton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Mud And Mucus: Feeding Selectivity In A Suspension-Feeding Detritivorous Fish, Marie Louise Lammons Jan 2009

Mud And Mucus: Feeding Selectivity In A Suspension-Feeding Detritivorous Fish, Marie Louise Lammons

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Interactions Between Feather-Degrading Bacteria And Feather Coloration, Alexander Rahn Gunderson Jan 2008

Interactions Between Feather-Degrading Bacteria And Feather Coloration, Alexander Rahn Gunderson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.