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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead Dec 2018

Vegetation Characteristics And Bird Communities Associated With Singing Painted Buntings In Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Kristina Thead

Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown that bird communities are affected by the species composition and physical structure of plant communities. Within avian communities, the bird species that are the most localized in distribution tend to be the most affected by habitat changes. My research analyzed plant and bird communities found with the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris Linnaeus), a locally common but declining species throughout much of its range. First, I describe vegetation characteristics associated with singing male Painted Buntings in northwest Arkansas. I categorized field sites with singing male Painted Buntings as either managed for wildlife or unmanaged, based on land-use ...


Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre Dec 2018

Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient and benthic algal biomass relationships can guide numeric nutrient criteria development in lotic systems. However, herbivorous macrograzers may confound this relationship by reducing the slope of the positive relationship between nutrients and periphyton biomass in streams. I conducted a mensurative field study to determine if stoneroller and crayfish abundance related to algal biomass at varying nutrient concentrations and manipulated macrograzer presence with electrical exclosures in streams to examine macrograzer effects on algal biomass and understand whether these effects on periphyton varied with total phosphorus (TP) or season. Macrograzer density was quantified across a TP gradient (n=15 streams; range ...


Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo May 2018

Defending Wild Dogs: Population Dynamics And Disease In Endangered African Wild Dogs, Elizabeth Claire Arredondo

Theses and Dissertations

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered carnivores whose population is decreasing from habitat loss and fragmentation, interspecific competition, and disease. Survival rates are especially low in Kruger National Park (KNP), though it is unclear why. I estimated the abundance in KNP and survival rates over different time spans, six years and nine months, using public photographic survey data. In 2015, there were 298 (SE=12.1) individuals. Using a mark-recapture analysis in program R, I found that the survival rate between 2009-2015 was only 3.2%, and within the 9-month survey period (September 2014 – June 2015), monthly survival rates ...


Towards Quantifying Relevant Land Cover Change: A Case Study In The Central Flyway Of The Monarch Butterfly, Hanna Lenee Ford May 2018

Towards Quantifying Relevant Land Cover Change: A Case Study In The Central Flyway Of The Monarch Butterfly, Hanna Lenee Ford

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past 20 years notable decreases in monarch butterfly populations have led researchers to begin evaluating the landscape for changes and seeking out opportunities for enacting conservation programs to better support their survival. The monarch butterfly has recently come under consideration for listing under the Endangered Species Act which has created a need for a more informed view of the landscape through which the migrate and breed, the central United States. In this research three spatially-explicit models are explored using the most applicable datasets currently available to address pressing policy and land manager decisions regarding monarch butterfly and pollinator ...


A Preliminary Checklist Of The Stoneflies (Arthropoda: Insecta: Plecoptera) Of Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Chris T. Mcallister Jan 2018

A Preliminary Checklist Of The Stoneflies (Arthropoda: Insecta: Plecoptera) Of Arkansas, Henry W. Robison, Chris T. Mcallister

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Seventy-seven species of stoneflies representing 8 families and 24 genera are herein reported from Arkansas. The most diverse families of state stoneflies were Perlidae (26 species), Capniidae (14 species), and Perlodidae (12 species) while Pteronarcyidae had only a single representative species. Additional taxa will surely be added to the list with future taxonomic studies incorporating molecular analyses.


Incidental Captures Of Plains Spotted Skunks (Spilogale Putorius Interrupta) By Arkansas Trappers, 2012-2017, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2018

Incidental Captures Of Plains Spotted Skunks (Spilogale Putorius Interrupta) By Arkansas Trappers, 2012-2017, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Arkansas trappers were surveyed following the 2012 and four subsequent trapping seasons regarding accidental captures of spotted skunks while attempting to trap other species. A total of 132 trappers reported capturing spotted skunks although further investigation confirmed the validity of only 42 reports from trappers that caught a total of 60 spotted skunks. Incidental captures were rare; only 0.35-1.29% of trappers each year caught spotted skunks and came primarily from the Ozark and Ouachita regions of the state.


Primeness In Early Season Arkansas Raccoon Pelts, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2018

Primeness In Early Season Arkansas Raccoon Pelts, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Trapping seasons in the United States are generally set around the time of the year when pelts are in “prime” condition and are in their most valuable state. In order to assess whether the start of the Arkansas trapping season is at an appropriate date 122 raccoons were captured during the month of November in 2014 and 2015. Based on the evaluation of experienced fur dealers, the percentage of pelts in prime condition was then assessed on weekly and half-monthly basis. This study indicates that starting the trapping season in the last half of the month may maximize the percentage ...


Additional County Records Of Invertebrates From Arkansas, Chris T. Mcallister, Henry W. Robison, Renn Tumlison Jan 2018

Additional County Records Of Invertebrates From Arkansas, Chris T. Mcallister, Henry W. Robison, Renn Tumlison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Small Mammal Abundances In A Grassland And Forest Area At The Lake Fayetteville Environmental Center, Arkansas, Douglas A. James, S. A. Bartholomew, A. Deshwal, P. Panwar Jan 2018

Small Mammal Abundances In A Grassland And Forest Area At The Lake Fayetteville Environmental Center, Arkansas, Douglas A. James, S. A. Bartholomew, A. Deshwal, P. Panwar

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

We examined changes in abundance of small mammals in forest and prairie-grassland habitat at Lake Fayetteville, Arkansas over a period of 32 years. We estimated the population size of small mammals using a mark-recapture method by capturing small mammals employing rat-sized Sherman live traps laid out in a grid with 8 rows of traps, 15 traps per row, 9.14 m (30 feet) between traps and rows covering an area of 1.01 ha (2.5 acres) in size. Six species of mammals were trapped in the prairie-grassland and three species were captured in the forest habitat. In the forest ...


Parasites Of The Spotted Sucker, Minytrema Melanops (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) From Arkansas And Oklahoma, Chris T. Mcallister, Donald G. Cloutman, Anindo Choudhury, Tomas Scholz, Stanley E. Trauth, Thomas J. Fayton, Henry W. Robison Jan 2018

Parasites Of The Spotted Sucker, Minytrema Melanops (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) From Arkansas And Oklahoma, Chris T. Mcallister, Donald G. Cloutman, Anindo Choudhury, Tomas Scholz, Stanley E. Trauth, Thomas J. Fayton, Henry W. Robison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

During October 2015, March and April 2016 and again between March and April 2017, 15 Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops) were collected from sites in the Ouachita (n = 5), Red (n = 1), and St. Francis (n = 5) river drainages, Arkansas, and the Arkansas River drainage, Oklahoma (n = 4), and examined for protozoan and metazoan parasites. Found were Calyptospora sp., Myxobolus sp., Pseudomurraytrema alabarrum, Biacetabulum banghami, Penarchigetes oklensis, and Acanthocephalus sp. New host and distributional records are documented for these parasites.



Additional Records Of Acanthocephalan Parasites From Arkansas Fishes, With New Records From Missouri Fishes, Chris T. Mcallister, Michael A. Barger, Henry W. Robison Jan 2018

Additional Records Of Acanthocephalan Parasites From Arkansas Fishes, With New Records From Missouri Fishes, Chris T. Mcallister, Michael A. Barger, Henry W. Robison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Over the last decade, our research consortium has provided information on acanthocephalan parasites of Arkansas vertebrates, including records from some of the state’s fishes. Here, we continue to provide data on new geographic and new host records of acanthocephalans from Arkansas fishes. In addition, for the first time, we report records of acanthocephalans for some Missouri fishes. We document 2 new state records as well as 10 new host records for some fish acanthocephalans.


Organochloride Pesticides Present In Animal Fur, Soil, And Streambed In An Agricultural Region Of Southeastern Arkansas, Matthew E. Grilliot, John L. Hunt, Christopher G. Sims Jan 2018

Organochloride Pesticides Present In Animal Fur, Soil, And Streambed In An Agricultural Region Of Southeastern Arkansas, Matthew E. Grilliot, John L. Hunt, Christopher G. Sims

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Animals in agricultural settings may be subject to bioaccumulation of toxins. For the last several years, we collected hair samples from bats and rodents in an agricultural area near Bayou Bartholomew in Drew County, Arkansas. Samples were submitted to the Center of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at the University of Connecticut for wide-screen toxin analysis. Several of these samples contained measurable amounts of organochloride pesticides or their metabolites, including some that have been banned for decades, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and chlordane. In addition, we collected several samples of soil from within an agricultural field, from adjacent edge habitat, from ...


Bee Communities On Managed Emergent Wetlands In The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley Of Arkansas, Phillip Lee Stephenson Aug 2017

Bee Communities On Managed Emergent Wetlands In The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley Of Arkansas, Phillip Lee Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

Native bee communities that use emergent wetlands are among the least studied systems in bee research. Most native bee species are thought to be in decline based on the loss of usable habitat across the United States. I surveyed emergent wetlands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas during the summers of 2015 and 2016 using pan traps, blue-vane traps, and sweep nets to determine the current status of bee communities in this system. I surveyed 11 sites in 2015 and 17 sites in 2016 and found that bee communities were similar in actively versus passively managed emergent wetlands ...


Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge Aug 2017

Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge

Theses and Dissertations

Transport of commercial broiler chickens from the farm to the processing plant is perceived to compromise welfare under some circumstances. Research has been conducted using European standard equipment to characterize the environment experienced by poultry during broiler transport. In contrast no studies have been reported on the environment experienced by broilers under United States standard industry practices during transport. Moreover, microenvironment temperatures within industry trailers have not been reported.

The present study characterized the thermal micro-environment experienced by broiler chickens during transport across different seasons. The temperatures were influenced by temperature mitigation practices (plastic wrap, double side board, single side ...


Geographic Distribution Records Of Macracanthorhynchus Ingens (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) From The Raccoon, Procyon Lotor In North America, Dennis J. Richardson, A. Leveille, A. V. Belsare, H. S. Al-Warid, M. E. Gompper Jan 2017

Geographic Distribution Records Of Macracanthorhynchus Ingens (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) From The Raccoon, Procyon Lotor In North America, Dennis J. Richardson, A. Leveille, A. V. Belsare, H. S. Al-Warid, M. E. Gompper

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Distribution Of The Eastern Spotted Skunk, Spilogale Putorius, In The Early Twentieth Century, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2017

Distribution Of The Eastern Spotted Skunk, Spilogale Putorius, In The Early Twentieth Century, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Bat Occupancy Estimates And Species Richness At Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Samuel Schratz, Virginie Rolland, Jason Phillips, Richard Crossett, David Richardson, Thomas S. Risch Jan 2017

Bat Occupancy Estimates And Species Richness At Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Samuel Schratz, Virginie Rolland, Jason Phillips, Richard Crossett, David Richardson, Thomas S. Risch

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Six bat species of special concern, threatened or endangered, may occur in one of Arkansas’ largest bottomland hardwood forests, the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR). However, inventory of bat species throughout the refuge has been lacking and management plans may not be adequate in promoting bat conservation. The objectives of this study were to inventory bat species in the CRNWR, and determine bat-habitat associations via occupancy estimates. From May–August 2014 and 2015, we mist-netted from sunset for 5 hours. We also deployed bioacoustic devices throughout 5 habitat types (cypress-tupelo [dominantly Taxodium distichum and Nyssa aquatica], emergent wetland, mature ...


New Records Of Parasites (Apicomplexa, Nematoda, Acari, Anoplura) From Rodents In Arkansas, M. B. Connior, L. A. Durden, Chris T. Mcallister, R. S. Seville, C. R. Bursey, Henry W. Robison Jan 2017

New Records Of Parasites (Apicomplexa, Nematoda, Acari, Anoplura) From Rodents In Arkansas, M. B. Connior, L. A. Durden, Chris T. Mcallister, R. S. Seville, C. R. Bursey, Henry W. Robison

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Survey Of Rodents Within Arkansas Game And Fish Commission Wildlife Management Areas, M. B. Connior, C. Renn Tumlison, D. P. Holland, J. L. Hunt, L. A. Durden, D. Blake Sasse Jan 2017

Survey Of Rodents Within Arkansas Game And Fish Commission Wildlife Management Areas, M. B. Connior, C. Renn Tumlison, D. P. Holland, J. L. Hunt, L. A. Durden, D. Blake Sasse

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Histology Of Rathke’S Glands In The Razor-Backed Musk Turtle, Sternotherus Carinatus (Chelonia: Kinosternidae), With Comments On Lamellar Bodies, S. E. Trauth Jan 2017

Histology Of Rathke’S Glands In The Razor-Backed Musk Turtle, Sternotherus Carinatus (Chelonia: Kinosternidae), With Comments On Lamellar Bodies, S. E. Trauth

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

I examined the histology and ultrastructure of Rathke’s glands in two adult male razor-backed musk turtles (Sternotherus carinatus) collected in northeastern Arkansas. This species possesses two pairs of Rathke’s glands that are embedded beneath marginal bones and are named according to their anatomical location (i.e., axillary and inguinal). These integumentary glands are similar anatomically to one another. Each gland is comprised of a single, highly vascularized secretory lobule, which is surrounded by a thin tunic of asymmetrically arranged, striated muscle. Two types of large secretory vacuoles characterize most of the holocrine cells produced by a relatively thin ...


A Description Of Variation In Fecundity Between Two Populations Of Wolf Spider Rabidosa Rabida In Searcy Arkansas Using Brood Size Measurements, Brandon Hogland, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug Jan 2017

A Description Of Variation In Fecundity Between Two Populations Of Wolf Spider Rabidosa Rabida In Searcy Arkansas Using Brood Size Measurements, Brandon Hogland, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Fecundity, a very important population variable, can be estimated by measuring the number of juveniles hatching out of individual egg sacs. Rabidosa rabida is a large wolf spider that is common in Arkansas and much of the eastern portion of North America. This study attempts to expand previous estimates of variation in fecundity made for this species by Reed and Nicholas in Mississippi. We hypothesized that a significant variation would be found in fecundity estimates between two populations in Arkansas. We also hypothesized that this variation would be similar to the variation reported in Mississippi. Two populations of R. rabida ...


A First Look At The Microbial Community Of Rabidosa Rabida, A Wolf Spider In Searcy, Arkansas, Patricia Rivera, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug Jan 2017

A First Look At The Microbial Community Of Rabidosa Rabida, A Wolf Spider In Searcy, Arkansas, Patricia Rivera, Ryan Stork, Amber Hug

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Many diverse animal models have been used to explore the interactions between host organisms and their microbiota. Increased understanding of microbe-host interactions could lead to improved healthcare and drug development. Spiders have venom, digestive fluid, and body fluid components that have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties that could lead to new and interesting host-microbe interactions. While studies have been published on interactions between bacteria affecting the immune function and behavior of spiders, the spider microbiome has not been established to date. Excreta and body swabs were collected from Rabidosa rabida, a wolf spider typically found on tall grass or ...


The Bovine Rumen Microbiome Revealed By Different Fractions Of Rumen Contents, Ashlee Breakstone, Jiangchao Zhao Jan 2017

The Bovine Rumen Microbiome Revealed By Different Fractions Of Rumen Contents, Ashlee Breakstone, Jiangchao Zhao

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The bovine rumen microbiota is very important in terms of animal functionality and digestion. The fermentative capability of the rumen provides means for the digestion of complex plant material that is indigestible by humans. The rumen microbiota is made up of billions of microorganisms, primarily bacteria, that digest and ferment feed into volatile fatty acids and bacterial protein for the animal’s energy and protein needs, respectively. Changes to the rumen microbiota can have a direct measure on animal growth, health, and performance. The possibility of productivity boosts in the cattle industry make the rumen microbiome a hot topic in ...


Cost-Benefit Analysis Of A Genetic Marker On Cow-Calf Operations Differentiated By Pasture And Breed, Josh C. Crystal, Michael P. Popp, Nathan P. Kemper, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr. Jan 2017

Cost-Benefit Analysis Of A Genetic Marker On Cow-Calf Operations Differentiated By Pasture And Breed, Josh C. Crystal, Michael P. Popp, Nathan P. Kemper, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr.

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Genetic sequencing in beef cattle (Bos taurus L.) is expected to aid producers with selecting breeding stock. Using data from experimental trials conducted with Angus, Brahman, and their reciprocal cross, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) P450 C994G marker expression was investigated for use in selecting genetics suited to grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. L.) compared to bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) pasture. The study is unique in the sense that actual cow-calf breeding failure rates (open cows were not culled) were tracked from 1991 to 1997 on herds that were bred to calf in spring and were either exposed ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, Avery B. Deaton, Laura Meyer, Jeremy Powell, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr. Jan 2017

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, Avery B. Deaton, Laura Meyer, Jeremy Powell, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr.

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Little is understood about how the diversity of genes, specifically the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2), are related to reproductive health and how this affects physical traits in cattle. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproductive health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during pregnancy. The objective of this research was to identify polymorphisms in the GR and CXCR2 genes and to associate genotypes between the ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Marketing Tips For Small-Scale, Local Honey Bee Keepers In Northwest Arkansas, Samuel L. Goll, Michael P. Popp, Jennie S. Popp, Donald C. Steinkraus Jan 2017

Marketing Tips For Small-Scale, Local Honey Bee Keepers In Northwest Arkansas, Samuel L. Goll, Michael P. Popp, Jennie S. Popp, Donald C. Steinkraus

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The objective of this thesis was to gain market information for beekeepers regarding different honey bee products and to provide information about economic feasibility when produced on a small, local scale. Since cost-of-production information about operating an apiary is widely available, the focus of this work was on gaining marketing knowledge. One of the objectives of the surveys was to develop a better sense of what potential resellers of honey bee products considered locally produced. Another objective was to determine preferences for honey bee product packaging as well as bee pollination services. Using that feedback, a marketing plan for different ...


Survey Of Nasal Mites (Acari: Rhinonyssidae, Ereynetidae, Turbinoptidae) In Birds From Three States In The United States, Alexis Danel Hilario Perez Dec 2016

Survey Of Nasal Mites (Acari: Rhinonyssidae, Ereynetidae, Turbinoptidae) In Birds From Three States In The United States, Alexis Danel Hilario Perez

Theses and Dissertations

Avian nasal mites are obligate endoparasites that spend their entire life in the respiratory system of birds. In North America, bird nasal mites are represented by different unrelated families in three different orders of mites: Rhinonyssidae (Mesostigmata), Ereynetidae (Prostigmata), and the Cytoditidae and Turbinoptidae (Astigmata). The most-diverse and most-abundant family of nasal mites is the Rhinonyssidae, in which mite species may have different levels of host specificity from host orders to families or even species level. Nasal mites in North America have been surveyed in different locations, such as studies ranging from the Gulf Coast of the US to Canada ...


Relationship Among Genetic And Physiological Biomarkers, And Horse Characteristics, Casey Orr Dec 2016

Relationship Among Genetic And Physiological Biomarkers, And Horse Characteristics, Casey Orr

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships among genetic and physiological biomarkers and phenotypic characteristics in horses. Three breeds (Quarter Horse, Thoroughbreds, Miniatures), and five genes of interest (leptin, ghrelin, cytochrome P450, glucocorticoid receptor, and lactate dehydrogenase) were the basis of the investigation. Genomic DNA was extracted from buffy coat samples of Quarter Horses (n = 21), Thoroughbreds (n = 26), and Miniatures (n = 34). Data were analyzed using MIXED MODEL procedures of SAS, with the main effects of breed and SNP genotype. Horse was the experimental unit, and dependent variables were classified as physical, cell differentials, and blood components ...


Associations Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Bovine Prolactin, Melatonin Receptor 1a, And Dopamine Receptor D2 Genes With Hair Coat Shedding Scores And Productivity Traits In Beef Cattle, Laura R. Meyer Aug 2016

Associations Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Bovine Prolactin, Melatonin Receptor 1a, And Dopamine Receptor D2 Genes With Hair Coat Shedding Scores And Productivity Traits In Beef Cattle, Laura R. Meyer

Theses and Dissertations

Calving rate is a qualitative trait regulated by several genes and is strongly affected by the environment. With the development of biotechnology and gene identification, scientists are able to determine which genes affect these productivity traits to improve accurate selection decisions. Prolactin (PRL) has been associated with reproductive traits, melatonin receptor 1a (MTNR1A) has been associated with meat quality traits, and the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene has been associated with hair coat score (HCS) in cattle. Our objective was to determine associations between mutations in the PRL, MTNR1A, and DRD2 genes and cow-calf profitability traits. Genomic DNA was extracted ...