Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Assessment Of The Efficacy Of The Hose-Bridge As A Road-Crossing Structure For Dekay's Brownsnake (Storeria Dekayi), Sarah Elizabeth Manka Jan 2016

Assessment Of The Efficacy Of The Hose-Bridge As A Road-Crossing Structure For Dekay's Brownsnake (Storeria Dekayi), Sarah Elizabeth Manka

Masters Theses

Various structures have been integrated into roadways to ensure the road does not impede wildlife movements between adjacent habitats. Where traffic volume is low, the costs of installing and maintaining such structures is typically prohibitive. I tested the efficacy of a hose-bridge deployed temporarily on a State Park road in Illinois that allowed the passage of cars over it and small wildlife species to cross through it. I predicted that, during the 4.5 -week period of peak migratory movement, road-based mortality of Dekay's Brownsnakes (Storeria dekayi) would be less at the site having the hose-bridge, when compared to ...


Trophic Interactions In A Semiaquatic Snake Community: Insights Into The Structure Of A Floodplain Food Web, Cynthia M. Carter Jan 2015

Trophic Interactions In A Semiaquatic Snake Community: Insights Into The Structure Of A Floodplain Food Web, Cynthia M. Carter

Masters Theses

Food webs provide a useful conceptual framework for evaluating the relationships that exist within ecological systems. Characterizing the interactions within these webs can improve our understanding of how communities are structured and what mechanisms stabilize them. Untangling these interactions can be an intractable problem in complex systems and insights gained from conventional methods are often accompanied by inherent sources of bias. This study used stable isotope analysis, an alternative to traditional methods, to investigate the roles and relative contributions of consumers at the top of a food web to community structure and stability. I compared the niche parameters of five ...


Predator Deterrence In The Central Newt, Notophthalmus Viridescens Louisianensis (Wolterstorff) With Notes On Salamander Antipredator Strategies, Malcolm Mccallum Jan 1994

Predator Deterrence In The Central Newt, Notophthalmus Viridescens Louisianensis (Wolterstorff) With Notes On Salamander Antipredator Strategies, Malcolm Mccallum

Masters Theses

The effectiveness of the skin secretions of Notophthalmus viridescens as a predator deterrent has been well documented. Still, there have been documented cases of predation on this salamander. This study investigates the ability of a variety of herptiles to feed on N. viridescens louisianensis.

In the first experiment, plethodonts and efts were fed on alternate weeks to snakes. Latency of response, anatomical location of predator attack, and behaviors displayed by predators and prey were recorded during each trial.

In the second experiment, tongue flick frequency by T. sirtalis to the essence of live N. viridescens louisianensis, Eurycea cirigerra, thawed larval ...


A Herpetofaunal Survey Of The Braidwood Dunes And Savanna Nature Preserve, Daniel J. O'Connell Jan 1992

A Herpetofaunal Survey Of The Braidwood Dunes And Savanna Nature Preserve, Daniel J. O'Connell

Masters Theses

A herpetofaunal survey was conducted on two sand prairie areas in Will Co., IL.; The Braidwood Dunes and Savanna Nature Preserve (BD+S), and Sandridge Savanna. Drift fences with pitfall traps, herpetological attractor panels, aquatic hoop traps, and manual collecting were used to sample the two preserves. A species list was compiled, and the habitat preferences and relative abundance of each species present were determined. The species list was compared with the species lists of other Illinois sand areas and the Nebraska sandhills. Guilds represented by the herpetofaunae of each area were also compared.

Seventeen species were recorded at BD ...


Factors Affecting The Predator-Prey Relationship Between Predaceous Diving Beetle Larvae (Dytiscus Fasciventris) And Two Anuran Tadpole Species (Bufo Americanus And Hyla Crucifer), Todd S. Campbell Jan 1986

Factors Affecting The Predator-Prey Relationship Between Predaceous Diving Beetle Larvae (Dytiscus Fasciventris) And Two Anuran Tadpole Species (Bufo Americanus And Hyla Crucifer), Todd S. Campbell

Masters Theses

It has previously been demonstrated that American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles are more vulnerable to predation by diving beetle larvae (Dytiscus fasciventris) than are spring peeper (Hyla crucifer) tadpoles. A laboratory study was undertaken to further delineate factors that contribute to the differential vulnerability observed. Beetle larvae are more effective tadpole predators in shallow, than in deep, water and appear to prefer to adopt a "sit-and-wait" predator strategy while clinging to emergent vegetation. Depth preference experiments in the laboratory indicated that both tadpole species prefer deep areas to shallow areas irrespective of whether a predator was present or absent. Dytiscus ...


The Hold-Release Mechanism In The Family Crotalidae, Ronald K. Easter Jan 1986

The Hold-Release Mechanism In The Family Crotalidae, Ronald K. Easter

Masters Theses

Strike/release vs. strike/hold feeding behavior was observed for 5 Crotalus atrox and 5 Agkistrodon piscivorous. Two sizes of warm blooded prey were offered to the rattlesnakes on alternate weeks. Cottonmouths were offered, alternately, fish or mice of equal size. Although data varied among individual subjects, cottonmouths offered fish demonstrated the strike/hold behavior significantly more often than the strike/release behavior; cottonmouths offered mice struck and released significantly more often than they struck and held. It is concluded that the strike/hold strategy in sreponse to fish is adventageous because the danger of holding such prey is minimal ...


Use Of Skelettochronology In Age Determination Of American Toads (Bufo Americanus) From East Central Illinois, Philip M. Acker Jan 1984

Use Of Skelettochronology In Age Determination Of American Toads (Bufo Americanus) From East Central Illinois, Philip M. Acker

Masters Theses

A skelettochronological technique was applied to the phalanges of the American toad, Bufo americanus, from east central, IL. In hematoxylin-stained cross-sections of the phalanges, suspected year rings are formed which can be used to age individuals. This method allows for aging without destructive sampling of toad populations.

A majority of the male toads from two choruses were estimated to be 2 or 3 years old, while most of the females from the same two sites were in the 3 or 4 year age class. Females were larger than males in the 3 and 4 year age classes, and overall, female ...


Operant Conditioning In The Water Snake (Nerodia Sipedon), Angela R. Deitz Jan 1984

Operant Conditioning In The Water Snake (Nerodia Sipedon), Angela R. Deitz

Masters Theses

Six subjects of Nerodia sipedon were tested for runway acquisition. Five of six subjects met criterion for runway learning, demonstrating a significant decrease over the 25 day testing period in mean latency and running times. Four subjects completed 170 trials in a T-maze to test two-choice discrimination and reversal learning. All subjects met criterion for the initial discrimination and one reversal while two subjects completed four reversals and one subject met criterion for six reversals. Results are similar or superior to those previously reported for reptiles and other non-human vertebrates.


Observations On Relationships Between Limb Measurements And Mode Of Locomotion In Malaysian Turtles, Duayne Nyckel Jan 1984

Observations On Relationships Between Limb Measurements And Mode Of Locomotion In Malaysian Turtles, Duayne Nyckel

Masters Theses

Twelve Genera (spanning three Families) of Malaysian Turtles were studied to determine whether bone lengths could be correlated to mode of locomotion. Ulna, humerus, tibia, femur, coracoid (among others) were measured and results were presented graphically. Five of the genera were observed singly in a large aquarium. Data were recorded on the amount of time each spent in different locomotor modes. Both limb length data and aquarium observations suggest that turtles can be grouped into three main locomotor habits (i.e. terrestrial walking, bottomwalking, and swimming). The terrestrial group includes the genera, Geochelone, Kinixys, and Gopherus. Bottomwalkers include Siebenrockiella, Cyclemys ...


A Diet And Reproductive Study For Selected Species Of Malaysian Turtles, Colleen E. Kimmel Jan 1980

A Diet And Reproductive Study For Selected Species Of Malaysian Turtles, Colleen E. Kimmel

Masters Theses

Batagur baska, Callagur borneoensis, Cuora amboinensis, Cyclemys dentata, Orlitia borneensis, Siebenrockiella crassicollis, and Trionyx cartilagineus are suggested to be omnivorous by diet analysis. Cyclemys and Orlitia are the more herbivorous of the seven species examined. Batagur and Callagur are two closely related sympatric species that appear to have diverged sufficiently to eliminate competition for food resourses, as indicated by Morista's Index of Niche Overlap. Along the Perak River and it's tributaries in West Malaysia, Batagur and Callagur feed primarily upon the fruit of the berembang tree. In Trengganu (eastern Malaysia), the berembang is absent or rare along the ...


Histology Of Dichromatic And Seasonal Color Change Of The Cranial Region Of Callagur Borneoensis, Kevin William Matson Jan 1979

Histology Of Dichromatic And Seasonal Color Change Of The Cranial Region Of Callagur Borneoensis, Kevin William Matson

Masters Theses

Male Callagur borneoensis exihibit sexual dichromatism and seasonal coloration which is rare among turtles. In the breeding season male's heads are colored white with a scarlet stripe from the occiput to the tip of the snout. After the breeding season they change to drab charcoal-gray to black with a dull orange-yellow stripe. Females and juveniles are a drab brown throughout the year.

This study was performed to determine the mechanisms of this color change at the histological level. Histological preparation of the head revealed a significant increase in vascular tissue just below the epidermis of the stripe area with ...


Utilization Of Heat Sensitivity In Crotalidae, James Cordrey Miller Jan 1978

Utilization Of Heat Sensitivity In Crotalidae, James Cordrey Miller

Masters Theses

Specimens of five genera of snakes (Crotalus, Agkistrodon, Bitis, Epicrates, and Elaphe) were tested for use of thermal cues in food selection. Results indicate that pit vipers (Crotalus and Agkistrodon) and boas (Epicrates) utilize thermal radiation in selection of food. It was also indicated that Crotalus (rattlesnakes) do not invariably show a reflexive strike before food is investigated or ingested.


Ecological Comparisons Of Four Plethodontid Salamanders In A Ravine In West Central Indiana, Stephen L. Reinbold Jan 1976

Ecological Comparisons Of Four Plethodontid Salamanders In A Ravine In West Central Indiana, Stephen L. Reinbold

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


The Growth Of The Red-Ear Turtle Pseudemys Scripta Elegans In A Thermal Lake In Southwestern Illinois, Diana Avalos Jan 1975

The Growth Of The Red-Ear Turtle Pseudemys Scripta Elegans In A Thermal Lake In Southwestern Illinois, Diana Avalos

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


Defensive Behavior Of The Hognose Snake (Heterodon Platyrhinos), Brenda S. Hemken Jan 1974

Defensive Behavior Of The Hognose Snake (Heterodon Platyrhinos), Brenda S. Hemken

Masters Theses

Fourteen out of sixteen Heterodon platyrhinos eggs were hatched in late August, 1973. The immature snakes were manually stimulated and the resultant bluffing and death-feigning behaviors were observed. All of the experimental snakes bluffed, but only three out of ten feigned death. The major components of the bluffing behavior are spreading the neck, hissing, and striking. Death-feigning is preceded by contortions and shows variations in the positions of the mouth and tongue. The newly-hatched snakes exhibited both bluffing and death-feigning, indicating that the behaviors are innate.


Operant Conditioning In The Garter Snake (Thamnophis), William A. Schmitz Jan 1972

Operant Conditioning In The Garter Snake (Thamnophis), William A. Schmitz

Masters Theses

Ten garter snakes were tested for runway acquisition, correct turn response in a simple T-maze, or both, for food reinforcement. Seven of seven subjects met criterion for learning to run a 23 inch long alleyway. Mean latency times showed a general decrease over a 23 day period. Five of nine subjects met criterion for learning a correct turn response in a simple T-maze. Subjects mastering the task required from 14-157 trials. One of two subjects met criterion for learning the reverse response of the T-maze exercise, requiring 35 trials. Results are similar to those previously reported for reptiles and other ...


Reproductive Cycle Of The Male Snapping Turtle, Chelydra Serpentina Serpentina (Linné), Harold Edward Benny Jan 1971

Reproductive Cycle Of The Male Snapping Turtle, Chelydra Serpentina Serpentina (Linné), Harold Edward Benny

Masters Theses

Thirty-seven male Chelydra s. serpentina were collected from Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Wisconsin during months of activity from May, 1969 to June 1971. Carapace length for each specimen was measured, and testes and epididymides were dissected out, weighed, measured, fixed, and preserved in Baker's neutral formalin within seven days of capture. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Frozen sections were stained with Sudan IV.

The spermatogenic cycle was similar to those of other Chelonians and reptiles exhibiting post-nuptial spermatogenesis. In Illinois spermatocytogenesis begins in late March or early April. Meiosis is evident throughout May and early ...


Forelimb Regeneration Study In The Adult Small-Mouthed Salamander (Ambystoma Texanum), John Farrell Williams Jan 1969

Forelimb Regeneration Study In The Adult Small-Mouthed Salamander (Ambystoma Texanum), John Farrell Williams

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.