Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath Feb 2019

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are socially sophisticated mammals with high fission-fusion dynamics and complex communication. The relative positioning of individual dolphins as they swim within their social group may aid in the expression of social roles. This study sought to quantify relative positioning in a small social group of female bottlenose dolphins at the National Aquarium in Baltimore that included two mother-daughter pairs, maternal and paternal half-sisters, a half-aunt and niece, and one unrelated female. We devised a method for scoring relative positioning in three dimensions. We found that the two mothers and their juvenile and adult daughters often swam ...


Using Physical Contact Heterogeneity And Frequency To Characterize Dynamics Of Human Exposure To Nonhuman Primate Bodily Fluids In Central Africa, Victor Narat, Mamdou Kampo, Thibut Heyer, Stephanie Rupp, Philippe Ambata, Richard Njouom, Tamara Giles-Vernick Dec 2018

Using Physical Contact Heterogeneity And Frequency To Characterize Dynamics Of Human Exposure To Nonhuman Primate Bodily Fluids In Central Africa, Victor Narat, Mamdou Kampo, Thibut Heyer, Stephanie Rupp, Philippe Ambata, Richard Njouom, Tamara Giles-Vernick

Publications and Research

Emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin constitute a recurrent threat to global health. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) occupy an important place in zoonotic spillovers (pathogenic transmissions from animals to humans), serving as reservoirs or amplifiers of multiple neglected tropical diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses, parasites and bacteria, as well as retroviruses (simian foamy virus, PTLV) that are pathogenic in human beings. Hunting and butchering studies in Africa characterize at-risk human social groups, but overlook critical factors of contact heterogeneity and frequency, NHP species differences, and meat processing practices. In southeastern Cameroon, a region with a history of zoonotic emergence ...


An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi Aug 2018

An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The investigator attempted to predict the vocal learning propensity from either family pedigree or early vocal babbling (subsong). Pedigree trees suggest the possibility that vocal learning ability may depend on family. We failed to predict vocal learning propensity from subsong, but suggested that subsong may influence vocal learning outcome.


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh Dec 2017

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Cryptic Diversity And Discordance In Single‐Locus Species Delimitation Methods Within Horned Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr. Nov 2017

Cryptic Diversity And Discordance In Single‐Locus Species Delimitation Methods Within Horned Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma), Christopher Blair, Robert W. Bryson Jr.

Publications and Research

Biodiversity reduction and loss continues to progress at an alarming rate, and thus there is widespread interest in utilizing rapid and efficient methods for quantifying and delimiting taxonomic diversity. Single-locus species-delimitation methods have become popular, in part due to the adoption of the DNA barcoding paradigm. These techniques can be broadly classified into tree-based and distance-based methods depending on whether species are delimited based on a constructed genealogy. Although the relative performance of these methods has been tested repeatedly with simulations, additional studies are needed to assess congruence with empirical data. We compiled a large data set of mitochondrial ND4 ...


Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda Sep 2017

Can Squirrel Monkeys Learn An Abna Grammar? A Re-Evaluation Of Ravignani Et Al. (2013), Stefano Ghirlanda

Publications and Research

Ravignani et al. (2013) habituated squirrel monkeys to sound sequences conforming to an ABnA grammar (nD1;2;3), then tested them for their reactions to novel gram- matical and non-grammatical sequences. Although they conclude that the monkeys ``consistently recognized and generalized the sequence ABnA,'' I remark that this conclusion is not robust. The statistical significance of results depends on specific choices of data analysis, namely dichotomization of the response variable and omission of specific data points. Additionally, there is little evidence of generalization to novel patterns (n D 4;5), which is important to conclude that the monkeys recognized the ...


Assessing Behavioral Syndromes In Captive Red Pandas (Ailurus Fulgens) Using An Ethological Approach, Tyler C. Bray May 2017

Assessing Behavioral Syndromes In Captive Red Pandas (Ailurus Fulgens) Using An Ethological Approach, Tyler C. Bray

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Animal personality has a significant impact on an animal’s physiology and welfare. Eight captive red pandas were observed to determine if personality can be assessed in this species using an ethological approach. Analysis revealed two behavioral dimensions: 1) Active/Exploratory and 2) Maintenance. Age differences were found in the Active/Exploratory dimension.


Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian Feb 2017

Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian

Publications and Research

In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal kinematics of gait in Longshanks ...


Lemurfaceid: A Face Recognition System To Facilitate Individual Identification Of Lemurs, David Crouse, Rachel L. Jacobs, Zach Richardson, Scott Klum, Anil Jain, Andrea L. Baden, Stacey R. Tecot Jan 2017

Lemurfaceid: A Face Recognition System To Facilitate Individual Identification Of Lemurs, David Crouse, Rachel L. Jacobs, Zach Richardson, Scott Klum, Anil Jain, Andrea L. Baden, Stacey R. Tecot

Publications and Research

Background: Long-term research of known individuals is critical for understanding the demographic and evolutionary processes that influence natural populations. Current methods for individual identification of many animals include capture and tagging techniques and/or researcher knowledge of natural variation in individual phenotypes. These methods can be costly, time-consuming, and may be impractical for larger-scale, populationlevel studies. Accordingly, for many animal lineages, long-term research projects are often limited to only a few taxa. Lemurs, a mammalian lineage endemic to Madagascar, are no exception. Long-term data needed to address evolutionary questions are lacking for many species. This is, at least in part ...


Sex And Seasonal Differences In Diet And Nutrient Intake In Verreaux's Sifakas (Propithecus Verreauxi), Flávia Koch, Joerg U. Ganzhorn, Jessica M. Rothman, Colin A. Chapman, Claudia Fichtel Oct 2016

Sex And Seasonal Differences In Diet And Nutrient Intake In Verreaux's Sifakas (Propithecus Verreauxi), Flávia Koch, Joerg U. Ganzhorn, Jessica M. Rothman, Colin A. Chapman, Claudia Fichtel

Publications and Research

Fluctuations in food availability are a major challenge faced by primates living in seasonal climates. Variation in food availability can be especially challenging for females, because of the high energetic costs of reproduction. Therefore, females must adapt the particular demands of the different reproductive stages to the seasonal availability of resources. Madagascar has a highly seasonal climate, where food availability can be extremely variable. We investigated the seasonal changes in diet composition, nutrient and energy intake of female and male sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. We examined how females adjust their diet to different ...


The Role Of Individual Cognitive And Behavioral Ontogeny In Organization And Evolution Of Social Systems, Andrew G. Fulmer Sep 2016

The Role Of Individual Cognitive And Behavioral Ontogeny In Organization And Evolution Of Social Systems, Andrew G. Fulmer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Exploration and explanation of the relationship between individual variation in behavior and the composition and adaptive success of social groups or populations are crucial problems in the fields of behavioral ecology, ethology, and comparative psychology. These questions have been the subject of a longstanding discussion at both the proximate and ultimate levels of inquiry. Adaptive mechanisms explaining social decision making, both in terms of affiliative and competitive partner choices, are at the center of such discussions. Inclusive fitness, kin-selection, handicap or prestige, risk seeking and risk avoiding strategies, pay-to-stay/reward principles, as well as other theories have been proposed and ...


Phylogeny, Systematics And Biogeography Of Short-Tailed Opossums (Didelphidae: Monodelphis), Silvia E. Pavan Sep 2016

Phylogeny, Systematics And Biogeography Of Short-Tailed Opossums (Didelphidae: Monodelphis), Silvia E. Pavan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Short-tailed opossums (genus Monodelphis) comprise the most species-rich genus of New World marsupials, with 25 currently recognized species. Monodelphis comprise small, terrestrial species collectively widespread in South America, which makes the group potentially informative about biogeographic processes that have shaped the continental fauna. The genus exhibits striking variation in several phenotypic characters, notably pelage coloration, behavior, and reproductive strategies. This diversity is unique among Neotropical marsupials, and makes the group particularly interesting to investigate the evolution and the adaptive significance of phenotypic trait variation. Despite this potential, missing knowledge on phylogeny and basic taxonomy precludes broader studies on evolution and ...


A Case Study: Observations Of Behaviors & Vocalizations In A Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) During Quarantine, Alexandra L. Dilley May 2016

A Case Study: Observations Of Behaviors & Vocalizations In A Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) During Quarantine, Alexandra L. Dilley

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bozie, an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), was relocated from the Baton Rouge Zoo to Smithsonian’s National Zoo. During a requisite 29-day quarantine period, I recorded Bozie’s stress-related behaviors and the vocalizations she produced when she was alone and with her keepers in free and protected contact.


Can Colour Vision Re-Evolve? Variation In The X-Linked Opsin Locus Of Cathemeral Azara’S Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae Azarae), N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, Andrea L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Davalos, B. J. Bradley Feb 2016

Can Colour Vision Re-Evolve? Variation In The X-Linked Opsin Locus Of Cathemeral Azara’S Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae Azarae), N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, Andrea L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Davalos, B. J. Bradley

Publications and Research

Background: Do evolutionary specializations lead to evolutionary constraint? This appears plausible, particularly when specialization leads to loss of complex adaptations. In the owl monkey lineage, nocturnality clearly arose from a diurnal ancestor. This behavioural shift was accompanied by morphological changes in the eye and orbit and complete loss of colour vision via missense mutations in the gene encoding the short-wave sensitive visual pigment (SWS opsin). Interestingly, at least one subspecies of owl monkey, Azara’s owl monkey (Aotus azarae azarae), has regained activity in daylight. Given that all primate species that are active in daylight, including primarily diurnal species and ...


Phylogeography Of Southeast Asian Flying Foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Pteropus), Susan Man Shu Tsang May 2015

Phylogeography Of Southeast Asian Flying Foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Pteropus), Susan Man Shu Tsang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Flying foxes (Pteropus) are a genus of Old World fruit bats that are important seed dispersers and pollinators for plants native to the 200,000+ islands in Southeast Asia, yet they are some of the most poorly known bats in the world. They comprise some of the largest known bat species, and are morphologically relatively conserved on the genus level. Pteropus is the most species-rich genus within Pteropodidae, though the origin for this diversity remains incompletely understood. In Chapter 1, I discuss the importance of Pteropus to the ecosystem and as reservoir hosts. In Chapter 2, a molecular phylogeny is ...


Historical And Contemporary Demography Of Leaf-Toed Geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) In The Mexican Dry Forest, Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz, Robert W. Murphy Apr 2015

Historical And Contemporary Demography Of Leaf-Toed Geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) In The Mexican Dry Forest, Christopher Blair, Victor H. Jiménez Arcos, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz, Robert W. Murphy

Publications and Research

Disentangling the relative influence of historical versus contemporary processes shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation is critical if we are to effectively mitigate key biodiversity issues. We utilize a comprehensive approach based on different molecular marker types and analytical methods to understand the demographic consequences of recent habitat fragmentation in a spatially explicit context. We focus our efforts on native leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus saxatilis) throughout fragmented habitat in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico as recent evidence suggests that geographic ranges for these geckos may be much smaller than currently realized. However, no data are available regarding ...


Evolution Of Bat-Trypanosome Associations And The Origins Of Chagas Disease, Christian Miguel Pinto Feb 2015

Evolution Of Bat-Trypanosome Associations And The Origins Of Chagas Disease, Christian Miguel Pinto

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trypanosoma cruzi is a genetically diverse parasite that causes Chagas disease, one of the most important zoonoses in the Americas. This generalist parasite of mammals belongs to a clade mostly comprised of bat parasites, the T. cruzi clade. The origins (i.e., biogeographic history and evolution of hosts associations) of this parasite are far from being understood, and the main areas that need further study are: species limits within T. cruzi sensu lato, further studies on the diversity of T. cruzi clade members and their hosts, and research on adaptations of the hosts to trypanosome infections. In this dissertation I ...


Comparative Phylogeography, Phylogenetics, And Population Genomics Of East African Montane Small Mammals, Terrence Constant Demos Jun 2014

Comparative Phylogeography, Phylogenetics, And Population Genomics Of East African Montane Small Mammals, Terrence Constant Demos

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Eastern Afromontane region of Africa is characterized by striking levels of endemism and species richness which rank it as a global biodiversity hotspot for diverse plants and animals including mammals, but has been poorly sampled and little studied to date. Using mtDNA and multi-locus nDNA sequence data, genome-wide RAD-Seq SNP data, and morphological data, I identify major cryptic biogeographic patterns within and between 11 co-distributed small mammal species/species groups across the Eastern Afromontane region. I focus on two endemic montane small mammal species complexes, Hylomyscus mice and Sylvisorex shrews, co-distributed across the Albertine Rift (AR) and Kenya Highlands ...


Rendering The Unthinkable: (Un)Knowable Animality, Compulsory Recovery, And Heterosexualized Trauma In The Hunger Games, Jennifer Polish Jun 2014

Rendering The Unthinkable: (Un)Knowable Animality, Compulsory Recovery, And Heterosexualized Trauma In The Hunger Games, Jennifer Polish

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dystopian fiction is expected to reflect deeply on the interactions between identities, bodies, and state control. Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games Trilogy is no exception. The disturbing trilogy situated animality, disability, and trauma (both of non-humans and of humans) as being firmly controlled by the power of the state (the Capitol). Through its portrayal of hunting and genetic manipulation, the trilogy constructed a state-created animality which refused definitive labeling and insisted upon facing animal subjectivity while simultaneously disregarding the needs and desires of those considered to be non-human. Similarly, the state held sway over both the creation and elimination ...


Multilocus Coalescent Analyses Reveal The Demographic History Of Mouse Lemur Sister Species., Christopher Blair, Kellie L. Heckman, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder Mar 2014

Multilocus Coalescent Analyses Reveal The Demographic History Of Mouse Lemur Sister Species., Christopher Blair, Kellie L. Heckman, Amy L. Russell, Anne D. Yoder

Publications and Research

Debate continues as to whether allopatric speciation or peripatric speciation through a founder effect is the predominant force driving evolution in vertebrates. The mouse lemurs of Madagascar are a system in which evolution has generated a large number of species over a relatively recent time frame. Here, we examine speciation patterns in a pair of sister species of mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus and M. griseorufus. These two species have ranges that are disparately proportioned in size, with M. murinus showing a much more extensive range that marginally overlaps that of M. griseorufus. Given that these two species are sister taxa ...


Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla Jan 2014

Agalychnis Dacnicolor—Predation., Christopher Blair, Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos, Eric Centenero-Alcala, Leopoldo D. Vázquez Reyes, Samuel A. Santa Cruz-Padilla

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Ecological Genetics Of Chinese Rhesus Macaque In Response To Mountain Building: All Things Are Not Equal, Christopher Blair, Shan-Jin Wu, Jing Luo, Yan-Qin Wang, Robert E. Murphy, Shi-Fang Wu, Bi-Song Yue, Ya-Ping Zhang, Qing-Qing Li Feb 2013

Ecological Genetics Of Chinese Rhesus Macaque In Response To Mountain Building: All Things Are Not Equal, Christopher Blair, Shan-Jin Wu, Jing Luo, Yan-Qin Wang, Robert E. Murphy, Shi-Fang Wu, Bi-Song Yue, Ya-Ping Zhang, Qing-Qing Li

Publications and Research

Pliocene uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Quaternary glaciation may have impacted the Asian biota more than any other events. Little is documented with respect to how the geological and climatological events influenced speciation as well as spatial and genetic structuring, especially in vertebrate endotherms. Macaca mulatta is the most widely distributed non-human primate. It may be the most suitable model to test hypotheses regarding the genetic consequences of orogenesis on an endotherm.


The Impact Of Gut Passage By Binturongs (Arctictus Binturong) On Seed Germination, Christina P. Colon, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz Feb 2013

The Impact Of Gut Passage By Binturongs (Arctictus Binturong) On Seed Germination, Christina P. Colon, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

Publications and Research

Binturongs (Arctictis binturong) are the largest of Asian civets and, due to their highly frugivorous diet, are expected to play an important role in seed dispersal processes. To study the effect of binturong gut passage on seed viability, we fed 10 captive binturongs with fruits of longan (Dimocarpus longan), papaya (Carica papaya) and chiku (Manilkara zapota), collected the seeds they defaecated, and planted these to determine seed germination rate and time. Of the defaecated seeds, 90.4% passed through binturong gut intact in under nine hours, and 99.4% passed in under 33 hours. Chiku seeds had the highest germination ...


Sceloporus Clarkii—Nocturnal Foraging, Christopher Blair, Noberto Martinez-Mendez, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz Jan 2013

Sceloporus Clarkii—Nocturnal Foraging, Christopher Blair, Noberto Martinez-Mendez, Rafael A. Lara-Resendiz

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Schulz Investigates Threat Of Invasive Species, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 2012

Schulz Investigates Threat Of Invasive Species, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Parasites Of Civets (Mammalia, Viverridae) In Sabah, Borneo: A Coprological Survey, Christina P. Colon, Sharon Patton Jan 2012

Parasites Of Civets (Mammalia, Viverridae) In Sabah, Borneo: A Coprological Survey, Christina P. Colon, Sharon Patton

Publications and Research

Parasite data were collected from unlogged and selectively logged lowland rain forests in Borneo. Scat from a female Viverra tangalunga (Malay civet) in the unlogged forest contained eggs of Capillaria spp., Trichuris sp., Mamomoganomus sp., and nematode larvae. Scat attributed to V. tangalunga contained reproductive products (eggs/oocysts/cysts/larvae) of Capillaria sp., Toxocara sp., Ancylostoma sp. (probably A. ceylanicum), Isospora spp., strongylate-type eggs (probably Ancylostoma spp.), Paragoni­ mus sp. and other Trematoda eggs, Monocystis sp. cysts, Gnathostoma sp. (probably G. spinigerum), the lungworm Viverrostrongylus brauni, pinworm-type eggs, Eimeria spp., Sarcocystis-type sporocyst, dermanysid mites and mesostigmatid mites. Parasites from gut ...


Notes On The Diet Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) And Other Civets In Logged And Unlogged Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forests In Sabah, Borneo, Christina P. Colon, John B. Sugau Jan 2012

Notes On The Diet Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) And Other Civets In Logged And Unlogged Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forests In Sabah, Borneo, Christina P. Colon, John B. Sugau

Publications and Research

Civet diets were examined in a logged and unlogged Bornean rain forest. Malay civets (Viverra tangalunga) consumed invertebrates, fruit, rodents, insectivores, birds, snakes and lizards, and appear to show preference for centipedes and scorpions. Other civet species consumed fruit, such as figs, Connarus sp. and Annona sp., particularly in the unlogged forest, but also consumed invertebrates and vertebrates. Reduced fruit consumption observed in the logged forest may be due to lower availability and may be offset by increased consumption of invertebrates. The increased overlap in diet between Malay civets and other civets in disturbed areas may lead to increased competition.


Rehg Studies Monkeys To Better Understand Humans, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 2012

Rehg Studies Monkeys To Better Understand Humans, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Ecology Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) In A Logged And An Unlogged Forest In Sabah, East Malaysia, Christina P. Colon May 1999

Ecology Of The Malay Civet (Viverra Tangalunga) In A Logged And An Unlogged Forest In Sabah, East Malaysia, Christina P. Colon

Publications and Research

Malay civets in a dipterocarp rain forest were studied from December, 1995, through June, 1997, in the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve in Sabah, East Malaysia. To investigate the basic ecology of this species and explore the potential impact of selective logging, data on home range, activity and diet were collected on study animals in an unlogged and a selectively logged forest, and comparisons made.

Density in the unlogged forest was 1/0.46 km2 , and 1/1.07 km2 in the logged forest. Mean home range size based on a 95% minimum convex polygon was 110 ha. and ...


Los Zoológicos: ¿Último Recurso?, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Jan 1986

Los Zoológicos: ¿Último Recurso?, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.