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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Physico Chemical, Azhagu Raj Ramakrishnan Oct 2015

Physico Chemical, Azhagu Raj Ramakrishnan

Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan

No abstract provided.


High Prevalence Of Leucocytozoon Parasites In Nestling Northern Goshawks (Accipiter Gentilis) In The Northern Great Basin, U.S.A., Michelle I. Jeffries, Robert A. Miller, Michelle D. Laskowski, Jay D. Carlisle Sep 2015

High Prevalence Of Leucocytozoon Parasites In Nestling Northern Goshawks (Accipiter Gentilis) In The Northern Great Basin, U.S.A., Michelle I. Jeffries, Robert A. Miller, Michelle D. Laskowski, Jay D. Carlisle

Robert Miller

The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is currently listed as a sensitive species by the U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Previous research in our study area, the South Hills of the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest, Idaho, identified possible signs of parasite infections among the banded adult and nestling goshawks, which could influence their survival and breeding success. Therefore, we sought to quantify the prevalence and intensity of Leucocytozoon parasites among a sample of nestling goshawks in the South Hills during the 2012 breeding season. We sampled 27 nestlings from 12 nests for Leucocytozoon parasites by examining ...


Human-Wildlife Conflict-Causes, Consequences And Mitigation Measures With Special Reference To Kashmir, Aadil Habib, Ishfaq Nazir, Mustahson F. Fazili, Bilal A. Bhat Feb 2015

Human-Wildlife Conflict-Causes, Consequences And Mitigation Measures With Special Reference To Kashmir, Aadil Habib, Ishfaq Nazir, Mustahson F. Fazili, Bilal A. Bhat

JOZS JOURNAL

The rising levels of man-animal conflicts at various locations of Kashmir valley in India are due to close proximity between humans and wild carnivores particularly leopard and black bear. The data regarding human injuries and mortalities caused during conflicts from 2010 to 2012 was collected from Shere Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) Soura, Srinagar and its associated medical college hospital at Bemina Srinagar. The data indicates rising levels of man-carnivore conflicts in Kashmir. The leopard and Asiatic black bear were mainly involved in causing several forms of conflict. The human population growth and expansion, habitat degradation and fragmentation, land ...


Annual Variation In Autumn Migration Phenology And Energetic Condition At A Stopover Site In The Western United States, Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Neil Paprocki, Gregory S. Kaltenecker, Julie A. Heath Jan 2015

Annual Variation In Autumn Migration Phenology And Energetic Condition At A Stopover Site In The Western United States, Robert A. Miller, Jay D. Carlisle, Neil Paprocki, Gregory S. Kaltenecker, Julie A. Heath

Robert Miller

Climate change is having a dramatic effect on many migratory species. Changes in climate may lead to changes in food availability or other proximate cues that affect migratory behavior. We used 13 years (2000–2012) of data on songbird banding and raptor migration counts and captures during autumn migration in the intermountain West to evaluate whether regional temperature or precipitation or hemispheric climate indices predicted autumn migratory timing and energetic condition. We examined overall trends and evaluated the effects of diet and migratory distance on phenology and conditional responses. For the 13-year study period, no temperature, precipitation, or climate index ...


Sociality Increases Juvenile Survival After A Catastrophic Event In The Feral Horse (Equus Caballus), Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein Jan 2015

Sociality Increases Juvenile Survival After A Catastrophic Event In The Feral Horse (Equus Caballus), Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Cassandra M.V. Nuñez

In several social species, adult associations have been linked to individual fitness. Less is known about offspring associations and the mechanisms by which they may influence fitness. We investigate the effects of sociality on juvenile survival in feral horses (Equus caballus). We use foal degree (number of associates) and foal weight (number of interactions) to assess sociality’s importance to foal survival of a catastrophic event, the gathering and removal of 40% of the horse population. We found that 1) foal degree was a better predictor of foal survival than was foal weight; 2) following the gather, foals with access ...


Geographic Segregation And Evidence Of Density-Dependent Changes In Sex Ratios In An Abundant Colonial Waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. Devault, Alban Guillaumet, Scott C. Barras Dec 2014

Geographic Segregation And Evidence Of Density-Dependent Changes In Sex Ratios In An Abundant Colonial Waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. Devault, Alban Guillaumet, Scott C. Barras

Brian S Dorr

Demographic information, such as geographic segregation of sexes and sex ratio data, is needed to develop, model and evaluate conservation and management strategies for wildlife. A variety of physiological, behavioral and environmental factors can influence segregation of sexes and sex ratios, many of which originate with density- dependent processes. Departure from 50:50 sex ratios of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) collected during control efforts in breeding and wintering areas across their eastern range of the USA were evaluated using using a Z-test as well as Stouffer’s weighted Z-tests. In addition, a specifically-designed randomization test was used to evaluate density-dependent ...


Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella Brevirostris) Is Death On Sonadia Island, Cox’S Bazar, Bangladesh, Md.Muzammel Hossain, Mohammad Abdul Baki Apr 2014

Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella Brevirostris) Is Death On Sonadia Island, Cox’S Bazar, Bangladesh, Md.Muzammel Hossain, Mohammad Abdul Baki

Md.Muzammel Hossain

Sonadia, about with an area of 9 square km and it’s the north–west of Cox’s Bazar. Survey was conducted from 7 am to 5 pm on March 20, 2014. Sonadia Island located between 21°28'26.92"N, 91°55'53.74"E and 21°32'49.47"N, 91°50'38.45"E. One dead Irrawaddy dolphin was found on Sonadia Island, Cox’s bazar which near Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh during faunal survey.


Population Dynamics Of Spiders In Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Campus, Sivakasi, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India, Jeyaparvathi S Jan 2014

Population Dynamics Of Spiders In Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Campus, Sivakasi, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India, Jeyaparvathi S

JOZS JOURNAL

Spiders play an important role in regulating insect pests in the agricultural ecosystem. There are a large number of species, many of them with high population densities. A survey was conducted in the Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College campus from January, 2011 - March, 2011. 29 individuals were collected representing 11 families and 21 genera. From these, 25 species were present throughout the campus; however, only 5 of these were taken in the ground, they are the ground dwellers. Peucetia viridana (Stolizcka), Oxyopes hindostanicus (Tikader), Lycosa pseudoannulata (Bosenberg) and Plexippus petersi, were common. P. viridana was the dominant species followed by ...


Surveillance Of Feral Swine For Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In The Usa And Host-Related Factors Associated With Infection, John A. Baroch Jan 2014

Surveillance Of Feral Swine For Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In The Usa And Host-Related Factors Associated With Infection, John A. Baroch

John A Baroch

No abstract provided.


A Free-Ranging, Feral Mare Equus Caballus Affords Similar Maternal Care To Her Genetic And Adopted Offspring, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein Nov 2013

A Free-Ranging, Feral Mare Equus Caballus Affords Similar Maternal Care To Her Genetic And Adopted Offspring, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Cassandra M.V. Nuñez

Adoption of nongenetic offspring occurs in a variety of species but is rare in equids. We report a case of adoption by a free-ranging, feral mare Equus caballus and compare the maternal care received by her genetic offspring (born 1995) to that of her adopted offspring (born 1996) for the first 30 weeks of development. We compare five measures of care: (1) total time spent suckling, (2) mare aggression during suckling, (3) number of mare-terminated suckling bouts, (4) contact maintenance, and (5) mare-foal distance. For most behaviors, we detected no difference in the mare’s treatment of the two foals ...


A Study Of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Modeling Of Nonstationary Time Series Data With Time-Dependent Spectra, Josue G. Martinez, Kirsten M. Bohn, Raymond J. Carroll, Jeffrey S. Morris Feb 2013

A Study Of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Modeling Of Nonstationary Time Series Data With Time-Dependent Spectra, Josue G. Martinez, Kirsten M. Bohn, Raymond J. Carroll, Jeffrey S. Morris

Jeffrey S. Morris

We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to ...


Acute Toxicity Of Mercury And Chromium To Clarias Batrachus (Linn), Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan Jan 2011

Acute Toxicity Of Mercury And Chromium To Clarias Batrachus (Linn), Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan

Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan

Pollution of the aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. In the present study, Clarias batrachus was exposed to Mercury and Chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of mercury to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 1.4 ppm, 1.2 ppm, 1.0 ppm and 0.8 ppm respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of chromium to C. batrachus for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure were 120 ppm, 115 ppm, 110 ppm and 102 ppm respectively. The acute toxicity levels were ...


Immunocontraception In Wild Horses (Equus Caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond The Normal Breeding Season, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein Oct 2010

Immunocontraception In Wild Horses (Equus Caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond The Normal Breeding Season, Cassandra M.V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Cassandra M.V. Nuñez

Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non-breeding season. To determine if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus) living on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina for 4 years pre- and 8 years post-contraception management with PZP (pre-contraception, n = 65 births from 45 mares; post-contraception, n = 97 births from 46 mares). Gestation lasts approximately ...


New Models Of Emergence Traps For Endophytic Egg Parasitoids Capture, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss Jan 2009

New Models Of Emergence Traps For Endophytic Egg Parasitoids Capture, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss

Rodrigo Souza Santos RSS

For strain selection studies of natural enemies from the field, studies of behavior or even of taxonomy, capture of alive insects are of great importance. One alternative for obtaining adult parasitoids (Hymenoptera) is the use of emergency traps. Therefore, the objective of this work was to propose two models of emergency traps (traps like “box” and “bottle”), for obtaining alive endophytic egg parasitoids. The two models proposed were efficient in the capture of alive parasitoids, however a larger capture of specimens was observed in the “box” trap in relation to the e “bottle”, due to larger folioles storage inside the ...


Description Of New Species Of Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) From Brazil, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss Jan 2009

Description Of New Species Of Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) From Brazil, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss

Rodrigo Souza Santos RSS

The examination of entomological collections of cicadas of several Brazilian institutions revealed three undescribed species in the genus Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli i.e., F. dolosa sp.n., F. carmenae sp.n. and F. rosabasalae sp.n. They are described and illustrated based on the male genitalia, the right anterior femur and the operculum.


Demographics Of A Geographically-Isolated Population Of Threatened Salamander (Caudata: Ambystomatidae) In Central Illinois, Stephen J. Mullin, Sarabeth Klueh Jan 2009

Demographics Of A Geographically-Isolated Population Of Threatened Salamander (Caudata: Ambystomatidae) In Central Illinois, Stephen J. Mullin, Sarabeth Klueh

Stephen J. Mullin

Amphibian populations that use small isolated wetlands are often small in size, susceptible to stochastic extinction processes, and have little to no contact with other populations. One can ascertain the persistence of such populations only by obtaining data that allow the prediction of future changes in population’s size, and propensity to achieve a sustainable number of individuals. The number of metamorphosing larvae leaving a pond predicts the viability of a salamander population, and thus, the number recruited into the terrestrial adult population. The Jefferson Salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, is a listed threatened species in Illinois, occurring at fewer than 15 ...


Occurrence Of Fidicinoides Pauliensis Boulard & Martinelli, 1996 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) In Coffee Plant In Tapiratiba, Sp, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss Jan 2007

Occurrence Of Fidicinoides Pauliensis Boulard & Martinelli, 1996 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) In Coffee Plant In Tapiratiba, Sp, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss

Rodrigo Souza Santos RSS

This paper presents the first register of Fidicinoides pauliensis Boulard & Martinelli, 1996 in coffee plant in the municipality of Tapiratiba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The characterization and illustrations of the species are presented.


Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

It is believed that mammalian chemosensory initants are not aver­ sive to birds and vice versa. Nevertheless, few avian repellents have been tested against mammals. For that reason, we evaluated the efficacy of 1.0% w/v methyl anthranilate, orthoaminoacetophenone, 2-amino-4' ,5 '-methoxy­ acetophenone, 2-methoxyacetophenone, and veratryl amine as mouse repel­ lents in 3-hr no-choice drinking tests. Relative to ingestion of plain water, all test substances significantly reduced (P < 0.05) intake. Orthoaminoaceto­phenone was the most effective repellent, with intake reduced to levels sta­tistically indistinguishable from zero.


Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

At least some anthranilates (e.g., methyl anthranilate), and ace­ tophenones (e.g., orthoaminoacetophenone) are aversive to mice as well as to birds. Here we systematically examined nine acetophenone isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) previously tested as drinking and feeding repellents for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). All nine substances reduced intake by mice in single-bottle tests. When molecular characteristics were examined, amino group reactivity and, to a lesser extent, isomeric position (i.e., resonance), were related to the strength of the avoid­ ance response. Unlike effective avian repellents, the presence of intramo lecular hydrogen bonds did ...


Thermal Constraints On Foraging Activity Of Adult Starlings, Larry Clark Jan 1987

Thermal Constraints On Foraging Activity Of Adult Starlings, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The operative temperature of the environment was estimated for starlings using hollow, unheated taxidermic mounts. On average, adults foraging in full sun were characterized by shorter foraging bouts than those adults foraging in full shade. Simultaneous observations of air temperature, operative temperature, and the foraging duration of adults indicated that air temperature was a poor predictor of the maximum length of a foraging bout. The operative temperature of the environment was not correlated to the maximum and mean length of foraging bouts for temperatures below 31.5 ~ C, but was negatively related to maximum and mean foraging duration for values ...


Use Of Nest Material As Insecticidal And Anti-Pathogenic Agents By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason Jan 1985

Use Of Nest Material As Insecticidal And Anti-Pathogenic Agents By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Passerine birds that reuse nest sites face an increased parasite and pathogen load. They also are more likely to use fresh green vegetation during nest construction. The present results demonstrate that at least one passerine, the European Starling: (a) selects a small subset of available plant species for inclusion in nest material; and (b) chooses plants whose volatiles are more likely to inhibit arthropod hatching and bacterial growth relative to a random subset of available vegetation. The results also show that preferred plants possess greater numbers of mono- and sesqueterpenes at higher concentrations relative to a random subset of available ...


Consequences Of Homeothermic Capacity Of Nestlings On Parental Care In The European Starling, Larry Clark Jan 1984

Consequences Of Homeothermic Capacity Of Nestlings On Parental Care In The European Starling, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The homeothermic capacity of chicks varied as a function of brood size, age, and air temperature. Commitment to rooding by parents also varied as a function of brood size, age of the young brooded, and prevailing air temperature. It was experimentally determined that parents altered their brooding commitment in direct response to the achieved mean homeothermic capacity of the brood rather than energy demands of the brood per se. Because larger broods achieved a given level of homeothermic capacity earlier than smaller broods, parents spent less time brooding larger broods. This "freed" time represented an increase in potential foraging time ...


Nest Site Selection By The Red-Tailed Tropicbird, Larry Clark, Robert Ricklefs, Ralph Schrieber Jan 1983

Nest Site Selection By The Red-Tailed Tropicbird, Larry Clark, Robert Ricklefs, Ralph Schrieber

Larry Clark

-Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nest under shrubs in loosely associated groups on Christmas Island, Central Pacific Ocean. Aggressive interactions among adults at nest sites are high; yet, large areas of superficially similar habitat contain no tropicbird nests at all. We compared physiognomic features of nest sites with those of two sets of randomly generated "nest sites" by discriminant function analysis. Of those variables measured, the number of stems within a nest space and the amount of peripheral cover influenced the tropicbirds' choice of nest sites. Differences among localities existed. Areas where tropicbirds nested had shrubs with few stems and more ...


Marine Molluscs Of The Capricorn And Bunker Groups, Queensland, Robert Cribb Jan 1982

Marine Molluscs Of The Capricorn And Bunker Groups, Queensland, Robert Cribb

Robert Cribb

Lists 233 mollusc species collected from the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia