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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Biological And Abiotic Factors Influencing Cetacean Mass Strandings In The Northeastern United States, Octavia Williams May 2018

Biological And Abiotic Factors Influencing Cetacean Mass Strandings In The Northeastern United States, Octavia Williams

HCNSO Student Capstones

Marine mammal strandings are frequent occurrences along many coastal areas around the world. The significance of stranded cetaceans has been of interest since around 300 B.C. when philosophers, like Aristotle, pondered why marine mammals, including whales, dolphins and porpoise beach themselves; and famous authors, like Henry David Thoreau, whose fascination in mammal strandings lead him to write a book about these mass occurrences off the coast of Cape Cod. Numerous hypothetical theories have been developed to explain these mass stranding phenomena. Though the causes of mass strandings remain unresolved, recent investigations suggest contributing factors could include environmental elements. Less ...


Trophic Ecology And Parasitism Of A Mesopelagic Fish Assemblage, Matthew Woodstock May 2018

Trophic Ecology And Parasitism Of A Mesopelagic Fish Assemblage, Matthew Woodstock

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Mesopelagic (open ocean, 200-1000 m depth) fishes are important consumers of zooplankton and are prey of oceanic predators. Some mesopelagic fishes (e.g., myctophids and stomiids) undertake a diel vertical migration where they ascend to the near-surface waters during the night to feed and descend into the depths during the day to avoid predators. Other mesopelagic fishes (e.g., Sternoptyx spp.) do not vertically migrate and remain at deep depths throughout the day. While in the epipelagic zone (surface – 200 m depth), vertically migrating fishes become prey to upper-trophic level predators, such as: tunas and billfishes. Benthic fishes (e.g ...


Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling Jan 2018

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling

Biology Faculty Articles

A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling. The anal microbiome was sequenced using metabarcoding in more than 50 ...


Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Introduced Nile Monitor (Varanus Niloticus) In Florida: Forecasting Presence And Population Expansion Using Computational Geographic Information Systems, Noah G. Cohen Nov 2017

Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Introduced Nile Monitor (Varanus Niloticus) In Florida: Forecasting Presence And Population Expansion Using Computational Geographic Information Systems, Noah G. Cohen

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) is a large, carnivorous lizard that has become a notorious invasive species in Florida, USA. Initially released in the 1980s from the pet trade, the species has since established at least three breeding populations and spread throughout much of southern Florida. While current control efforts have failed to eradicate V. niloticus, it is important to attain a better understanding of its invasive dynamics to guide and inform better control strategies. In this study, available georeferenced records of V. niloticus in Florida were compiled and linked to a habitat classification map to evaluate ecotype preferences. Factored ...


Genomic Legacy Of The African Cheetah, Acinonyx Jubatus, Pavel Dobrynin, Shiping Liu, Gaik Tamazian, Zijun Xiong, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Ksenia Krasheninnikova, Sergey Kliver, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Warren E. Johnson, Lukas F. K. Kuderna, Raquel Garcia-Perez, Marc De Manuel, Ricardo Godinez, Aleksey Komissarov, Alexey Makunin, Vladimir Brukhin, Weilin Qiu, Long Zhou, Fang Li, Jian Yi, Carlos A. Driscoll, Agostinho Antunes, T. K. Oleksyk, Eduardo Eizirik, Polina Perelman, Melody E. Roelke, David E. Wildt, Mark Diekhans, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Laurie Marker, Jong Bhak, Jun Wang, Guojie Zhang, Stephen J. O'Brien Dec 2015

Genomic Legacy Of The African Cheetah, Acinonyx Jubatus, Pavel Dobrynin, Shiping Liu, Gaik Tamazian, Zijun Xiong, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Ksenia Krasheninnikova, Sergey Kliver, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Warren E. Johnson, Lukas F. K. Kuderna, Raquel Garcia-Perez, Marc De Manuel, Ricardo Godinez, Aleksey Komissarov, Alexey Makunin, Vladimir Brukhin, Weilin Qiu, Long Zhou, Fang Li, Jian Yi, Carlos A. Driscoll, Agostinho Antunes, T. K. Oleksyk, Eduardo Eizirik, Polina Perelman, Melody E. Roelke, David E. Wildt, Mark Diekhans, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Laurie Marker, Jong Bhak, Jun Wang, Guojie Zhang, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

Patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations.

Results

Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs. Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ...


Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes Oct 2015

Gene Loss, Adaptive Evolution And The Co-Evolution Of Plumage Coloration Genes With Opsins In Birds, Rui Borges, Imran Khan, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

Background: The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems.

Results: We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were ...


Recurrent Evolution Of Melanism In South American Felids, Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh, Eduardo Eizirik Feb 2015

Recurrent Evolution Of Melanism In South American Felids, Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh, Eduardo Eizirik

Biology Faculty Articles

Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To ...


Annotated Features Of Domestic Cat – Felis Catus Genome, Gaik Tamazian, Serguei Simonov, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, Anton Logachev, Aleksey Komissarov, Andrey Shevchenko, Vladimir Brukhin, Nikolay Cherkasov, Anton Svitin, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Joan Pontius, Carlos A. Driscoll, Kevin Blackistone, Cristina Barr, David Goldman, Agostinho Antunes, Javier Quilez, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Can Alkan, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Kristina Narfstrom, Stephen J. O'Brien Aug 2014

Annotated Features Of Domestic Cat – Felis Catus Genome, Gaik Tamazian, Serguei Simonov, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, Anton Logachev, Aleksey Komissarov, Andrey Shevchenko, Vladimir Brukhin, Nikolay Cherkasov, Anton Svitin, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Joan Pontius, Carlos A. Driscoll, Kevin Blackistone, Cristina Barr, David Goldman, Agostinho Antunes, Javier Quilez, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Can Alkan, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Kristina Narfstrom, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Background: Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly informative resource that facilitates multifaceted research endeavors.

Findings: Here we report a preliminary annotation of the whole genome sequence of Cinnamon, a domestic cat living in Columbia (MO, USA), bisulfite sequencing ...


The Dynamic Proliferation Of Cansines Mirrors The Complex Evolution Of Feliforms, Kathryn B. Walters-Conte, Diana L. E. Johnson, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery Jun 2014

The Dynamic Proliferation Of Cansines Mirrors The Complex Evolution Of Feliforms, Kathryn B. Walters-Conte, Diana L. E. Johnson, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery

Biology Faculty Articles

Background: Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the ...


The Tiger Genome And Comparative Analysis With Lion And Snow Leopard Genomes, Yun Sung Cho, Li Hu, Haolong Hou, Hang Lee, Jiaohui Xu, Soowhan Kwon, Sukhun Oh, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Sangsoo Kim, Young-Ah Shin, Byung Chul Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Chang-Uk Kim, Shu-Jin Luo, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Jason A. Turner, L. Marker, Cindy K. Harper, Susan M. Miller, Wilhelm Jacobs, Laura D. Bertola, Tae Hyung Kim, Sunghoon Lee, Qian Zhou, Hyun-Ju Jung, Xiao Xu, Priyvrat Gadhvi, Pengwei Xu, Yingqi Xiong, Yadan Luo, Shengkai Pan, Caiyun Gou, Xiuhui Chu, Jilin Zhang, Sanyang Liu, Jing He, Ying Chen, Linfeng Yang, Yulan Yang, Jiaju He, Sha Liu, Junyi Wang, Chul Hong Kim, Hwanjong Kwak, Jong-Soo Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Junsu Ko, Chang-Bae Kim, Sangtae Kim, Damdin Bayarlkhagva, Woon Kee Paek, Seong-Jin Kim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jun Wang, Jong Bhak Sep 2013

The Tiger Genome And Comparative Analysis With Lion And Snow Leopard Genomes, Yun Sung Cho, Li Hu, Haolong Hou, Hang Lee, Jiaohui Xu, Soowhan Kwon, Sukhun Oh, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Sangsoo Kim, Young-Ah Shin, Byung Chul Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Chang-Uk Kim, Shu-Jin Luo, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, A. Schmidt-Kunzel, Jason A. Turner, L. Marker, Cindy K. Harper, Susan M. Miller, Wilhelm Jacobs, Laura D. Bertola, Tae Hyung Kim, Sunghoon Lee, Qian Zhou, Hyun-Ju Jung, Xiao Xu, Priyvrat Gadhvi, Pengwei Xu, Yingqi Xiong, Yadan Luo, Shengkai Pan, Caiyun Gou, Xiuhui Chu, Jilin Zhang, Sanyang Liu, Jing He, Ying Chen, Linfeng Yang, Yulan Yang, Jiaju He, Sha Liu, Junyi Wang, Chul Hong Kim, Hwanjong Kwak, Jong-Soo Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Junsu Ko, Chang-Bae Kim, Sangtae Kim, Damdin Bayarlkhagva, Woon Kee Paek, Seong-Jin Kim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jun Wang, Jong Bhak

Biology Faculty Articles

Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR ...


How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik Dec 2012

How The Leopard Hides Its Spots: Asip Mutations And Melanism In Wild Cats, Alexsandra Schneider, Victor A. David, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gregory S. Barsh, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Eduardo Eizirik

Biology Faculty Articles

The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration) is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus) is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the ‘black panther’ and the extremely high frequency ...


Subspecific Status Of The Korean Tiger Inferred By Ancient Dna Analysis, Mu-Yeong Lee, Jee Yun Hyun, Seo-Jin Lee, Junghwa An, Eunok Lee, Mi-Sook Min, Junpei Kimura, Shin-Ichirio Kawada, Nozomi Kurihara, Shu-Jin Luo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Hang Lee Jan 2012

Subspecific Status Of The Korean Tiger Inferred By Ancient Dna Analysis, Mu-Yeong Lee, Jee Yun Hyun, Seo-Jin Lee, Junghwa An, Eunok Lee, Mi-Sook Min, Junpei Kimura, Shin-Ichirio Kawada, Nozomi Kurihara, Shu-Jin Luo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Hang Lee

Biology Faculty Articles

The tiger population that once inhabited the Korean peninsula was initially considered a unique subspecies (Panthera tigris coreensis), distinct from the Amur tiger of the Russian Far East (P. t. altaica). However, in the following decades, the population of P. t. coreensis was classified as P. t. altaica and hence forth the two populations have been considered the same subspecies. From an ecological point of view, the classification of the Korean tiger population as P. t. altaica is a plausible conclusion. Historically, there were no major dispersal barriers between the Korean peninsula and the habitat of Amur tigers in Far ...


A Molecular Phylogeny Of Living Primates, Polina L. Perelman, Warren E. Johnson, Christian Roos, Hector Seuanez, Julie E. Horvath, Miguel A. M. Moreira, Bailey Kessing, J. U. Pontius, Melody E. Roelke, Yves Rumpler, Maria P. C. Schneider, Artur Silva, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery Mar 2011

A Molecular Phylogeny Of Living Primates, Polina L. Perelman, Warren E. Johnson, Christian Roos, Hector Seuanez, Julie E. Horvath, Miguel A. M. Moreira, Bailey Kessing, J. U. Pontius, Melody E. Roelke, Yves Rumpler, Maria P. C. Schneider, Artur Silva, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jill Pecon-Slattery

Biology Faculty Articles

Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (~90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate ...


Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman Jan 2010

Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV) that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively). However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery.

Description

To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly ...


Genetics And Pathogenesis Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus, Meredith Brown, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, M. Roelke-Parker, Stephen J. O'Brien Sep 2009

Genetics And Pathogenesis Of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus, Meredith Brown, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, M. Roelke-Parker, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were ...


Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates The Origin Of The Extinct Caspian Tiger And Its Relationship To The Amur Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Alfred L. Roca, Shu-Jin Luo, David W. Macdonald, Stephen J. O'Brien Jan 2009

Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates The Origin Of The Extinct Caspian Tiger And Its Relationship To The Amur Tiger, Carlos A. Driscoll, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Alfred L. Roca, Shu-Jin Luo, David W. Macdonald, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary ...


The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson Nov 2008

The Evolutionary Dynamics Of The Lion Panthera Leo Revealed By Host And Viral Population Genomics, Agostinho Antunes, Jennifer L. Troyer, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Craig Packer, Christiaan Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Laurence G. Frank, Philip Stander, Ludwig Siefert, Margaret Driciru, Paul J. Funston, Kathy A. Alexander, Katherine C. Prager, Gus Mills, David E. Wildt, Mitch E. Bush, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson

Biology Faculty Articles

The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse ...


Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal An Explosive Radiation Of Extinct And Extant Bears Near The Miocene-Pliocene Boundary, Johannes Krause, Tina Unger, Aline Nocon, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Mathias Stiller, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Helen Spriggs, Paul H. Dear, Adrian W. Briggs, Sarah C. E. Bray, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gernot Rabeder, Paul Matheus, Alan Cooper, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Paabo, Michael Hofreiter Jul 2008

Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal An Explosive Radiation Of Extinct And Extant Bears Near The Miocene-Pliocene Boundary, Johannes Krause, Tina Unger, Aline Nocon, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Mathias Stiller, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Helen Spriggs, Paul H. Dear, Adrian W. Briggs, Sarah C. E. Bray, Stephen J. O'Brien, Gernot Rabeder, Paul Matheus, Alan Cooper, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Paabo, Michael Hofreiter

Biology Faculty Articles

Background: Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods.

Results: We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete mitochondrial genome sequences from all eight living and two recently extinct bear species, the European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and the American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). The mitogenomic data yield a well-resolved topology for ursids, with the sloth bear at the basal position within the genus ...


Sequences, Annotation And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of The Major Histocompatibility Complex In The Domestic Cat, Naoya Yuhki, James C. Mullikin, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Stephen J. O'Brien Jun 2008

Sequences, Annotation And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of The Major Histocompatibility Complex In The Domestic Cat, Naoya Yuhki, James C. Mullikin, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Two sequences of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) regions in the domestic cat, 2.976 and 0.362 Mbps, which were separated by an ancient chromosome break (55–80 MYA) and followed by a chromosomal inversion were annotated in detail. Gene annotation of this MHC was completed and identified 183 possible coding regions, 147 human homologues, possible functional genes and 36 pseudo/unidentified genes) by GENSCAN and BLASTN, BLASTP RepeatMasker programs. The first region spans 2.976 Mbp sequence, which encodes six classical class II antigens (three DRA and three DRB antigens) lacking the functional DP, DQ regions, nine antigen processing ...


Functions, Structure, And Read-Through Alternative Splicing Of Feline Apobec3 Genes, Carsten Munk, Thomas W. Beck, Jorg Zielonka, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Sarah Chareza, Marion Battenberg, Jens Thielebein, Klaus Cichutek, Ignacio G. Bravo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Martin Lochelt, Naoya Yuhki Mar 2008

Functions, Structure, And Read-Through Alternative Splicing Of Feline Apobec3 Genes, Carsten Munk, Thomas W. Beck, Jorg Zielonka, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Sarah Chareza, Marion Battenberg, Jens Thielebein, Klaus Cichutek, Ignacio G. Bravo, Stephen J. O'Brien, Martin Lochelt, Naoya Yuhki

Biology Faculty Articles

Background:

Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene.

Results:

Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very ...


The Adaptive Evolution Of The Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Maria J. Ramos, Agostinho Antunes Mar 2008

The Adaptive Evolution Of The Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Maria J. Ramos, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures.

Results

Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation ...


Initial Sequence And Comparative Analysis Of The Cat Genome, J. U. Pontius, James C. Mullikin, Douglas R. Smith, Agencourt Bioscience Corporation, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Sante Gnerre, Michele Clamp, Jean Chang, R. Stephens, Beena A. Neelam, Natalia Volfovsky, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, Kristina Narfstrom, William J. Murphy, Urs Giger, Alfred L. Roca, Agostinho Antunes, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Naoya Yuhki, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Warren E. Johnson, Guillaume Bourque, Glenn Tesler, Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program, Stephen J. O'Brien Nov 2007

Initial Sequence And Comparative Analysis Of The Cat Genome, J. U. Pontius, James C. Mullikin, Douglas R. Smith, Agencourt Bioscience Corporation, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Sante Gnerre, Michele Clamp, Jean Chang, R. Stephens, Beena A. Neelam, Natalia Volfovsky, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, Kristina Narfstrom, William J. Murphy, Urs Giger, Alfred L. Roca, Agostinho Antunes, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Naoya Yuhki, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Warren E. Johnson, Guillaume Bourque, Glenn Tesler, Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms ...


Primate Tnf Promoters Reveal Markers Of Phylogeny And Evolution Of Innate Immunity, Andres Baena, Alan R. Mootnick, James V. Falvo, Alla V. Tsytsykova, Filipa Ligeiro, Ousmane M. Diop, Claudia Brieva, Pascal Gagneux, Stephen J. O'Brien, Oliver A. Ryder, Anne E. Goldfeld Jul 2007

Primate Tnf Promoters Reveal Markers Of Phylogeny And Evolution Of Innate Immunity, Andres Baena, Alan R. Mootnick, James V. Falvo, Alla V. Tsytsykova, Filipa Ligeiro, Ousmane M. Diop, Claudia Brieva, Pascal Gagneux, Stephen J. O'Brien, Oliver A. Ryder, Anne E. Goldfeld

Biology Faculty Articles

Background. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a critical cytokine in the immune response whose transcriptional activation is controlled by a proximal promoter region that is highly conserved in mammals and, in particular, primates. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of the proximal human TNF promoter have been identified, which are markers of human ancestry.

Methodology/Principal findings. Using a comparative genomics approach we show that certain fixed genetic differences in the TNF promoter serve as markers of primate speciation. We also demonstrate that distinct alleles of most human TNF promoter SNPs are identical to fixed nucleotides in primate TNF promoters ...


Clouded Leopard Phylogeny Revisited: Support For Species Recognition And Population Division Between Borneo And Sumatra, Andreas Wilting, Valerie A. Buckley-Beason, Heike Feldhaar, Jurgen Gadau, Stephen J. O'Brien, K. Eduard Linsenmair May 2007

Clouded Leopard Phylogeny Revisited: Support For Species Recognition And Population Division Between Borneo And Sumatra, Andreas Wilting, Valerie A. Buckley-Beason, Heike Feldhaar, Jurgen Gadau, Stephen J. O'Brien, K. Eduard Linsenmair

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is one of the least known cat species and depletion of their forested habitats puts it under heavy pressure. Recently reclassification of Bornean clouded leopards (N. nebulosa diardi) to species level (N.diardi) was suggested based on molecular and morphological evidence. Since the genetic results were based solely on three Bornean samples we re-evaluated this partition using additional samples of Bornean clouded leopards (N = 7) and we were also able to include specimens from Sumatra (N = 3), which were lacking in previous analysis.

Results

We found strong support for the distinction between N. nebulosa ...


An ∼140-Kb Deletion Associated With Feline Spinal Muscular Atrophy Implies An Essential Lix1 Function For Motor Neuron Survival, John C. Fyfe, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Lars Brichta, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, William J. Murphy, William J. Wedemeyer, Brittany L. Gregory, Bethany G. Buzzell, Meghan C. Drummond, Brunhilde Wirth, Stephen J. O'Brien Sep 2006

An ∼140-Kb Deletion Associated With Feline Spinal Muscular Atrophy Implies An Essential Lix1 Function For Motor Neuron Survival, John C. Fyfe, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Lars Brichta, Alejandro A. Schaffer, R. Agarwala, William J. Murphy, William J. Wedemeyer, Brittany L. Gregory, Bethany G. Buzzell, Meghan C. Drummond, Brunhilde Wirth, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

The leading genetic cause of infant mortality is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Previously we described a domestic cat model of autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset SMA similar to human SMA type III. Here we report results of a whole-genome scan for linkage in the feline SMA pedigree using recently developed species-specific and comparative mapping resources. We identified a novel SMA gene candidate, LIX1, in an ~140-kb deletion on feline chromosome A1q in a region of conserved synteny to human chromosome 5q15. Though LIX1 function is unknown, the predicted secondary structure is compatible with a ...


Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien Jul 2005

Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species ...


Phylogeography And Genetic Ancestry Of Tigers (Panthera Tigris), Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Warren E. Johnson, Joelle Van Der Walt, Janice S. Martenson, Naoya Yuhki, Dale Miquelle, Olga Uphyrkina, John M. Goodrich, Howard Quigley, R. Tilson, Gerald Brady, Paolo Martelli, Vellayan Subramaniam, Charles Mcdougal, Sun Hean, Shi-Qiang Huang, Wenshi Pan, Ullas K. Karanth, Melvin Sunquist, James L. D. Smith, Stephen J. O'Brien Dec 2004

Phylogeography And Genetic Ancestry Of Tigers (Panthera Tigris), Shu-Jin Luo, Jae-Heup Kim, Warren E. Johnson, Joelle Van Der Walt, Janice S. Martenson, Naoya Yuhki, Dale Miquelle, Olga Uphyrkina, John M. Goodrich, Howard Quigley, R. Tilson, Gerald Brady, Paolo Martelli, Vellayan Subramaniam, Charles Mcdougal, Sun Hean, Shi-Qiang Huang, Wenshi Pan, Ullas K. Karanth, Melvin Sunquist, James L. D. Smith, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris), of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular markers: (1) 4.0 kb of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence; (2) allele variation in the nuclear major histocompatibility complex class II DRB gene; and (3) composite nuclear microsatellite genotypes based on 30 ...


Comparative Genome Organization Of Human, Murine, And Feline Mhc Class Ii Region, Naoya Yuhki, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Yoko Nishigaki, Kymberly Newmann, Stephen J. O'Brien Jun 2003

Comparative Genome Organization Of Human, Murine, And Feline Mhc Class Ii Region, Naoya Yuhki, Thomas W. Beck, Robert M. Stephens, Yoko Nishigaki, Kymberly Newmann, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

To study comparative molecular dynamics in the genesis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), we determined a complete nucleotide sequence spanning 758,291 bp of the domestic cat (Felis catus) extended and classical class II region. The feline class II MHC includes 44 genes (31 predicted to be expressed) which display DNA sequence homology and ordered gene synteny with human HLA and mouse H2, in extended class II and centromere proximal regions (DM to DO) of the classical class II region. However, remarkable genomic alterations including gene gain and loss plus size differentials of 250 kb are evident in comparisons ...


Sequencing The Genome Of The Domestic Cat Felis Catus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric S. Lander, M. E. Haskins, Urs Giger, Niels C. Pederson, David E. Wildt, William J. Murphy, Naoya Yuhki, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond Oct 2002

Sequencing The Genome Of The Domestic Cat Felis Catus, Stephen J. O'Brien, Eric S. Lander, M. E. Haskins, Urs Giger, Niels C. Pederson, David E. Wildt, William J. Murphy, Naoya Yuhki, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond

Biology Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


Genomic Microsatellites As Evolutionary Chronometers: A Test In Wild Cats, Carlos A. Driscoll, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, George Nelson, David Goldstein, Stephen J. O'Brien Mar 2002

Genomic Microsatellites As Evolutionary Chronometers: A Test In Wild Cats, Carlos A. Driscoll, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, George Nelson, David Goldstein, Stephen J. O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. We have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized populations of cheetahs, lions and pumas in recapitulating demographic history. The results imply that the microsatellite diversity measures (heterozygosity, allele reconstitution and microsatellite allele variance) offer proportionate indicators, albeit with large variance, of ...