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Zoology

Portland State University

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Whence And Whither: Acoustic Variability And Biogeography Of Tarsiers In North Sulawesi, Olivia Clare Kulander Mar 2018

Whence And Whither: Acoustic Variability And Biogeography Of Tarsiers In North Sulawesi, Olivia Clare Kulander

Dissertations and Theses

The morning duet calls of eastern tarsiers (Tarsius spp.) in North Sulawesi were recorded and analyzed to examine the effects of geography and geologic history on their call structure. Tarsius species exhibit interspecifically variable duet calls shown to correlate with species differentiation and distribution. They are distributed across Sulawesi, a biogeographically complex island in the Indonesian archipelago, where tectonic activity and multiple glaciations during the Pleistocene generated and modified barriers to their dispersal and gene flow.

Recordings were made at ten locations from November of 2012 through June of 2014. Two locations were categorized as mainland, while eight island locations ...


Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, John A. Christy, Eleanor P. Gaines, Lindsey Wise, Cameron Pahl, Kathy Howell Aug 2016

Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, John A. Christy, Eleanor P. Gaines, Lindsey Wise, Cameron Pahl, Kathy Howell

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Extinction is a natural process. Today, however, plant and animal species are disappearing world-wide at an accelerated pace. Based on current trends, half of the species on earth will be extinct within the next 100 years. The major reasons for this are human caused changes to the environment, which continue to increase - in Oregon and throughout the world.

Once lost, a species can never be recovered, and there is no way of knowing how useful it may have been. We do know that human beings and many of their industries depend on plant and animal products. About 50% of all ...


Recumbence Behavior In Zoo Elephants: Determination Of Patterns And Frequency Of Recumbent Rest And Associated Environmental And Social Factors, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Jeff Rushen, Anne-Marie De Passillé, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson Jul 2016

Recumbence Behavior In Zoo Elephants: Determination Of Patterns And Frequency Of Recumbent Rest And Associated Environmental And Social Factors, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Jeff Rushen, Anne-Marie De Passillé, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44) and Asian (n = 28)elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day ...


Walking Behavior Of Zoo Elephants: Associations Between Gps-Measured Daily Walking Distances And Environmental Factors, Social Factors, And Welfare Indicators, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson Jul 2016

Walking Behavior Of Zoo Elephants: Associations Between Gps-Measured Daily Walking Distances And Environmental Factors, Social Factors, And Welfare Indicators, Matthew Robert Holdgate, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan, Lance J. Miller, Josesph Soltis, Jeff Andrews, David J. Shepherdson

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor ...


Phenotypic Variation In The Model Organism, Danio Rerio, Rachel D. Champaigne, Kim H. Brown May 2014

Phenotypic Variation In The Model Organism, Danio Rerio, Rachel D. Champaigne, Kim H. Brown

Student Research Symposium

Model organisms are used to study evolutionary conserved traits. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used a model organism because of their highly fecundity, external fertilization, and robust nature, making them highly adaptable to environmental and genetic variation. In an effort to limit data variation that lies outside of topic interest, phenotypic measures of variation must be performed, understood, and taken into consideration for future studies. A common measurement of phenotypic variation in fish is in the maximum (Ucrit) swimming speeds. Inter and intra-strain variation in zebrafish Ucrit swimming speeds will be observed in a swim tunnel. Baseline values will be recorded ...


Small Tidal Channels Improve Foraging Opportunities For Calidris Shorebirds, Aileen K. Miller, Catherine E. De Rivera Jan 2014

Small Tidal Channels Improve Foraging Opportunities For Calidris Shorebirds, Aileen K. Miller, Catherine E. De Rivera

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Estuarine intertidal habitats are heterogeneous, therefore migratory shorebirds are expected to forage in microhabitats where they can maximize their energy intake. Identifying proximate factors that migratory shorebirds use to accept or reject a particular habitat patch will help land managers make conservation and restoration decisions that provide the greatest benefits to shorebird populations during migration, a period of intense energy usage. We examined whether small semipermanent tidal channels were preferentially used by foraging Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and Dunlins (C. alpina) during a spring migratory stopover in Bandon Marsh, an Oregon, USA, estuary. Further, we tested alternative hypotheses about how ...


Room To Roam: Using Gps To Determine The Effect Of Exhibit Size And Herd Size On Zoo Elephant Movement, Matthew Holdgate, Deborah A. Duffield, David J. Shepherdson May 2013

Room To Roam: Using Gps To Determine The Effect Of Exhibit Size And Herd Size On Zoo Elephant Movement, Matthew Holdgate, Deborah A. Duffield, David J. Shepherdson

Student Research Symposium

Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta spp.) are particularly susceptible to welfare concerns in zoological institutions due to their high intelligence, complex social structures, and sheer size. Zoo elephants are also limited by the space available to them, and the resulting lack of exercise may contribute to a host of health issues, including obesity and foot disease. Zoos rely largely on changes to the exhibit size and herd size to promote elephant movement, yet the effect of these factors on movement is unknown. Our study used GPS-equipped anklets to track the movement of 80 elephants at 43 zoos ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Nest Reuse And Nest Site Selection In An Open-Cup Nesting Passerine, Sarah A. Cancellieri Mar 2013

An Experimental Investigation Of Nest Reuse And Nest Site Selection In An Open-Cup Nesting Passerine, Sarah A. Cancellieri

Dissertations and Theses

Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus) breed from coast to coast in North America and build open-cup nests in trees. They have been extensively studied across most of their range and have only on occasion been documented to reuse a nest from a previous season. However, at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR), located in southeastern Oregon, ~10 % of female Eastern Kingbirds reuse old nests of mainly American Robins (Turdus migratorius). In an attempt to address why nest reuse is so common at MNWR, I used artificial nests to evaluate two hypotheses as to why nest reuse is common in this breeding population ...


Asian Primate Species Richness Correlates With Rainfall, Yi-Chen Wang, Amrita Srivathsan, Chen-Chieh Feng, Agus Salim, Myron Shekelle Jan 2013

Asian Primate Species Richness Correlates With Rainfall, Yi-Chen Wang, Amrita Srivathsan, Chen-Chieh Feng, Agus Salim, Myron Shekelle

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Previous studies of meta-analyses found significantly positive correlations between primate species richness and rainfall for Africa, Madagascar and the Neotropics, with the exception of Asia, leaving the open question whether that anomaly is the result of sampling bias, biogeography, or some other factor. This study re-examines the question using modelled data, with primate species richness data from the Southeast Asian Mammals Databank and rainfall data from the Climatic Research Unit. Data processing with Geographical Information Systems resulted in 390 sample points. Reduced major axis and ordinary least squares regressions were employed to examine the relationship for six regions, including the ...


Snowy Plover Buried Alive By Wind-Blown Sand, J. Daniel Farrar, Adam A. Kotaich, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein, Eleanor P. Gaines Jan 2012

Snowy Plover Buried Alive By Wind-Blown Sand, J. Daniel Farrar, Adam A. Kotaich, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein, Eleanor P. Gaines

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Brief description of an encounter with a Snowy Plover discovered at a nest site near the mouth of Tahkenitch Creek in Douglas County, Oregon. The plover was buried up to its neck in sand, presumably caused by high winds. The article describes the authors' efforts to resuscitate the plover.


Externally-Expressed Fluorescence Across Sexes, Life Stages, And Species Of Spiders, Erin Brandt Jan 2012

Externally-Expressed Fluorescence Across Sexes, Life Stages, And Species Of Spiders, Erin Brandt

Dissertations and Theses

Although all spiders possess fluorophores in their hemolymph, the expression of external fluorescence is much more restricted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in externally-expressed fluorescence between sexes, life stages, and species of spiders. To approach this question, we developed novel instrumentation to capture fluorescence with photographs of our specimens. We paired these fluorescence measurements with spectrometer measurements to attempt to determine the role that fluorescence plays in the overall coloration in spiders. The study was divided into four sections. First, we examined how fluorescence varies in sexes and life stages in Misumena vatia, an ambush predator ...


Post-Occupancy Evaluation At The Zoo: Behavioral And Hormonal Indicators Of Welfare In Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus Abelii), Leigha Tingey Jan 2012

Post-Occupancy Evaluation At The Zoo: Behavioral And Hormonal Indicators Of Welfare In Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus Abelii), Leigha Tingey

Dissertations and Theses

An increased understanding of species-specific behavioral needs has lead zoos to focus on providing more naturalistic and stimulating environments. Scientific assessments of how changes in habitat affect animal behavior are necessary in improving overall animal welfare. This study examined the move of three orangutans housed at the Oregon Zoo into a new and innovative exhibit. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE), which offers systematic information regarding the success or failure of the built environment (Maple & Finlay, 1987), was utilized to effectively evaluate the results of the move. The collection of behavioral data and adrenal activity monitoring through collection of non-invasive saliva, urine and ...


Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Lindsey Koepke, John A. Christy, Erin Doyle Oct 2010

Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Lindsey Koepke, John A. Christy, Erin Doyle

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Extinction is a natural process. Today, however, plant and animal species are disappearing world-wide at an accelerated pace. Based on current trends, half of the species on earth will be extinct within the next 100 years. The major cause of this phenomenon is human caused changes to the environment, which continue to increase - in Oregon and throughout the world.

Once lost, a species can never be recovered, and there is no way of knowing how useful it may have been. We do know that human beings and many of their industries depend on plant and animal products. About 50% of ...


Mangrove-Exported Nutrient Incorporation By Sessile Coral Reef Invertebrates, Elise F. Granek, Jana E. Compton, Donald L. Phillips Apr 2009

Mangrove-Exported Nutrient Incorporation By Sessile Coral Reef Invertebrates, Elise F. Granek, Jana E. Compton, Donald L. Phillips

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Coastal mangrove forests were historically considered as a source of organic matter (OM) for adjacent marine systems due to high net primary production; yet recent research suggesting little uptake through the food web because of low nutritional quality, challenges the concept of trophic linkage between mangrove forests and coral reefs. To examine the importance of mangrove forests to coral reef nutrient availability, we examined sessile reef-forming invertebrate consumers including hard corals, sponges, a bivalve mollusc, polychaete annelid and tunicate, and potential sources of OM (decaying mangrove leaves, microalgae, macroalgae, and seagrass) in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Using stable isotope analyses ...


Engaging Recreational Fishers In Management And Conservation: Global Case Studies, Elise F. Granek, Elizabeth M.P. Madin, M. A. Brown, Will F. Figueira, Darren S. Cameron, Zeb Hogan, Gerry Kristianson, Pierre De Villiers, Jack E. Williams, John R. Post, S. Zahn, R. Arlinghaus Jan 2008

Engaging Recreational Fishers In Management And Conservation: Global Case Studies, Elise F. Granek, Elizabeth M.P. Madin, M. A. Brown, Will F. Figueira, Darren S. Cameron, Zeb Hogan, Gerry Kristianson, Pierre De Villiers, Jack E. Williams, John R. Post, S. Zahn, R. Arlinghaus

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Globally, the number of recreational fishers is sizeable and increasing in many countries. Associated with this trend is the potential for negative impacts on fish stocks through exploitation or management measures such as stocking and introduction of non-native fishes. Nevertheless, recreational fishers can be instrumental in successful fisheries conservation through active involvement in, or initiation of, conservation projects to reduce both direct and external stressors contributing to fishery declines. Understanding fishers’ concerns for sustained access to the resource and developing methods for their meaningful participation can have positive impacts on conservation efforts. We examined a suite of case studies that ...


Habitat And Distribution Of The Ruffed Lemur, "Varecia", North Of The Bay Of Antongil In Northeastern Madagascar, Evon R. Hekkala, Marius Rakotondratsima, Natalie Vasey Jan 2007

Habitat And Distribution Of The Ruffed Lemur, "Varecia", North Of The Bay Of Antongil In Northeastern Madagascar, Evon R. Hekkala, Marius Rakotondratsima, Natalie Vasey

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Here we present information on the conservation status of ruffed lemurs (Varecia) north of the Bay of Antongil in northeastern Madagascar. Two contiguous protected areas were recently established that traverse this region via blocks of forest connected by narrow forest corridors: the Masoala National Park, which expands further to the east, and the Makira Protected Area, which expands further to the west and northwest. The two extant ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata and V. rubra, overlapped in this region historically and, on rare occasions, hybridized. As such, land north of the Bay of Antongil is a critical part of the ruffed ...


Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Fern Mcarthur, Kuuipo Walsh, Eric Scheuering, John A. Christy, Jon Hak, Claudine Tobalske, Annie Weiland, Theresa Koloszar, Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center May 2004

Rare, Threatened And Endangered Species Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Fern Mcarthur, Kuuipo Walsh, Eric Scheuering, John A. Christy, Jon Hak, Claudine Tobalske, Annie Weiland, Theresa Koloszar, Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Extinction is a natural process. Today, however, plant and animal species are disappearing world-wide at an accelerated pace. Based on current trends, half of the species on earth will be extinct within the next 100 years. The major cause of this phenomenon is large-scale destruction of native habitats, which has increased since European settlement began in the mid 1800's - in Oregon and throughout the New World.

Once lost, a species can never be recovered, and there is no way of knowing how useful it may have been. We do know that human beings and many of their industries depend ...


Rare, Threatened And Endangered Plants And Animals Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Ken Popper, Mark A. Stern, Eric Scheuering, John A. Christy, Mary Finnerty, Jon Hak, Anthony A. Tovar, Michael Murray, Claudine Tobalske, Oregon Natural Heritage Program Feb 2001

Rare, Threatened And Endangered Plants And Animals Of Oregon, James S. Kagan, Sue Vrilakas, Eleanor P. Gaines, Cliff Alton, Ken Popper, Mark A. Stern, Eric Scheuering, John A. Christy, Mary Finnerty, Jon Hak, Anthony A. Tovar, Michael Murray, Claudine Tobalske, Oregon Natural Heritage Program

Institute for Natural Resources Publications

Extinction is a natural process. Today, however, plant and animal species are disappearing world-wide at an accelerated pace. Based on current trends, half of the species on earth will be extinct within the next 100 years. The major cause of this phenomenon is large-scale destruction of native habitats, which has increased since European settlement began in the mid 1800's - in Oregon and throughout the New World.

Once lost, a species can never be recovered, and there is no way of knowing how useful it may have been. We do know that human beings and many of their industries depend ...


Captive Environmental Influences On Behavior In Zoo Drills And Mandrills (Mandrillus), A Threatened Genus Of Primate, Erik Terdal Jan 1996

Captive Environmental Influences On Behavior In Zoo Drills And Mandrills (Mandrillus), A Threatened Genus Of Primate, Erik Terdal

Dissertations and Theses

Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus) are an endangered species of African monkey (Cercopithecidae), and their sole congener the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is vulnerable to extinction. Both species are threatened in the wild by deforestation and hunting.

Drills have a poor record of captive reproduction. Many individuals appear to have behavioral deficiencies which interfere with reproduction. Thus, the zoo population of drills does not serve as a “hedge” against the species’ total extinction: drills are endangered in captivity as well as in the wild. Mandrills, by contrast, reproduce well in captivity. Information on the behavior of mandrills in captivity may help zoo managers ...


The Life Cycle Of Lissorchis Heterorchis, Macy And Krygier (1969), Brendan P. H. Onyejekwe Jan 1972

The Life Cycle Of Lissorchis Heterorchis, Macy And Krygier (1969), Brendan P. H. Onyejekwe

Dissertations and Theses

Many Flumenicola virens (Lea) collected from Crystal Springs Creek and Tualatin River, Portland, Oregon, were found to shed large numbers of a species of microcercous cercariae containing refractile granules. They resembled the cercariae of Triganodistomum mutabile (=Lissorchis mutabile Cort, 1918 as described by Wallace (1939), and subsequent experiments proved that they were the larval stages of what was described by Macy and Krygier (1969), as Lissorchis heterorchis. Encystment of these cercariae was induced experimentally in uninfected adult brown planarians collected partly from Crystal Springs Creek and partly from Carolina Biological Research Station in Gladstone, Portland, Oregon. Adult flukes were obtained ...


A Taxonomic Study Of Two Nominal Subspecies Of Pikas (Ochotona Princeps) In The Cascade Mountains Of Oregon, Richard M. Coots Jan 1972

A Taxonomic Study Of Two Nominal Subspecies Of Pikas (Ochotona Princeps) In The Cascade Mountains Of Oregon, Richard M. Coots

Dissertations and Theses

Pikas from four colonies in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon were examined. Two colonies were chosen from within the geographical distribution of two nominal subspecies. A discriminate analysis of morphological measurements taken from the specimens showed that each colony could be distinguished from each other. Each colony studied showed more intra-colony similarity than inter-colony similarity regardless of distance separating the colonies or subspecies designations. The results indicate that the validity of subspecies designations for this species can be questioned.