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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Biotic, Abiotic, And Behavioral Patterns Associated With The Nocturnal Movements Of Shrews, Patrick T. Sullivan Jan 1993

Biotic, Abiotic, And Behavioral Patterns Associated With The Nocturnal Movements Of Shrews, Patrick T. Sullivan

Masters Theses

Thirteen trails left by shrews coated with fluorescent powder were examined for microhabitat documentation. Thirteen data parameters were collected from each trail, two of which differed significantly between Blarina brevicauda and Sorex longirostris. The small soricid Sorex longirostris was captured in areas with higher grass content, and lower wooded content, than the larger Blarina brevicauda. The difference in microhabitat use may be a key mechanism in reducing competition between these two species.


A Herpetofaunal Survey Of The Braidwood Dunes And Savanna Nature Preserve, Daniel J. O'Connell Jan 1992

A Herpetofaunal Survey Of The Braidwood Dunes And Savanna Nature Preserve, Daniel J. O'Connell

Masters Theses

A herpetofaunal survey was conducted on two sand prairie areas in Will Co., IL.; The Braidwood Dunes and Savanna Nature Preserve (BD+S), and Sandridge Savanna. Drift fences with pitfall traps, herpetological attractor panels, aquatic hoop traps, and manual collecting were used to sample the two preserves. A species list was compiled, and the habitat preferences and relative abundance of each species present were determined. The species list was compared with the species lists of other Illinois sand areas and the Nebraska sandhills. Guilds represented by the herpetofaunae of each area were also compared.

Seventeen species were recorded at BD ...


Diet Content And Overlap Of Six Species Of Turtle Among The Wabash River, Lori Pierce Jan 1992

Diet Content And Overlap Of Six Species Of Turtle Among The Wabash River, Lori Pierce

Masters Theses

A community of six species of turtles from the Wabash River and its backwaters was studied to determine diet composition of each species and amount of dietary overlap among species. Species studied included: Trionyx muticus, Trionyx spiniferus, and Graptemys ouachitensis in the river; Trachemys scripta and Chrysemys picta in both the river and backwaters; and Chelydra serpentina in the backwaters only.

Trionyx muticus, T. spiniferus, and G. ouachitensis all belong to a guild that specializes on aquatic insects. The highest diet overlap (69.6%) was between the two softshells, T. muticus and T. spiniferus. Coexistence is possible because T. spiniferus ...


A Comparison Of Three Populations Of The Plains Pocket Gophers, Geomys Bursarius Illinoensis, In Illinois, Frank P. Wray Jan 1989

A Comparison Of Three Populations Of The Plains Pocket Gophers, Geomys Bursarius Illinoensis, In Illinois, Frank P. Wray

Masters Theses

Morphometric and karyotypic analyses were performed on three Illinois populations of the Plains Pocket Gopher, Geomys bursarius illinoensis, to determine if any differences were present among the populations. Gophers were collected in three localities: 1) Iroquois and Kankakee Counties (IKC); McLean County (MC); and St. Clair and Madison counties (SMC). All three populations had the same kind and number of chromosomes (2n=72, FN=70). External measurements did not differ significantly among the three populations. Multivariate analysis of variance of the cranial characters showed that a significant (P<.05) difference existed in both males, F(78,1825)=1.65, and females, F(78,1961)=1.63, between the three regions. Duncan's multiple range tests of some cranial measurements showed a clinal increase going from east to west.


Effects Of Methylxanthines On Newborn Rat Respiration, Craig Gatto Jan 1989

Effects Of Methylxanthines On Newborn Rat Respiration, Craig Gatto

Masters Theses

Methylxanthines (MX), such as theophylline, are commonly used in the treatment of recurrent apnea due to their stimulant effects on the respiratory center. Structure-activity studies have demonstrated that substitution of alkyl groups on the 3-position of the xanthine nucleus results in increased bronchodilator potency, while substitution on the 1-position is important for adenosine antagonism and CNS stimulation. Three different alkylxanthines were studied to determine the structural requirements for respiratory stimulation. Respiratory rates and volumes were determined in 4- to 7-day-old rats using a volume displacement body plethysmograph. Measurements were made before and at 5 minute intervals after subcutaneous (s.c ...


Cranial Variations And Skull Suture Obliterations As Related To Age In The Coyote (Canis Latrans), Kurt Daine Jan 1989

Cranial Variations And Skull Suture Obliterations As Related To Age In The Coyote (Canis Latrans), Kurt Daine

Masters Theses

Three criteria, skull size, development of the postorbital process, and cranial suture obliteration were examined to evaluate their effectiveness as possible age indicators in the coyote (Canis latrans). Two collections of coyote skulls were evaluated. The first was 130 skulls of known age, from Utah, which were used to compare the above characteristics to the age of the animal. The second was 151 Illinois Department of Conservation (DOC) skulls of unknown age, which were used in conjunction with the known age skulls to evaluate differences in skull size and observer and inter-observer subjectivity in the classification of suture obliterations.

Cranial ...


Ecology And Interspecific Relationships Of The Painted Turtle, (Chrysemys Picta) In A Marsh-Fen Ecosystem, Eric S. Mcgee Jan 1988

Ecology And Interspecific Relationships Of The Painted Turtle, (Chrysemys Picta) In A Marsh-Fen Ecosystem, Eric S. Mcgee

Masters Theses

An ecological study of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) was conducted at the Fox River site in Chain O' Lakes State Park in northeastern Illinois from March to September in 1987. Findings were compared to two studies in 1986 concerning the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and Blandings turtle (Emydoidea blandingi) also present in the area. Population densities and composition were evaluated to determine the degree of interspecific competition.

Two hundred-forty five turtles were captured in 1986 and 1987. Painted turtles comprised 75 percent of the chelonian population, while Blandings turtles and snapping turtles made up 15 and 10 percent ...


Invertebrates Associated With The Pincushion Moss (Leucobryum Glaucum) And Underlying Soil, Timothy R. Leffler Jan 1988

Invertebrates Associated With The Pincushion Moss (Leucobryum Glaucum) And Underlying Soil, Timothy R. Leffler

Masters Theses

A faunal study of soil invertebrates collected from pincushion moss (Leucobryum glaucum) and underlying soil in a mixed deciduous forest of Charleston, Illinois, was performed because it was discovered that moss habitats have been largely overlooked by investigators.

The results from this study suggest that moss habitats provide a buffer area from the external physical environment, provide protection from predators, a place for oviposition and may be used as a food source. Twenty-seven orders of invertebrates were collected (66,023 individuals). Acarina (57.9%) and Collembola (37.9%) made up the majority of the invertebrate population. Three abiotic factors (temperature ...


The Effects Of Xanthine And Adenosine Analogs On Rat Pup Diaphragmatic Contractility, Liam C. Farrell Jan 1987

The Effects Of Xanthine And Adenosine Analogs On Rat Pup Diaphragmatic Contractility, Liam C. Farrell

Masters Theses

Methylxanthines are commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders such as asthma, apnea of prematurity and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Recently, certain methylxanthines have been found to potentiate the contraction of the diaphragm and increase contraction strength of the fatigued diaphragm. The mechanism of action of the methylxanthines is unknown. Three theories have been proposed but each has its supportive and negative points. One theory is that methylxanthines inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) which facilitates contraction by increasing cyclic AMP levels in the cell. Another theory is that methylxanthines antagonize adenosine, thus blocking the adenosine-induced inhibition of contraction. The third theory ...


The Hold-Release Mechanism In The Family Crotalidae, Ronald K. Easter Jan 1986

The Hold-Release Mechanism In The Family Crotalidae, Ronald K. Easter

Masters Theses

Strike/release vs. strike/hold feeding behavior was observed for 5 Crotalus atrox and 5 Agkistrodon piscivorous. Two sizes of warm blooded prey were offered to the rattlesnakes on alternate weeks. Cottonmouths were offered, alternately, fish or mice of equal size. Although data varied among individual subjects, cottonmouths offered fish demonstrated the strike/hold behavior significantly more often than the strike/release behavior; cottonmouths offered mice struck and released significantly more often than they struck and held. It is concluded that the strike/hold strategy in sreponse to fish is adventageous because the danger of holding such prey is minimal ...


Ectoparasites Of Geomys Bursarius Illinoensis, Rick L. Miller Jan 1986

Ectoparasites Of Geomys Bursarius Illinoensis, Rick L. Miller

Masters Theses

This study was conducted to determine what ectoparasitic organisms are found on the pairie pocket gophers, Geomys burasrius, occurring in an isolated population in northeastern Illinois. The study area was a five hectare grassland community composed predominately of sandy soil, located in northeastern Iriquois Co., two miles north and three miles east of Beaverville, IL.

A total of 19 pocket gophers were captured from October 2 to November 17, 1983. Blood was collected and smears were made in the field. Hosts were examined for ectoparasites in the laboratory. Six hundred and nine ectoparasitic organisms were isolated representing a mean of ...


Factors Affecting The Predator-Prey Relationship Between Predaceous Diving Beetle Larvae (Dytiscus Fasciventris) And Two Anuran Tadpole Species (Bufo Americanus And Hyla Crucifer), Todd S. Campbell Jan 1986

Factors Affecting The Predator-Prey Relationship Between Predaceous Diving Beetle Larvae (Dytiscus Fasciventris) And Two Anuran Tadpole Species (Bufo Americanus And Hyla Crucifer), Todd S. Campbell

Masters Theses

It has previously been demonstrated that American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles are more vulnerable to predation by diving beetle larvae (Dytiscus fasciventris) than are spring peeper (Hyla crucifer) tadpoles. A laboratory study was undertaken to further delineate factors that contribute to the differential vulnerability observed. Beetle larvae are more effective tadpole predators in shallow, than in deep, water and appear to prefer to adopt a "sit-and-wait" predator strategy while clinging to emergent vegetation. Depth preference experiments in the laboratory indicated that both tadpole species prefer deep areas to shallow areas irrespective of whether a predator was present or absent. Dytiscus ...


Winter Concentration Areas Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Illinois: A Discriminant Analysis, Paul A. Brewer Jan 1985

Winter Concentration Areas Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) In Illinois: A Discriminant Analysis, Paul A. Brewer

Masters Theses

Two discriminant models were derived from 40 variables measured in 12 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) winter concentration areas and 12 non-concentration areas in east-central Illinois. The first model correctly classified 100% of these areas based on area of refuge, area of upland hardwoods with <50% crown closure, area of bottomland forest with <50% crown closure, distance of unimproved roads, and total topographic relief. This model was tested on 6 winter concentration areas in west-central Illinois and 6 winter concentration areas in northern Illinois. The first discriminant model correctly classified 91.7% of these areas.

The second model originated from the same set of variables, however the refuge area variable was removed in an attempt to classify winter concentration areas without knowledge of refuge areas. This model correctly classified 91.7% of sites in east-central Illinois, and 75% of the areas in west-central and northern Illinois.

Refuge accounted for nearly 59 ...


Mammals At Hidden Springs State Forest, Shelby County, Illinois, Leslie L. Clapp Jan 1985

Mammals At Hidden Springs State Forest, Shelby County, Illinois, Leslie L. Clapp

Masters Theses

A survey of the mammals at Hidden Springs State Forest (HSSF) in Shelby County, Illinois was conducted from May 1 to November 18, 1984. The survey was designed to determine the species and relative abundance of mammals associated with major habitat types of the Forest based on area walk-through surveys, streamside surveys, mist net surveys, snaptrap/pitfall surveys, and a hunter questionaire. A total of 26 mammal species were found associated with various habitats within the Forest and an additional four species were reported within Shelby County. One species, the southeastern shrew (Sorex longirostris) had not previously been reported in ...


Operant Conditioning In The Water Snake (Nerodia Sipedon), Angela R. Deitz Jan 1984

Operant Conditioning In The Water Snake (Nerodia Sipedon), Angela R. Deitz

Masters Theses

Six subjects of Nerodia sipedon were tested for runway acquisition. Five of six subjects met criterion for runway learning, demonstrating a significant decrease over the 25 day testing period in mean latency and running times. Four subjects completed 170 trials in a T-maze to test two-choice discrimination and reversal learning. All subjects met criterion for the initial discrimination and one reversal while two subjects completed four reversals and one subject met criterion for six reversals. Results are similar or superior to those previously reported for reptiles and other non-human vertebrates.


Use Of Skelettochronology In Age Determination Of American Toads (Bufo Americanus) From East Central Illinois, Philip M. Acker Jan 1984

Use Of Skelettochronology In Age Determination Of American Toads (Bufo Americanus) From East Central Illinois, Philip M. Acker

Masters Theses

A skelettochronological technique was applied to the phalanges of the American toad, Bufo americanus, from east central, IL. In hematoxylin-stained cross-sections of the phalanges, suspected year rings are formed which can be used to age individuals. This method allows for aging without destructive sampling of toad populations.

A majority of the male toads from two choruses were estimated to be 2 or 3 years old, while most of the females from the same two sites were in the 3 or 4 year age class. Females were larger than males in the 3 and 4 year age classes, and overall, female ...


Avoidance Learning And Memory In Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) Fed Bufo Tadpoles, Randy John Gawlik Jan 1984

Avoidance Learning And Memory In Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) Fed Bufo Tadpoles, Randy John Gawlik

Masters Theses

Tadpoles of the American toad (Bufo americanus) have been shown to be distasteful to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) predators who learn, on the short term, to avoid them. How long bass retain this learned avoidance of Bufo larvae is unknown so an experimental design was constructed in an attempt to answer this question.

Largemouth bass were divided into four treatment groups. Two groups were initially fed exclusively larvae of Bufo americanus (one group was fed large tadpoles, the other group fed small larvae). Similarily, the other two groups were initially fed spring peeper (Hyla crucifer) tadpoles (one group was fed ...


Observations On Relationships Between Limb Measurements And Mode Of Locomotion In Malaysian Turtles, Duayne Nyckel Jan 1984

Observations On Relationships Between Limb Measurements And Mode Of Locomotion In Malaysian Turtles, Duayne Nyckel

Masters Theses

Twelve Genera (spanning three Families) of Malaysian Turtles were studied to determine whether bone lengths could be correlated to mode of locomotion. Ulna, humerus, tibia, femur, coracoid (among others) were measured and results were presented graphically. Five of the genera were observed singly in a large aquarium. Data were recorded on the amount of time each spent in different locomotor modes. Both limb length data and aquarium observations suggest that turtles can be grouped into three main locomotor habits (i.e. terrestrial walking, bottomwalking, and swimming). The terrestrial group includes the genera, Geochelone, Kinixys, and Gopherus. Bottomwalkers include Siebenrockiella, Cyclemys ...


The Effect Of Repeated Spermiation On Sperm Density In The American Toad (Bufo Americanus), Michael A. Kriz Jan 1983

The Effect Of Repeated Spermiation On Sperm Density In The American Toad (Bufo Americanus), Michael A. Kriz

Masters Theses

Bufo americanus (American toad) responds to LH-RF injections by releasing sperm into the cloaca. An ANOVA test (repeated measures) was used to determine that spermiation number and body size but not frequency of injection affected sperm density. The affects of body size on sperm density were that large toads produced the highest sperm densities, followed by the medium and then the small toads. Sperm density decreased with repeated spermiations which could correlate with the explosive breeding pattern of the American toad.


Foods And Feeding Of The Redfin Shiner (Notropis Umbratilis) In Coles County, Illinois, Karen Denise High Jan 1982

Foods And Feeding Of The Redfin Shiner (Notropis Umbratilis) In Coles County, Illinois, Karen Denise High

Masters Theses

Foods and diel feeding activities of the redfin shiner, Notropis umbratilis, were studied in Coles County, Illinois in September, 1981, and monthly from April through September, 1982. A total of 200 stomachs with food were examined. Diptera adults and larvae were the most frequently occurring food item (83%), and also occurred in the highest volume (49%). Coleoptera were the second most frequently occurring item (23%), and accounted for the second largest volume (11%). Larger fish consumed a wider variety of food items. Changes in foods with season were also noted.

Feeding activity on the 24-25 July was greatest in the ...


Spatiotemporal Distribution And Abundance Of Fry Of Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus) And Redear Sunfish (Lepomis Microlophus) With Special Reference To The Effect Of Turbidity On Reproduction, William F. Dimond Jan 1982

Spatiotemporal Distribution And Abundance Of Fry Of Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus) And Redear Sunfish (Lepomis Microlophus) With Special Reference To The Effect Of Turbidity On Reproduction, William F. Dimond

Masters Theses

Plexiglass fry traps were used to investigate the abundance and spatiotemporal distribution of bluegill and redear sunfish fry in Ringneck Pond, a small pond in Central Illinois. High spring turbidity delayed spawning of both species. Bluegill fry were more abundant than redear sunfish fry. Small bluegill fry (14 mm to 20 mm TL) inhabited open water more commonly than large bluegill fry (20.5 mm to 26.5 mm TL) but densities of both size groups were highest in a sheltered bay at the north end of the pond. Bluegill fry avoided the surface in open water. Catch rates of ...


Gastrointestinal Cestodes And Nematodes Of Coyotes From Southeastern Illinois, Valerie Keener Jan 1981

Gastrointestinal Cestodes And Nematodes Of Coyotes From Southeastern Illinois, Valerie Keener

Masters Theses

Gastrointestinal tracts of 45 coyotes, Canis latrans, from southeastern Illinois were examined for cestodes and nematodes. The following parasites and incidences (%) were observed: Taenia sp. (71.1); Physaloptera sp. (53.3); Ancylostoma sp. (20.0); Ascarididae (11.1); Thelazia sp. (2.2); Trichuris sp. (2.2); Uncinaria sp. (2.2). Ancylostoma sp. occurred significantly more often in juveniles than adults. Parasites averaged low numbers per coyote, and no ulceration or blood in the tracts was seen.


The Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Aquatic Oligochaeta In The Upper Cache River System, Southern Illinois, In Relation To Water Quality, Mark Julian Wetzel Jan 1981

The Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Aquatic Oligochaeta In The Upper Cache River System, Southern Illinois, In Relation To Water Quality, Mark Julian Wetzel

Masters Theses

Species composition, distribution, abundance, and water quality relationships of aquatic oligochaetes occurring in the upper Cache River system, southern Illinois were investigated. Forty-two taxa of oligochaetes including 16 naidids, 22 tubificids and representatives of the families Aeolosomatidae, Branchiobdellidae, Enchytraeidae, and Lumbriculidae were collected. Four species of oligochaetes new to Illinois, Limnodrilus psammophilus Loden, L. rubripenis Loden, Psammoryctides (Spencerius) californianus Brinkhurst, and Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher were collected during this study. Another species of Limnodrilus new to science is reported here, as yet undescribed. The thesis that aquatic oligochaetes can be used as true water quality indicator organisms is rejected. It is ...


A Redescription Of Spironoura Duyagi From The Stomach Of Malayan Box Turtles (Cuora Amboinensis), Rex A. Kuye Jan 1981

A Redescription Of Spironoura Duyagi From The Stomach Of Malayan Box Turtles (Cuora Amboinensis), Rex A. Kuye

Masters Theses

Two hundred and twenty-six worms taken from the stomachs of three Malayan box turtles (Cuora amboinensis) were studied. The worms were identified as Spironoura spp., and their numerical measurements and morphological details compared to other described species in the genus. The nematodes, generally, conformed to published descriptions of Spironoura duyagi, but varied so widely with regards to presence or absence of key diagnostic features that a complete taxonomic analysis was undertaken.


Three-Dimensional Home Range Of The Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus Niger, Joi L. Augustin Jan 1981

Three-Dimensional Home Range Of The Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus Niger, Joi L. Augustin

Masters Theses

Standard procedures for presenting home range data for species such as the fox squirrel on a single plane do not adequately represent the space they occupy. Comparisons of techniques for presenting the home range of this species on a three-dimensional basis were made using data obtained by direct observations of color marked squirrels. Three-dimensional ellipsoid models of their range varied from 9,154 m3 to 63,811 m3 and were assumed to be more accurate when observation points approached 50 in number. Rectangular parallelepipeds for the same data ranged from 9,784 m3 to 56,836 m ...


Description And Taxonomic Importance Of Penial Morphology In The Cryptodiran Turtles Of Malaysia, Lynn D. Wike Jan 1981

Description And Taxonomic Importance Of Penial Morphology In The Cryptodiran Turtles Of Malaysia, Lynn D. Wike

Masters Theses

This paper investigates the use of penial structure to study the relationships among the turtles of peninsular Malaysia. The penial morphology of Malaysian turtles, mainly batagurines, has not been previously described. Herein penes of 12 Malaysian species are described and compared to three Nearctic species. Each was coded for 22 penial characters which were used for numerical analysis by the NT-SYS numerical taxonomy system of multivariate statistical proceedures. The analysis failed to distinguish groups below the family level when the 15 species were tested. The test also failed to distinguish the complexes within the Batagurinae when they were analyzed separately ...


A Search For Lymphatic Tissue In The Mouse Pineal Gland, John B. Hutchinson Jan 1980

A Search For Lymphatic Tissue In The Mouse Pineal Gland, John B. Hutchinson

Masters Theses

There is recent evidence that the pineal gland in some species may have lymphatic qualities during early post natal life. In this study the development and structure of the pineal complex in the CDF1 mouse is examined in fetal, neonatal, juvenile, and adult stages. The gland appears as an out growth of the dorsal wall of the third ventricle of the brain and at ten days gestation attains a mean size of 90 microns in the transverse and 35 microns in the median saggital plane. General and specific staining shows fetal and early post partum tissue to be compact ...


A Diet And Reproductive Study For Selected Species Of Malaysian Turtles, Colleen E. Kimmel Jan 1980

A Diet And Reproductive Study For Selected Species Of Malaysian Turtles, Colleen E. Kimmel

Masters Theses

Batagur baska, Callagur borneoensis, Cuora amboinensis, Cyclemys dentata, Orlitia borneensis, Siebenrockiella crassicollis, and Trionyx cartilagineus are suggested to be omnivorous by diet analysis. Cyclemys and Orlitia are the more herbivorous of the seven species examined. Batagur and Callagur are two closely related sympatric species that appear to have diverged sufficiently to eliminate competition for food resourses, as indicated by Morista's Index of Niche Overlap. Along the Perak River and it's tributaries in West Malaysia, Batagur and Callagur feed primarily upon the fruit of the berembang tree. In Trengganu (eastern Malaysia), the berembang is absent or rare along the ...


Dirofilaria Immitis In The Wild Canids Of Illinois, Thomas J. Kick Jan 1980

Dirofilaria Immitis In The Wild Canids Of Illinois, Thomas J. Kick

Masters Theses

The heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is widespread in dogs in North America and has been reported in wild canids in many states. This is a report of this parasite in hearts removed from coyote, red fox and gray fox carcasses collected in Illinois. A total of 415 coyotes had a significantly higher infection rate (23.6%) than 225 red foxes (3.6%) and 99 gray foxes (3.0%). Infection rates in red foxes and coyotes were significantly higher in or near the Wabash Border Natural Division along the eastern side of the state, suggesting a relationship between infection rates and this ...


Comparative Reproduction Of The Red-Eared Turtle, Pseudemys Scripta Elegans, In Heated And Natural Lakes, Gary Marshal Thornhill Jan 1980

Comparative Reproduction Of The Red-Eared Turtle, Pseudemys Scripta Elegans, In Heated And Natural Lakes, Gary Marshal Thornhill

Masters Theses

The effect of heating on aquatic ecosystems by energy producing power plants has not been fully determined. A comparative study of the reproduction of Pseudemys scripta was conducted in heated and natural lakes in southwestern Illinois from 30 March to 10 July, 1979. Lakes used were the same as those used for comparative growth studies of P. scripta by another researcher. Lake Baldwin (heated) has had a reduction in vegetation since that researcher's work. Temperatures were taken of air, water surface, and one meter deep.

Turtles were caught by hand, trammel nets, and in carp-baited hoop nets. Captured turtles ...