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Histology Of Dichromatic And Seasonal Color Change Of The Cranial Region Of Callagur Borneoensis, Kevin William Matson Jan 1979

Histology Of Dichromatic And Seasonal Color Change Of The Cranial Region Of Callagur Borneoensis, Kevin William Matson

Masters Theses

Male Callagur borneoensis exihibit sexual dichromatism and seasonal coloration which is rare among turtles. In the breeding season male's heads are colored white with a scarlet stripe from the occiput to the tip of the snout. After the breeding season they change to drab charcoal-gray to black with a dull orange-yellow stripe. Females and juveniles are a drab brown throughout the year.

This study was performed to determine the mechanisms of this color change at the histological level. Histological preparation of the head revealed a significant increase in vascular tissue just below the epidermis of the stripe area with ...


Notes On Seasonal Variation And Infectivity Of Haemogamasus Reidi, A Vector Of Hepatozoon Griseisciuri, On Eastern Gray Squirrels, Sciurus Carolinensis, Mohammed Bashiru Jan 1979

Notes On Seasonal Variation And Infectivity Of Haemogamasus Reidi, A Vector Of Hepatozoon Griseisciuri, On Eastern Gray Squirrels, Sciurus Carolinensis, Mohammed Bashiru

Masters Theses

Five hundred and twenty-two squirrels were trapped and retrapped from a population in Montgomery County, Maryland during 1974-1975. One hundred and forty-one squirrels were found to harbor an average of 10.6 mites (Range 175-1). While male squirrels outnumbered females (79 vs 62) females harbored more mites than males (829 vs 666). During the spring the average number of mites per captured squirrel increased to an average of 18.1 per squirrel. The average declined to 6.8, 4.8 and 3.3 per squirrel in summer, fall and winter respectively. Throughout the collection period adult female mites were by ...


A Histochemical Study Of Tooth Development In The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulus Griseus), Robert B. Daszkiewicz Jan 1978

A Histochemical Study Of Tooth Development In The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulus Griseus), Robert B. Daszkiewicz

Masters Theses

The normal morphological development of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) during the last week of gestation was studied. A review of the literature reveals no distinct study of tooth development in this species. An identical gestation period is found in the mouse (Mus musculus) making direct comparison between the embryos of the same age of the two species feasible. During this investigation, it was found that morphological tooth development in the Chinese hamster lagged behind that of the mouse by about 2 days. On day 14 of gestation in the Chinese hamster, the oral epithelium is stratified along the free ...


A Study Of Symbiosis Involving The Fish-Eating Bat (Myotis Vivesi), The Least Petrel (Halocyptera Microsoma), The Black Petrel (Oceanodroma Melania), And The Lizard (Cnemidophorus Tigris), Joel King Jan 1978

A Study Of Symbiosis Involving The Fish-Eating Bat (Myotis Vivesi), The Least Petrel (Halocyptera Microsoma), The Black Petrel (Oceanodroma Melania), And The Lizard (Cnemidophorus Tigris), Joel King

Masters Theses

A field study was conducted on Partida Island in the Gulf of Mexico on the dates May 26 through July 26, 1977, inclusive.

Field observations were made of the lizard (Cnemidophorus tigris) preying on eggs and hatchlings of the least petrel (Halocyptena microsoma), and the black petrel (Oceanodroma melania). The petrels roost among rock slides with the fish-eating bat (Myotis vivesi).

In 24 trials of experimental boxes with lizards, bats, and petrels as subjects, 16 trials resulted in aggression of bats to lizards.

A symbiosis is postulated between bats and petrels.


Epizoic Protozoa Of Planktonic Copepoda And Cladocera From A Small Eutrophic Lake, And Their Possible Use As Indicators Of Organic Water Pollution, Michael Stevens Henebry Jan 1978

Epizoic Protozoa Of Planktonic Copepoda And Cladocera From A Small Eutrophic Lake, And Their Possible Use As Indicators Of Organic Water Pollution, Michael Stevens Henebry

Masters Theses

The epizoic protozoa of planktonic copepoda and cladocera from a eutrophic lake (Ashmore Lake, Coles County, Illinois) were studied over a 13-week period in the summer and fall of 1975. All organisms were collected with a 125 micron mesh plankton net. Epizoans (all peritrichs and suctorians) were hosted by three of four species of copepods and four of the ten species of cladocerans. The percentage of total organisms hosting epizoans varied significantly (0.001 alpha level) by month, but averaged 11.6 percent. This high occurrence of epizoans was thought to be related to the highly-eutrophic conditions existing in the ...


Utilization Of Heat Sensitivity In Crotalidae, James Cordrey Miller Jan 1978

Utilization Of Heat Sensitivity In Crotalidae, James Cordrey Miller

Masters Theses

Specimens of five genera of snakes (Crotalus, Agkistrodon, Bitis, Epicrates, and Elaphe) were tested for use of thermal cues in food selection. Results indicate that pit vipers (Crotalus and Agkistrodon) and boas (Epicrates) utilize thermal radiation in selection of food. It was also indicated that Crotalus (rattlesnakes) do not invariably show a reflexive strike before food is investigated or ingested.


The Structure And Fate Of Germinal Plasm In The Asiatic Fire-Bellied Frog, Bombina Orientalis (Anura-Discoglossidae), Ted W. Odom Jan 1978

The Structure And Fate Of Germinal Plasm In The Asiatic Fire-Bellied Frog, Bombina Orientalis (Anura-Discoglossidae), Ted W. Odom

Masters Theses

Lehman's polychrome stain was used to follow the fate of germinal plasm in early development of Bombina orientalis embryos. Islets of germinal plasm approximately 6 um in diameter were observed in the vegetal pole region of the 2-cell embryo. By the 4-cell stage, some of these islets had coalesced to form larger ones so that two size classes of islets were present (approximately 7.5 and 19.5 um in diameter).

As cleavage continued to the 16-cell stage, the islets were moved further up the cleavage furrow and were always observed to remain in close association with the cleavage ...


Capillaria Sp. From Cryptotis Parva, Joseph N'Dong Jan 1978

Capillaria Sp. From Cryptotis Parva, Joseph N'Dong

Masters Theses

Twenty-nine Cryptotis parva were trapped at Lincoln Log Cabin State Park in Coles County Illinois between 22 December 1976 and 31 January 1978. Trapped specimens were necropsied and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nematode infections were found to be present in eight (27.2%) of the shrews collected with five (17.2%) of the males and three (10.3%) of the females infected. Three adult female nematodes were recovered from the small intestines of the host specimens, described and identified as the genus Capillaria. No male Capillaria were obtained and therefore species identification was impossible. However, the general ...


Feeding Habits And Behavior Of The Whiptail Lizard Cnemidophorus Tigris On Partida Island, Patrick Alan Malone Jan 1978

Feeding Habits And Behavior Of The Whiptail Lizard Cnemidophorus Tigris On Partida Island, Patrick Alan Malone

Masters Theses

The feeding habits of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus tigris were studied from May 25 until July 23, 1977 on the Partida Island in the Gulf of California. Analysis of the stomach contents of 91 lizards revealed that during this period the eggs and young of the least and black petrel are a primary food source while tenebrionid beetles become a major food source after bird products become unavailable.


The Effects Of Superovulation On The Reproductive Cycle Of Mature Female Mus Musculus, David F. Grace Jan 1977

The Effects Of Superovulation On The Reproductive Cycle Of Mature Female Mus Musculus, David F. Grace

Masters Theses

A total of 38 Mus musculus were used to compare superovulation to normal ovulation in three different areas of the reproductive cycle. The areas studied include the fertilization and abortion rates, alternation of ovarian function, and normalization of estrus cycling. No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in either fertility rates or abortion rates. A distinct difference was noted in alternation of ovarian function. Normally ovulating mice showed a distinct right or left preference in the number of ova ovulated from each ovary. Animals showing a left preference exhibited approximately a 2:1 ratio and animals with ...


Blood Parasites Of Squirrels From Coles And Lake Counties In Illinois, Nicholas I. Obiri Jan 1977

Blood Parasites Of Squirrels From Coles And Lake Counties In Illinois, Nicholas I. Obiri

Masters Theses

Hepatozoon and microfilariae are described from the blood of fox and gray squirrels captured in Coles and Lake Counties in Illinois during 1976 and 1977. The hepatozoon species is identified as Hepatozoon griseisciuri on the basis of parasite morphology and hosts. A higher rate of infection (35.7% : 11.1%) was observed in gray squirrels than in fox squirrels and more adults were infected than juveniles. No microfilariae were found in gray squirrels but fox squirrels had a 57.1% infection rate with no difference based on age. The observed microfilariae are similar to that described by Davidson from Maryland ...


The Arthropod Ectosymbionts Of The Fox Squirrel In Coles County, Illinois, Jeanine L. Stanis Jan 1976

The Arthropod Ectosymbionts Of The Fox Squirrel In Coles County, Illinois, Jeanine L. Stanis

Masters Theses

The body surface areas of 18 squirrels (Sciurus niger) were calculated by regions, and the numbers and densities of the ectoparasite populations present on each region determined. Four species representing four genera of arthropods were recovered. The louse, Neohaematopinus antennatus was the most abundant organism with Orchopeas howardii, Haemagamasus reidi, and Dermacentor variabilis being also present. The average population density of all parasite species combined was highest on the back and decreased on the belly, tail, legs, and the head respectively. Body regions showing greatest average total population densities were different for males and females. The females were found to ...


Ecological Comparisons Of Four Plethodontid Salamanders In A Ravine In West Central Indiana, Stephen L. Reinbold Jan 1976

Ecological Comparisons Of Four Plethodontid Salamanders In A Ravine In West Central Indiana, Stephen L. Reinbold

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Age And Growth Of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) In Two Ponds In East-Central Illinois, Mark Fevold Nelson Jan 1976

A Comparison Of Age And Growth Of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) In Two Ponds In East-Central Illinois, Mark Fevold Nelson

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Social Rank Of Male Swordtails (Xiphophorus Helleri) On Sexual Behavior, Janet N. Marum Jan 1976

The Effect Of Social Rank Of Male Swordtails (Xiphophorus Helleri) On Sexual Behavior, Janet N. Marum

Masters Theses

The relationship between social rank and sexual behavior of the male swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) was studied. Initially three tanks were established with three males and two females in each. Social rank, aggressive and sexual levels were recorded by observation of the interactions which occurred in the tanks. A second series of observations were made with the fish regrouped according to their initial rank, that is, dominant males grouped together, middle ranking males together and the lowest ranking males together. Aggressive and sexual levels were the highest for the highest ranking males in all tanks and in both trials, although the ...


Land Snail Diversity At Rocky Branch Nature Preserve, Clark County, Illinois, Daniel J. Mott Jan 1976

Land Snail Diversity At Rocky Branch Nature Preserve, Clark County, Illinois, Daniel J. Mott

Masters Theses

Terrestrial, shell-bearing gastropods were collected at Rocky Branch Nature Preserve, Clark County, Illinois. A total of three hundred nineteen specimens were collected representing five families and fifteen species. Two species of the family Endodontidae, eight species of the family Polygyridae, three species of the family Zonitidae, and one species in each of the families Pupillidae and Succineidae were collected.

In addition, an attempt was made to find the relationship between species diversity and dominant woody vegetation and soil quality. The land at Rocky Branch Nature Preserve ranges from lowland flood plain to high second growth forest. The dominant trees of ...


The Growth Of The Red-Ear Turtle Pseudemys Scripta Elegans In A Thermal Lake In Southwestern Illinois, Diana Avalos Jan 1975

The Growth Of The Red-Ear Turtle Pseudemys Scripta Elegans In A Thermal Lake In Southwestern Illinois, Diana Avalos

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


The Status Of Beaver In East Central Illinois, Kenneth Edward Snearley Jan 1975

The Status Of Beaver In East Central Illinois, Kenneth Edward Snearley

Masters Theses

Parts of three major streams in east central Illinois: the Embarrass, the Kaskaskia and Okaw Rivers were cruised during the fall of 1973 and the summer and fall of 1974. Beaver (Castor canadensis) sign were located and recorded. A qualitative analysis of the woody vegetation on the Kaskaskia and Okaw Rivers was undertaken.

Two activity sites were located on the Embarrass. Three fresh and three old cutting sites were located on the Kaskaskia in 1973; in 1974, five fresh sites were found. The Okaw had six fresh and six old cutting sites in 1973, but in 1974, only one fresh ...


The Histology Of The Pineal Gland In Odocoileus Virginianus, Terry Michael De Villiers Jan 1975

The Histology Of The Pineal Gland In Odocoileus Virginianus, Terry Michael De Villiers

Masters Theses

A total of 26 pineal glands from the white-tailed deer were histologically examined. Five different stains were utilized to determine various cell types present in pineal tissue. Connective tissue septa divide the pineal gland into incompletely separated lobules which are supplied by a very extensive vascular system. The pinealocyte is the most numerous cell in the gland and is most easily recognized by a prominent nucleus approximately 6-8 microns in diameter. The pinealocyte cytoplasm contains many minute granules. A distinct difference was noted in the histology of the oldest age deer pineal (age 7 years) when globular granules were observed ...


Defensive Behavior Of The Hognose Snake (Heterodon Platyrhinos), Brenda S. Hemken Jan 1974

Defensive Behavior Of The Hognose Snake (Heterodon Platyrhinos), Brenda S. Hemken

Masters Theses

Fourteen out of sixteen Heterodon platyrhinos eggs were hatched in late August, 1973. The immature snakes were manually stimulated and the resultant bluffing and death-feigning behaviors were observed. All of the experimental snakes bluffed, but only three out of ten feigned death. The major components of the bluffing behavior are spreading the neck, hissing, and striking. Death-feigning is preceded by contortions and shows variations in the positions of the mouth and tongue. The newly-hatched snakes exhibited both bluffing and death-feigning, indicating that the behaviors are innate.


An Introduction To The Ethology Of Citellus Variegatus, John W. Bell Jan 1974

An Introduction To The Ethology Of Citellus Variegatus, John W. Bell

Masters Theses

The above ground activity of the rock squirrel Citellus variegatus between November 6, 1972 and May 1, 1973, is described. This is a non-colonial species. Recognition was established between siblings by a nose to nose contact. In foraging they utilize almost any edible material available and during this time of year foraging is most intense between 11:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. Vocalization was limited to alarm calls, which brought the other squirrels to the top of the rocks to become alert, and squeals. Hibernation varied in length depending in part on the elevation and in some ...


The Effects Of Crowding On The Diurnal Ascorbic Acid Levels Of Albino Rats, Mary Jo Barr Jan 1973

The Effects Of Crowding On The Diurnal Ascorbic Acid Levels Of Albino Rats, Mary Jo Barr

Masters Theses

The adrenal physiology of the albino rat was studied through the measurement of adrenal ascorbic acid levels. A cyclic phenomenon was observed which follows the diel periodicity of the animal. Ascorbic acid values were found to be characteristically higher in males than in females. A similar difference was also seen in populations divided into young animals (body weight less than 175 grams) and old animals (body weight greater than 175 grams). Crowding, induced by manipulating the area of cage space per gram of body weight, was observed to be a definite stressor and caused the adrenal ascorbic acid levels to ...


Gastro-Intestinal And Abdominal Helminths Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Carroll And Jo Daviess Counties In Northern Illinois, Jeffrey Joseph Hodge Jan 1973

Gastro-Intestinal And Abdominal Helminths Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Carroll And Jo Daviess Counties In Northern Illinois, Jeffrey Joseph Hodge

Masters Theses

Forty-four white-tailed deer shot by hunters in November and December, 1971, in Carroll and Jo Daviess counties in northwestern Illinois were necropsied for gastro-intestinal and abdominal helminths. Five species of gastro-intestinal nematodes were found: Gongylonema pulchrum, Ostertagia odocoilei, Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis and Nematodirus sp. Setaria yehi, a filiariad nematode, was found in the abdominal cavity. Moniezia benedeni was the only cestode found. No trematodes were recovered. Differences in numbers and kinds of parasites found in northern Illinois and southern Illinois are discussed. Prevalence increased with host age for certain species of parasites and decreased or remained constant for others.


The Effects Of Acute Stress On Adrenal Ascorbic Acid Levels, Robert Joseph Collier Jan 1973

The Effects Of Acute Stress On Adrenal Ascorbic Acid Levels, Robert Joseph Collier

Masters Theses

The diurnal rhythm of adrenal ascorbic acid (DAR) displays an inverse relationship to the diurnal rhythm of circulating levels of plasma corticosteroids. Alloxan monohydrate, 175 mg/kg body weight was given subcutaneously to albino rats to determine the effect of the diabetic state on the DAR. A total of 200 female albino rats were divided into two study groups. Study Group I was composed of 150 animals divided into populations of 15, each including 3 controls. Study Group II was composed of populations of 5, each group containing all controls or all alloxinated rats. The populations of 15 were sacrificed ...


Seasonal Variation In The Tubular And Interstitial Areas Of The Testes In Sternotherus Odoratus L., Robert Hans Spaet Jan 1973

Seasonal Variation In The Tubular And Interstitial Areas Of The Testes In Sternotherus Odoratus L., Robert Hans Spaet

Masters Theses

Seasonal changes within the tubular and interstitial areas of the testes in Sternotherus odoratus are investigated, histologically and histochemically. Forty specimens were collected in Illinois, Tennessee and Louisiana between May, 1969 and August, 1972.

Many of the histological and macroscopic observations made by Risley (1938) on the spermatogenic cycle of S. odoratus in Michigan are confirmed. Contrary to his findings, fluctuations in interstitial cell nuclear diameters are observed during spermatogenesis. Greatest diameters coincide with what Risley has considered " . . . period of most active breeding." Sertoli cell nuclear diameters undergo similar fluctuations being greatest during spring breeding and fall steatogenesis.

The testes ...


Gastro-Intestinal And Abdominal Helminths Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Southern Illinois, Thomas W. Cook Jan 1972

Gastro-Intestinal And Abdominal Helminths Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Southern Illinois, Thomas W. Cook

Masters Theses

In November and December 1971, forty deer from five southern Illinois counties were examined by necropsy for gastro-intestinal and abdominal helminths. Eight species of gastro-intestinal nematodes were found: Gongylonema pulchrum, Spiculopteroides odocoilei, Ostertagia mossi, Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia sp., Capillaria sp., Trichuris ovis and Oesophagostomum venulosum. Setaria yehi, a filiariad nematode, was found in the abdominal cavity. Moniezia benedeni was the only cestode found. No trematodes were recovered.


Home Range And Movement Of Fox Squirrels In East Central Illinois, Michael D. Sliva Jan 1972

Home Range And Movement Of Fox Squirrels In East Central Illinois, Michael D. Sliva

Masters Theses

Home ranges and movements were determined for 11 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) and analyzed with respect to the distribution of mast trees and den trees on a 12ΒΌ acre wooded plot in east central Illinois. Average home range size for all squirrels was 0.9 acres. The home range of adult squirrels averaged 1.5 acres while juveniles averaged 0.8 acres. Females had larger home ranges (1.4 acres) than males (0.6 acres). The average distance moved within the home range was 360 feet for all squirrels. The average distances moved by adults and juveniles was nearly the ...


Operant Conditioning In The Garter Snake (Thamnophis), William A. Schmitz Jan 1972

Operant Conditioning In The Garter Snake (Thamnophis), William A. Schmitz

Masters Theses

Ten garter snakes were tested for runway acquisition, correct turn response in a simple T-maze, or both, for food reinforcement. Seven of seven subjects met criterion for learning to run a 23 inch long alleyway. Mean latency times showed a general decrease over a 23 day period. Five of nine subjects met criterion for learning a correct turn response in a simple T-maze. Subjects mastering the task required from 14-157 trials. One of two subjects met criterion for learning the reverse response of the T-maze exercise, requiring 35 trials. Results are similar to those previously reported for reptiles and other ...


Preliminary Observations On The Effects Of Treflan To Fishes, P. Bradley Latvaitis Jan 1972

Preliminary Observations On The Effects Of Treflan To Fishes, P. Bradley Latvaitis

Masters Theses

Treflan E.C. is a selective, preemergence, soil incorporated herbicide. Preliminary tests were made to evaluate its effects at concentrations of 0.75, 1.275 and 1.8 p.p.m. on twenty species of fresh water fishes in the laboratory. The herbicide was proven to be a powerful fish toxicant. Centrarchus, Cichlasoma centrarchus, was the most resistant fish tested, while Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, was among the least resistant. Treflan E.C. decomposes and degrades rapidly. It was also found to interact with plastics. Further studies are necessary to provide a complete investigation of the effects of Treflan on Fishes.


A Study Of Thoracic Skeletomusculature In Peracarida (Crustacea), Donna R. Gill Jan 1972

A Study Of Thoracic Skeletomusculature In Peracarida (Crustacea), Donna R. Gill

Masters Theses

Two species of peracarid malacostracans, a mysid, Neomysis americana, and an oniscid isopod, Trachelipus cf. rathkei, were used to study the skeletomusculature system. Serial sections, whole mounts, and gross dissections were made. Coxal promotors and remotors and basal adductors and abductors were the muscle groups examined.

The promotor and remotor muscles of N. americana were found to be numerous, well developed, taking origin primarily from the dorsal thoracic wall, and extending nearly ventrally to insert in the coxa; the adductor muscle and two abductor muscles are weakly developed. The coxa in T. cf. rathkei is incorporated completely into the pleura ...